

A003415


a(n) = n' = arithmetic derivative of n: a(0) = a(1) = 0, a(prime) = 1, a(m*n) = m*a(n) + n*a(m).
(Formerly M3196)


860



0, 0, 1, 1, 4, 1, 5, 1, 12, 6, 7, 1, 16, 1, 9, 8, 32, 1, 21, 1, 24, 10, 13, 1, 44, 10, 15, 27, 32, 1, 31, 1, 80, 14, 19, 12, 60, 1, 21, 16, 68, 1, 41, 1, 48, 39, 25, 1, 112, 14, 45, 20, 56, 1, 81, 16, 92, 22, 31, 1, 92, 1, 33, 51, 192, 18, 61, 1, 72, 26, 59, 1, 156, 1, 39, 55, 80, 18, 71
(list;
graph;
refs;
listen;
history;
text;
internal format)



OFFSET

0,5


COMMENTS

Can be extended to negative numbers by defining a(n) = a(n).
Based on the product rule for differentiation of functions: for functions f(x) and g(x), (fg)' = f'g + fg'. So with numbers, (ab)' = a'b + ab'. This implies 1' = 0.  Kerry Mitchell, Mar 18 2004
The derivative of a number x with respect to a prime number p as being the number "dx/dp" = (xx^p)/p, which is an integer due to Fermat's little theorem.  Alexandru Buium, Mar 18 2004
The relation (ab)' = a'b + ab' implies 1' = 0, but it does not imply p' = 1 for p a prime. In fact, any function f defined on the primes can be extended uniquely to a function on the integers satisfying this relation: f(Product_i p_i^e_i) = (Product_i p_i^e_i) * (Sum_i e_i*f(p_i)/p_i).  Franklin T. AdamsWatters, Nov 07 2006
Let n be the product of a multiset P of k primes. Consider the kdimensional box whose edges are the elements of P. Then the (k1)dimensional surface of this box is 2*a(n). For example, 2*a(25) = 20, the perimeter of a 5 X 5 square. Similarly, 2*a(18) = 42, the surface area of a 2 X 3 X 3 box.  David W. Wilson, Mar 11 2011
The arithmetic derivative n' was introduced, probably for the first time, by the Spanish mathematician José Mingot Shelly in June 1911 with "Una cuestión de la teoría de los números", work presented at the "Tercer Congreso Nacional para el Progreso de las Ciencias, Granada", cf. link to the abstract on Zentralblatt MATH, and L. E. Dickson, History of the Theory of Numbers.  Giorgio Balzarotti, Oct 19 2013
Sequence A157037 lists numbers with prime arithmetic derivative, i.e., indices of primes in this sequence.  M. F. Hasler, Apr 07 2015
Maybe the simplest "natural extension" of the arithmetic derivative, in the spirit of the above remark by Franklin T. AdamsWatters (2006), is the "pi based" version where f(p) = primepi(p), see sequence A258851. When f is chosen to be the identity map (on primes), one gets A066959.  M. F. Hasler, Jul 13 2015
When n is composite, it appears that a(n) has lower bound 2*sqrt(n), with equality when n is the square of a prime, and a(n) has upper bound (n/2)*log_2(n), with equality when n is a power of 2.  Daniel Forgues, Jun 22 2016
If n = p1*p2*p3*... where p1, p2, p3, ... are all the prime factors of n (not necessarily distinct), and h is a real number (we assume h nonnegative and < 1), the arithmetic derivative of n is equivalent to n' = lim_{h>0} ((p1+h)*(p2+h)*(p3+h)*...  (p1*p2*p3*...))/h. It also follows that the arithmetic derivative of a prime is 1. We could assume h = 1/N, where N is an integer; then the limit becomes {N > oo}. Note that n = 1 is not a prime and plays the role of constant.  Giorgio Balzarotti, May 01 2023


REFERENCES

G. Balzarotti, P. P. Lava, La derivata aritmetica, Editore U. Hoepli, Milano, 2013.
E. J. Barbeau, Problem, Canad. Math. Congress Notes, 5 (No. 8, April 1973), 67.
L. E. Dickson, History of the Theory of Numbers, Vol. 1, Chapter XIX, p. 451, Dover Edition, 2005. (Work originally published in 1919.)
A. M. Gleason et al., The William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition: Problems and Solutions 19381964, Math. Assoc. America, 1980, p. 295.
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).


LINKS



FORMULA

If n = Product p_i^e_i, a(n) = n * Sum (e_i/p_i).
a(n) = n * Sum_{pn} v_p(n)/p, where v_p(n) is the largest power of the prime p dividing n.  Wesley Ivan Hurt, Jul 12 2015
For n >= 2, Sum_{k=2..n} floor(1/a(k)) = pi(n) = A000720(n) (see K. T. Atanassov article).  Ivan N. Ianakiev, Mar 22 2019
Limit_{n > oo} (1/n^2)*Sum_{i=1..n} a(i) = A136141/2.
Limit_{n > oo} (1/n)*Sum_{i=1..n} a(i)/i = A136141.
a(n) = n if and only if n = p^p, where p is a prime number. (End)
Dirichlet g.f.: zeta(s1)*Sum_{p prime} 1/(p^sp) [Haukkanen, Merikoski and Tossavainