OFFSET

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COMMENTS

b(n) = a(n+2) is the number of multigraphs with loops on 2 nodes with n edges [so g.f. for b(n) is 1/((1-x)^2*(1-x^2))]. Also number of 2-covers of an n-set; also number of 2 X n binary matrices with no zero columns up to row and column permutation. - Vladeta Jovovic, Jun 08 2000

a(n) is also the maximal number of edges that a triangle-free graph of n vertices can have. For n = 2m, the maximum is achieved by the bipartite graph K(m, m); for n = 2m + 1, the maximum is achieved by the bipartite graph K(m, m + 1). - Avi Peretz (njk(AT)netvision.net.il), Mar 18 2001

a(n) is the number of arithmetic progressions of 3 terms and any mean which can be extracted from the set of the first n natural numbers (starting from 1). - Santi Spadaro, Jul 13 2001

This is also the order dimension of the (strong) Bruhat order on the Coxeter group A_{n-1} (the symmetric group S_n). - Nathan Reading (reading(AT)math.umn.edu), Mar 07 2002

Let M_n denote the n X n matrix m(i,j) = 2 if i = j; m(i, j) = 1 if (i+j) is even; m(i, j) = 0 if i + j is odd, then a(n+2) = det M_n. - Benoit Cloitre, Jun 19 2002

Sums of pairs of neighboring terms are triangular numbers in increasing order. - Amarnath Murthy, Aug 19 2002

Also, from the starting position in standard chess, minimum number of captures by pawns of the same color to place n of them on the same file (column). Beyond a(6), the board and number of pieces available for capture are assumed to be extended enough to accomplish this task. - Rick L. Shepherd, Sep 17 2002

For example, a(2) = 1 and one capture can produce "doubled pawns", a(3) = 2 and two captures is sufficient to produce tripled pawns, etc. (Of course other, uncounted, non-capturing pawn moves are also necessary from the starting position in order to put three or more pawns on a given file.) - Rick L. Shepherd, Sep 17 2002

Terms are the geometric mean and arithmetic mean of their neighbors alternately. - Amarnath Murthy, Oct 17 2002

Maximum product of two integers whose sum is n. - Matthew Vandermast, Mar 04 2003

a(n+1) gives number of non-symmetric partitions of n into at most 3 parts, with zeros used as padding. E.g., a(6) = 12 because we can write 5 = 5 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 5 + 0 = 4 + 1 + 0 = 1 + 4 + 0 = 1 + 0 + 4 = 3 + 2 + 0 = 2 + 3 + 0 = 2 + 0 + 3 = 2 + 2 + 1 = 2 + 1 + 2 = 3 + 1 + 1 = 1 + 3 + 1. - Jon Perry, Jul 08 2003

a(n-1) gives number of distinct elements greater than 1 of non-symmetric partitions of n into at most 3 parts, with zeros used as padding, appear in the middle. E.g., 5 = 5 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 5 + 0 = 4 + 1 + 0 = 1 + 4 + 0 = 1 + 0 + 4 = 3 + 2 + 0 = 2 + 3 + 0 = 2 + 0 + 3 = 2 + 2 + 1 = 2 + 1 + 2 = 3 + 1 + 1 = 1 + 3 + 1. Of these, 050, 140, 320, 230, 221, 131 qualify and a(4) = 6. - Jon Perry, Jul 08 2003

Conjectured size of the smallest critical set in a Latin square of order n (true for n <= 8). - Richard Bean, Jun 12 2003 and Nov 18 2003

a(n) gives number of maximal strokes on complete graph K_n, when edges on K_n can be assigned directions in any way. A "stroke" is a locally maximal directed path on a directed graph. Examples: n = 3, two strokes can exist, "x -> y -> z" and " x -> z", so a(3) = 2. n = 4, four maximal strokes exist, "u -> x -> z" and "u -> y" and "u -> z" and "x -> y -> z", so a(4) = 4. - Yasutoshi Kohmoto, Dec 20 2003

Number of symmetric Dyck paths of semilength n+1 and having three peaks. E.g., a(4) = 4 because we have U*DUUU*DDDU*D, UU*DUU*DDU*DD, UU*DDU*DUU*DD and UUU*DU*DU*DDD, where U = (1, 1), D = (1, -1) and * indicates a peak. - Emeric Deutsch, Jan 12 2004

Number of valid inequalities of the form j + k < n + 1, where j and k are positive integers, j <= k, n >= 0. - Rick L. Shepherd, Feb 27 2004

See A092186 for another application.

Also, the number of nonisomorphic transversal combinatorial geometries of rank 2. - Alexandr S. Radionov (rasmailru(AT)mail.ru), Jun 02 2004

a(n+1) is the transform of n under the Riordan array (1/(1-x^2), x). - Paul Barry, Apr 16 2005

1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 25, 30, ... specifies the largest number of copies of any of the gifts you receive on the n-th day in the "Twelve Days of Christmas" song. For example, on the fifth day of Christmas, you have 9 French hens. - Alonso del Arte, Jun 17 2005

a(n+1) is the number of noncongruent integer-sided triangles with largest side n. - David W. Wilson [Comment corrected Sep 26 2006]

A quarter-square table can be used to multiply integers since n*m = a(n+m) - a(n-m) for all integer n, m. - Michael Somos, Oct 29 2006

The sequence is the size of the smallest strong critical set in a Latin square of order n. - G.H.J. van Rees (vanrees(AT)cs.umanitoba.ca), Feb 16 2007

Maximal number of squares (maximal area) in a polyomino with perimeter 2n. - Tanya Khovanova, Jul 04 2007

For n >= 3 a(n-1) is the number of bracelets with n+3 beads, 2 of which are red, 1 of which is blue. - Washington Bomfim, Jul 26 2008

Equals row sums of triangle A122196. - Gary W. Adamson, Nov 29 2008

Also a(n) is the number of different patterns of a 2-colored 3-partition of n. - Ctibor O. Zizka, Nov 19 2014

Also a(n-1) = C(((n+(n mod 2))/2), 2) + C(((n-(n mod 2))/2), 2), so this is the second diagonal of A061857 and A061866, and each even-indexed term is the average of its two neighbors. - Antti Karttunen

Equals triangle A171608 * ( 1, 2, 3, ...). - Gary W. Adamson, Dec 12 2009

a(n) gives the number of nonisomorphic faithful representations of the Symmetric group S_3 of dimension n. Any faithful representation of S_3 must contain at least one copy of the 2-dimensional irrep, along with any combination of the two 1-dimensional irreps. - Andrew Rupinski, Jan 20 2011

a(n+2) gives the number of ways to make change for "c" cents, letting n = floor(c/5) to account for the 5-repetitive nature of the task, using only pennies, nickels and dimes (see A187243). - Adam Sasson, Mar 07 2011

a(n) belongs to the sequence if and only if a(n) = floor(sqrt(a(n))) * ceiling(sqrt(a(n))), that is, a(n) = k^2 or a(n) = k*(k+1), k >= 0. - Daniel Forgues, Apr 17 2011

a(n) is the sum of the positive integers < n that have the opposite parity as n.

Deleting the first 0 from the sequence results in a sequence b = 0, 1, 2, 4, ... such that b(n) is sum of the positive integers <= n that have the same parity as n. The sequence b(n) is the additive counterpart of the double factorial. - Peter Luschny, Jul 06 2011

Third outer diagonal of Losanitsch's Triangle, A034851. - Fred Daniel Kline, Sep 10 2011

Written as a(1) = 1, a(n) = a(n-1) + ceiling (a(n-1)) this is to ceiling as A002984 is to floor, and as A033638 is to round. - Jonathan Vos Post, Oct 08 2011

a(n-2) gives the number of distinct graphs with n vertices and n regions. - Erik Hasse, Oct 18 2011

Construct the n-th row of Pascal's triangle (A007318) from the preceding row, starting with row 0 = 1. a(n) counts the total number of additions required to compute the triangle in this way up to row n, with the restrictions that copying a term does not count as an addition, and that all additions not required by the symmetry of Pascal's triangle are replaced by copying terms. - Douglas Latimer, Mar 05 2012

a(n) is the sum of the positive differences of the parts in the partitions of n+1 into exactly 2 parts. - Wesley Ivan Hurt, Jan 27 2013

a(n) is the maximum number of covering relations possible in an n-element graded poset. For n = 2m, this bound is achieved for the poset with two sets of m elements, with each point in the "upper" set covering each point in the "lower" set. For n = 2m+1, this bound is achieved by the poset with m nodes in an upper set covering each of m+1 nodes in a lower set. - Ben Branman, Mar 26 2013

a(n+2) is the number of (integer) partitions of n into 2 sorts of 1's and 1 sort of 2's. - Joerg Arndt, May 17 2013

Alternative statement of Oppermann's conjecture: For n>2, there is at least one prime between a(n) and a(n+1). - Ivan N. Ianakiev, May 23 2013. [This conjecture was mentioned in A220492, A222030. - Omar E. Pol, Oct 25 2013]

For any given prime number, p, there are an infinite number of a(n) divisible by p, with those a(n) occurring in evenly spaced clusters of three as a(n), a(n+1), a(n+2) for a given p. The divisibility of all a(n) by p and the result are given by the following equations, where m >= 1 is the cluster number for that p: a(2m*p)/p = p*m^2 - m; a(2m*p + 1)/p = p*m^2; a(2m*p + 2)/p = p*m^2 + m. The number of a(n) instances between clusters is 2*p - 3. - Richard R. Forberg, Jun 09 2013

Apart from the initial term this is the elliptic troublemaker sequence R_n(1,2) in the notation of Stange (see Table 1, p.16). For other elliptic troublemaker sequences R_n(a,b) see the cross references below. - Peter Bala, Aug 08 2013

a(n) is also the total number of twin hearts patterns (6c4c) packing into (n+1) X (n+1) coins, the coins left is A042948 and the voids left is A000982. See illustration in links. - Kival Ngaokrajang, Oct 24 2013

Partitions of 2n into parts of size 1, 2 or 4 where the largest part is 4, i.e., A073463(n,2). - Henry Bottomley, Oct 28 2013

a(n+1) is the minimum length of a sequence (of not necessarily distinct terms) that guarantees the existence of a (not necessarily consecutive) subsequence of length n in which like terms appear consecutively. This is also the minimum cardinality of an ordered set S that ensures that, given any partition of S, there will be a subset T of S so that the induced subpartition on T avoids the pattern ac/b, where a < b < c. - Eric Gottlieb, Mar 05 2014

Also the number of elements of the list 1..n+1 such that for any two elements {x,y} the integer (x+y)/2 lies in the range ]x,y[. - Robert G. Wilson v, May 22 2014

Number of lattice points (x,y) inside the region of the coordinate plane bounded by x <= n, 0 < y <= x/2. For a(11)=30 there are exactly 30 lattice points in the region below:

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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 .. n

0 0 1 2 4 6 9 12 16 20 25 30 .. a(n) - Wesley Ivan Hurt, Oct 26 2014

a(n+1) is the greatest integer k for which there exists an n x n matrix M of nonnegative integers with every row and column summing to k, such that there do not exist n entries of M, all greater than 1, and no two of these entries in the same row or column. - Richard Stanley, Nov 19 2014

In a tiling of the triangular shape T_N with row length k for row k = 1, 2, ..., N >= 1 (or, alternatively row length N = 1-k for row k) with rectangular tiles, there can appear rectangles (i, j), N >= i >= j >= 1, of a(N+1) types (and their transposed shapes obtained by interchanging i and j). See the Feb 27 2004 comment above from Rick L. Shepherd. The motivation to look into this came from a proposal of Kival Ngaokrajang in A247139. - Wolfdieter Lang, Dec 09 2014

Every positive integer is a sum of at most four distinct quarter-squares; see A257018. - Clark Kimberling, Apr 15 2015

a(n+1) gives the maximal number of distinct elements of an n X n matrix which is symmetric (w.r.t. the main diagonal) and symmetric w.r.t. the main antidiagonal. Such matrices are called bisymmetric. See the Wikipedia link. - Wolfdieter Lang, Jul 07 2015

For 2^a(n+1), n >= 1, the number of binary bisymmetric n X n matrices, see A060656(n+1) and the comment and link by Dennis P. Walsh. - Wolfdieter Lang, Aug 16 2015

a(n) is the number of partitions of 2n+1 of length three with exactly two even entries (see below example). - John M. Campbell, Jan 29 2016

a(n) is the sum of the asymmetry degrees of all 01-avoiding binary words of length n. The asymmetry degree of a finite sequence of numbers is defined to be the number of pairs of symmetrically positioned distinct entries. a(6) = 9 because the 01-avoiding binary words of length 6 are 000000, 100000, 110000, 111000, 111100, 111110, and 111111, and the sum of their asymmetry degrees is 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 1 + 0 = 9. Equivalently, a(n) = Sum_{k>=0} k*A275437(n,k). - Emeric Deutsch, Aug 15 2016

a(n) is the number of ways to represent all the integers in the interval [3,n+1] as the sum of two distinct natural numbers. E.g., a(7)=12 as there are 12 different ways to represent all the numbers in the interval [3,8] as the sum of two distinct parts: 1+2=3, 1+3=4, 1+4=5, 1+5=6, 1+6=7, 1+7=8, 2+3=5, 2+4=6, 2+5=7, 2+6=8, 3+4=7, 3+5=8. - Anton Zakharov, Aug 24 2016

a(n+2) is the number of conjugacy classes of involutions (considering the identity as an involution) in the hyperoctahedral group C_2 wreath S_n. - Mark Wildon, Apr 22 2017

a(n+2) is the maximum number of pieces of a pizza that can be made with n cuts that are parallel or perpendicular to each other. - Anton Zakharov, May 11 2017

Also the matching number of the n X n black bishop graph. - Eric W. Weisstein, Jun 26 2017

The answer to a question posed by W. Mantel: a(n) is the maximum number of edges in an n-vertex triangle-free graph. Also solved by H. Gouwentak, J. Teixeira de Mattes, F. Schuh and W. A. Wythoff. - Charles R Greathouse IV, Feb 01 2018

Number of nonisomorphic outer planar graphs of order n >= 3, size n+2, and maximum degree 4. - Christian Barrientos and Sarah Minion, Feb 27 2018

Maximum area of a rectangle with perimeter 2n and sides of integer length. - André Engels, Jul 29 2018

Also the crossing number of the complete bipartite graph K_{3,n+1}. - Eric W. Weisstein, Sep 11 2018

a(n+2) is the number of distinct genotype frequency vectors possible for a sample of n diploid individuals at a biallelic genetic locus with a specified major allele. Such vectors are the lists of nonnegative genotype frequencies (n_AA, n_AB, n_BB) with n_AA + n_AB + n_BB = n and n_AA >= n_BB. - Noah A Rosenberg, Feb 05 2019

a(n+2) is the number of distinct real spectra (eigenvalues repeated according to their multiplicity) for an orthogonal n X n matrix. The case of an empty spectrum list is logically counted as one of those possibilities, when it exists. Thus a(n+2) is the number of distinct reduced forms (on the real field, in orthonormal basis) for elements in O(n). - Christian Devanz, Feb 13 2019

a(n) is the number of non-isomorphic asymmetric graphs that can be created by adding a single edge to a path on n+4 vertices. - Emma Farnsworth, Natalie Gomez, Herlandt Lino, and Darren Narayan, Jul 03 2019

a(n+1) is the number of integer triangles with maximum side-length n. - James East, Oct 30 2019

a(n) is the number of nonempty subsets of {1,2,...,n} that contain exactly one odd and one even number. For example, for n=7, a(7)=12 and the 12 subsets are {1,2}, {1,4}, {1,6}, {2,3}, {2,5}, {2,7}, {3,4}, {3,6}, {4,5}, {4,7}, {5,6}, {6,7}. - Enrique Navarrete, Dec 16 2019

a(n+1) is also the n-th term of the Saind sequence (w_n)_{n>=1}, i.e., the infinite sequence caused by the entries of the queue of the degree sequences associated with the Saind arrays, as n increases. - Giulia Palma, Jun 24 2020

Aside from the first two terms, a(n) enumerates the number of distinct normal ordered terms in the expansion of the differential operator (x + d/dx)^m associated to the Hermite polynomials and the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra. It also enumerates the number of distinct monomials in the bivariate polynomials corresponding to the partial sums of the series for cos(x+y) and sin(x+y). Cf. A344678. - Tom Copeland, May 27 2021

a(n) is the maximal number of negative products a_i * a_j (1 <= i <= j <= n), where all a_i are real numbers. - Logan Pipes, Jul 08 2021

From Allan Bickle, Dec 20 2021: (Start)

a(n) is the maximum product of the chromatic numbers of a graph of order n-1 and its complement. The extremal graphs are characterized in the papers of Finck (1968) and Bickle (2023).

a(n) is the maximum product of the degeneracies of a graph of order n+1 and its complement. The extremal graphs are characterized in the paper of Bickle (2012). (End)

a(n) is the maximum number m such that m white rooks and m black rooks can coexist on an n-1 X n-1 chessboard without attacking each other. - Aaron Khan, Jul 13 2022

Partial sums of A004526. - Bernard Schott, Jan 06 2023

a(n) is the number of 231-avoiding odd Grassmannian permutations of size n. - Juan B. Gil, Mar 10 2023

a(n) is the number of integer tuples (x,y) satisfying n + x + y >= 0, 25*n + x - 11*y >=0, 25*n - 11*x + y >=0, n + x + y == 0 (mod 12) , 25*n + x - 11*y == 0 (mod 5), 25*n - 11*x + y == 0 (mod 5) . For n=2, the sole solution is (x,y) = (0,0) and so a(2) = 1. For n = 3, the a(3) = 2 solutions are (-3, 2) and (2, -3). - Jeffery Opoku, Feb 16 2024

Let us consider triangles whose vertices are the centers of three squares constructed on the sides of a right triangle. a(n) is the integer part of the area of these triangles, taken without repetitions and in ascending order. See the illustration in the links. - Nicolay Avilov, Aug 05 2024

REFERENCES

Sergei Abramovich, Combinatorics of the Triangle Inequality: From Straws to Experimental Mathematics for Teachers, Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE), Vol. 9, Issue 1, Article 1, 2016. See Fig. 3.

G. L. Alexanderson et al., The William Powell Putnam Mathematical Competition - Problems and Solutions: 1965-1984, M.A.A., 1985; see Problem A-1 of 27th Competition.

T. M. Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, Springer-Verlag, 1976, page 73, problem 25.

Michael Doob, The Canadian Mathematical Olympiad -- L'Olympiade Mathématique du Canada 1969-1993, Canadian Mathematical Society -- Société Mathématique du Canada, Problème 9, 1970, pp 22-23, 1993.

H. J. Finck, On the chromatic numbers of a graph and its complement. Theory of Graphs (Proc. Colloq., Tihany, 1966) Academic Press, New York (1968), 99-113.

R. L. Graham, D. E. Knuth and O. Patashnik, Concrete Mathematics. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1990, p. 99.

D. E. Knuth, The art of programming, Vol. 1, 3rd Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1997, Ex. 36 of section 1.2.4.

J. Nelder, Critical sets in Latin squares, CSIRO Division of Math. and Stats. Newsletter, Vol. 38 (1977), p. 4.

N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

LINKS

Franklin T. Adams-Watters, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..10000

Suayb S. Arslan, Asymptotically MDS Array BP-XOR Codes, arXiv:1709.07949 [cs.IT], 2017.

Nicolay Avilov, Illustration of the sequence.

J. A. Bate and G. H. J. van Rees, The Size of the Smallest Strong Critical Set in a Latin Square, Ars Combinatoria, Vol. 53 (1999) 73-83.

M. Benoumhani and M. Kolli, Finite topologies and partitions, JIS, Vol. 13 (2010), Article 10.3.5, Lemma 6 first line.

Allan Bickle, Nordhaus-Gaddum Theorems for k-Decompositions, Congr. Num., Vol. 211 (2012), pp. 171-183.

Allan Bickle, Extremal Decompositions for Nordhaus-Gaddum Theorems, Discrete Math, 346 7 (2023), 113392.

G. Blom and C.-E. Froeberg, Om myntvaexling (On money-changing) [Swedish], Nordisk Matematisk Tidskrift, Vol. 10 (1962), pp. 55-69, 103. [Annotated scanned copy] See Table 4, row 3.

Washington G. Bomfim, Illustration of the bracelets with 8 beads, 2 of which are red, 1 of which is blue.

Henry Bottomley, Illustration of initial terms.

J. Brandts and C. Cihangir, Counting triangles that share their vertices with the unit n-cube, in Conference Applications of Mathematics 2013 in honor of the 70th birthday of Karel Segeth. Jan Brandts, Sergey Korotov, et al., eds., Institute of Mathematics AS CR, Prague 2013.

Jan Brandts and A Cihangir, Enumeration and investigation of acute 0/1-simplices modulo the action of the hyperoctahedral group, arXiv preprint arXiv:1512.03044 [math.CO], 2015.

P. J. Cameron, BCC Problem List, Problem BCC15.15 (DM285), Discrete Math., Vol. 167/168 (1997), pp. 605-615.

P. J. Cameron, Sequences realized by oligomorphic permutation groups, J. Integ. Seq., Vol. 3 (2000), Article 00.1.5.

Johann Cigler, Some remarks on Rogers-Szegö polynomials and Losanitsch's triangle, arXiv:1711.03340 [math.CO], 2017.

F. Javier de Vega, An extension of Furstenberg's theorem of the infinitude of primes, arXiv:2003.13378 [math.NT], 2020.

Bakir Farhi, On the Representation of the Natural Numbers as the Sum of Three Terms of the Sequence floor(n^2/a), Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 16 (2013), Article 13.6.4.

E. Fix and J. L. Hodges, Jr., Significance probabilities of the Wilcoxon test, Annals Math. Stat., Vol. 26 (1955), pp. 301-312.

E. Fix and J. L. Hodges, Significance probabilities of the Wilcoxon test, Annals Math. Stat., Vol. 26 (1955), pp. 301-312. [Annotated scanned copy]

A. Ganesan, Automorphism groups of graphs, arXiv preprint arXiv:1206.6279 [cs.DM], 2012. - From N. J. A. Sloane, Dec 17 2012

Juan B. Gil and Jessica A. Tomasko, Pattern-avoiding even and odd Grassmannian permutations, arXiv:2207.12617 [math.CO], 2022.

J. W. L. Glaisher and G. Carey Foster, The Method of Quarter Squares, Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Vol. 28, No. 3, January, 1890, pp. 227-235.

E. Gottlieb and M. Sheard, An Erdős-Szekeres result for set partitions, Slides from a talk, Nov 14 2014. [A006260 is a typo for A002620]

R. K. Guy, Letters to N. J. A. Sloane, June-August 1968

Phillip Tomas Heikoop, Dimensions of Matrix Subalgebras, Bachelor's Thesis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Massachusetts, 2019).

Andreas M. Hinz and Paul K. Stockmeyer, Precious Metal Sequences and Sierpinski-Type Graphs, J. Integer Seq., Vol 25 (2022), Article 22.4.8.

T. Huber, N. Mayes, J. Opoku, and D. Ye, Ramanujan type congruences for quotients of Klein forms, Journal of Number Theory, 258, 281-333, (2024). See Corollary 2.5 page 11.

Hsien-Kuei Hwang, Svante Janson, and Tsung-Hsi Tsai, Identities and periodic oscillations of divide-and-conquer recurrences splitting at half, arXiv:2210.10968 [cs.DS], 2022, p. 36.

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T. Jenkyns and E. Muller, Triangular triples from ceilings to floors, Amer. Math. Monthly, Vol. 107 (Aug. 2000), pp. 634-639.

Paloma Jiménez-Sepúlveda and Luis Manuel Rivera, Independence numbers of some double vertex graphs and pair graphs, arXiv:1810.06354 [math.CO], 2018.

V. Jovovic, Vladeta Jovovic, Number of binary matrices.

Clark Kimberling and John E. Brown, Partial Complements and Transposable Dispersions, J. Integer Seq., Vol. 7 (2004), Article 04.1.6.

Jukka Kohonen, Counting graded lattices of rank three that have few coatoms, arXiv:1804.03679 [math.CO], 2018.

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W. Lanssens, B. Demoen and P.-L. Nguyen, The Diagonal Latin Tableau and the Redundancy of its Disequalities, Report CW 666, July 2014, Department of Computer Science, KU Leuven.

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Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (2,0,-2,1).

FORMULA

a(n) = (2*n^2-1+(-1)^n)/8. - Paul Barry, May 27 2003

G.f.: x^2/((1-x)^2*(1-x^2)) = x^2 / ( (1+x)*(1-x)^3 ). - Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation, leading zeros dropped

E.g.f.: exp(x)*(2*x^2+2*x-1)/8 + exp(-x)/8.

a(n) = 2*a(n-1) - 2*a(n-3) + a(n-4). - Jaume Oliver Lafont, Dec 05 2008

a(-n) = a(n) for all n in Z.

a(n) = a(n-1) + floor(n/2), n > 0. Partial sums of A004526. - Adam Kertesz, Sep 20 2000

a(n) = a(n-1) + a(n-2) - a(n-3) + 1 [with a(-1) = a(0) = a(1) = 0], a(2k) = k^2, a(2k-1) = k(k-1). - Henry Bottomley, Mar 08 2000

0*0, 0*1, 1*1, 1*2, 2*2, 2*3, 3*3, 3*4, ... with an obvious pattern.

a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n} floor(k/2). - Yong Kong (ykong(AT)curagen.com), Mar 10 2001

a(n) = n*floor((n-1)/2) - floor((n-1)/2)*(floor((n-1)/2)+ 1); a(n) = a(n-2) + n-2 with a(1) = 0, a(2) = 0. - Santi Spadaro, Jul 13 2001

Also: a(n) = binomial(n, 2) - a(n-1) = A000217(n-1) - a(n-1) with a(0) = 0. - Labos Elemer, Apr 26 2003

a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} (-1)^(n-k)*C(k, 2). - Paul Barry, Jul 01 2003

a(n) = (-1)^n * partial sum of alternating triangular numbers. - Jon Perry, Dec 30 2003

a(n) = A024206(n+1) - n. - Philippe Deléham, Feb 27 2004

a(n) = a(n-2) + n - 1, n > 1. - Paul Barry, Jul 14 2004

a(n+1) = Sum_{i=0..n} min(i, n-i). - Marc LeBrun, Feb 15 2005

a(n+1) = Sum_{k = 0..floor((n-1)/2)} n-2k; a(n+1) = Sum_{k=0..n} k*(1-(-1)^(n+k-1))/2. - Paul Barry, Apr 16 2005

a(n) = A108561(n+1,n-2) for n > 2. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Jun 10 2005

1 + 1/(1 + 2/(1 + 4/(1 + 6/(1 + 9/(1 + 12/(1 + 16/(1 + ...))))))) = 6/(Pi^2 - 6) = 1.550546096730... - Philippe Deléham, Jun 20 2005

a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} Min_{k, n-k}, sums of rows of the triangle in A004197. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Jul 27 2005

For n > 2 a(n) = a(n-1) + ceiling(sqrt(a(n-1))). - Jonathan Vos Post, Jan 19 2006

Sequence starting (2, 2, 4, 6, 9, ...) = A128174 (as an infinite lower triangular matrix) * vector [1, 2, 3, ...]; where A128174 = (1; 0,1; 1,0,1; 0,1,0,1; ...). - Gary W. Adamson, Jul 27 2007

a(n) = Sum_{i=k..n} P(i, k) where P(i, k) is the number of partitions of i into k parts. - Thomas Wieder, Sep 01 2007

a(n) = sum of row (n-2) of triangle A115514. - Gary W. Adamson, Oct 25 2007

For n > 1: gcd(a(n+1), a(n)) = a(n+1) - a(n). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Apr 06 2008

a(n+3) = a(n) + A000027(n) + A008619(n+1) = a(n) + A001651(n+1) with a(1) = 0, a(2) = 0, a(3) = 1. - Yosu Yurramendi, Aug 10 2008

a(n+1) = a(n) + A110654(n). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Aug 06 2009

a(n-1) = (n*n - 2*n + n mod 2)/4. - Ctibor O. Zizka, Nov 23 2009

a(n) = round((2*n^2-1)/8) = round(n^2/4) = ceiling((n^2-1)/4). - Mircea Merca, Nov 29 2010

n*a(n+2) = 2*a(n+1) + (n+2)*a(n). Holonomic Ansatz with smallest order of recurrence. - Thotsaporn Thanatipanonda, Dec 12 2010

a(n+1) = (n*(2+n) + n mod 2)/4. - Fred Daniel Kline, Sep 11 2011

a(n) = A199332(n, floor((n+1)/2)). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 23 2011

a(n) = floor(b(n)) with b(n) = b(n-1) + n/(1+e^(1/n)) and b(0)= 0. - Richard R. Forberg, Jun 08 2013

a(n) = Sum_{i=1..floor((n+1)/2)} (n+1)-2i. - Wesley Ivan Hurt, Jun 09 2013

a(n) = floor((n+2)/2 - 1)*(floor((n+2)/2)-1 + (n+2) mod 2). - Wesley Ivan Hurt, Jun 09 2013

Sum_{n>=2} 1/a(n) = 1 + zeta(2) = 1+A013661. - Enrique Pérez Herrero, Jun 30 2013

Empirical: a(n-1) = floor(n/(e^(4/n)-1)). - Richard R. Forberg, Jul 24 2013

a(n) = A007590(n)/2. - Wesley Ivan Hurt, Mar 08 2014

A240025(a(n)) = 1. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Jul 05 2014

0 = a(n)*a(n+2) + a(n+1)*(-2*a(n+2) + a(n+3)) for all integers n. - Michael Somos, Nov 22 2014

a(n) = Sum_{j=1..n} Sum_{i=1..n} ceiling((i+j-n-1)/2). - Wesley Ivan Hurt, Mar 12 2015

a(4n+1) = A002943(n) for all n>=0. - M. F. Hasler, Oct 11 2015

a(n+2)-a(n-2) = A004275(n+1). - Anton Zakharov, May 11 2017

a(n) = floor(n/2)*floor((n+1)/2). - Bruno Berselli, Jun 08 2017

a(n) = a(n-3) + floor(3*n/2) - 2. - Yuchun Ji, Aug 14 2020

a(n)+a(n+1) = A000217(n). - R. J. Mathar, Mar 13 2021

a(n) = A004247(n,floor(n/2)). - Logan Pipes, Jul 08 2021

a(n) = floor(n^2/2)/2. - Clark Kimberling, Dec 05 2021

Sum_{n>=2} (-1)^n/a(n) = Pi^2/6 - 1. - Amiram Eldar, Mar 10 2022

EXAMPLE

a(3) = 2, floor(3/2)*ceiling(3/2) = 2.

[ n] a(n)

---------

[ 2] 1

[ 3] 2

[ 4] 1 + 3

[ 5] 2 + 4

[ 6] 1 + 3 + 5

[ 7] 2 + 4 + 6

[ 8] 1 + 3 + 5 + 7

[ 9] 2 + 4 + 6 + 8

From Wolfdieter Lang, Dec 09 2014: (Start)

Tiling of a triangular shape T_N, N >= 1 with rectangles:

N=5, n=6: a(6) = 9 because all the rectangles (i, j) (modulo transposition, i.e., interchange of i and j) which are of use are:

(5, 1) ; (1, 1)

(4, 2), (4, 1) ; (2, 2), (2, 1)

; (3, 3), (3, 2), (3, 1)

That is (1+1) + (2+2) + 3 = 9 = a(6). Partial sums of 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, ... (A004526). (End)

Bisymmetric matrices B: 2 X 2, a(3) = 2 from B[1,1] and B[1,2]. 3 X 3, a(4) = 4 from B[1,1], B[1,2], B[1,3], and B[2,2]. - Wolfdieter Lang, Jul 07 2015

From John M. Campbell, Jan 29 2016: (Start)

Letting n=5, there are a(n)=a(5)=6 partitions of 2n+1=11 of length three with exactly two even entries:

(8,2,1) |- 2n+1

(7,2,2) |- 2n+1

(6,4,1) |- 2n+1

(6,3,2) |- 2n+1

(5,4,2) |- 2n+1

(4,4,3) |- 2n+1

(End)

From Aaron Khan, Jul 13 2022: (Start)

Examples of the sequence when used for rooks on a chessboard:

.

A solution illustrating a(5)=4:

+---------+

| B B . . |

| B B . . |

| . . W W |

| . . W W |

+---------+

.

A solution illustrating a(6)=6:

+-----------+

| B B . . . |

| B B . . . |

| B B . . . |

| . . W W W |

| . . W W W |

+-----------+

(End)

MAPLE

A002620 := n->floor(n^2/4); G002620 := series(x^2/((1-x)^2*(1-x^2)), x, 60);

with(combstruct):ZL:=[st, {st=Prod(left, right), left=Set(U, card=r), right=Set(U, card<r), U=Sequence(Z, card>=1)}, unlabeled]: subs(r=1, stack): seq(count(subs(r=2, ZL), size=m), m=0..57) ; # Zerinvary Lajos, Mar 09 2007

MATHEMATICA

Table[Ceiling[n/2] Floor[n/2], {n, 0, 56}] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Jun 18 2005 *)

LinearRecurrence[{2, 0, -2, 1}, {0, 0, 1, 2}, 60] (* Harvey P. Dale, Oct 05 2012 *)

Table[Floor[n^2/4], {n, 0, 20}] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Sep 11 2018 *)

Floor[Range[0, 20]^2/4] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Sep 11 2018 *)

CoefficientList[Series[-(x^2/((-1 + x)^3 (1 + x))), {x, 0, 20}], x] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Sep 11 2018 *)

Table[Floor[n^2/2]/2, {n, 0, 56}] (* Clark Kimberling, Dec 05 2021 *)

PROG

(Magma) [ Floor(n/2)*Ceiling(n/2) : n in [0..40]];

(PARI) a(n)=n^2\4

(PARI) (t(n)=n*(n+1)/2); for(i=1, 50, print1(", ", (-1)^i*sum(k=1, i, (-1)^k*t(k))))

(PARI) a(n)=n^2>>2 \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Nov 11 2009

(PARI) x='x+O('x^100); concat([0, 0], Vec(x^2/((1-x)^2*(1-x^2)))) \\ Altug Alkan, Oct 15 2015

(Haskell)

a002620 = (`div` 4) . (^ 2) -- Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 24 2012

(Maxima) makelist(floor(n^2/4), n, 0, 50); /* Martin Ettl, Oct 17 2012 */

(Sage)

def A002620():

x, y = 0, 1

yield x

while true:

yield x

x, y = x + y, x//y + 1

a = A002620(); print([next(a) for i in range(58)]) # Peter Luschny, Dec 17 2015

(GAP) # using the formula by Paul Barry

A002620 := List([1..10^4], n-> (2*n^2 - 1 + (-1)^n)/8); # Muniru A Asiru, Feb 01 2018

(Python)

def A002620(n): return (n**2)>>2 # Chai Wah Wu, Jul 07 2022

CROSSREFS

A087811 is another version of this sequence.

Cf. A024206, A072280, A002984, A007590, A000212, A118015, A056827, A118013, A128174, A000601, A115514, A189151, A063657, A171608, A005044, A030179, A275437, A004526.

Antidiagonal sums of array A003983.

Elliptic troublemaker sequences: A000212 (= R_n(1,3) = R_n(2,3)), A007590 (= R_n(2,4)), A030511 (= R_n(2,6) = R_n(4,6)), A033436 (= R_n(1,4) = R_n(3,4)), A033437 (= R_n(1,5) = R_n(4,5)), A033438 (= R_n(1,6) = R_n(5,6)), A033439 (= R_n(1,7) = R_n(6,7)), A184535 (= R_n(2,5) = R_n(3,5)).

Cf. A250000 (queens on a chessboard), A176222 (kings on a chessboard), A355509 (knights on a chessboard).

KEYWORD

nonn,easy,nice,core

AUTHOR

STATUS

approved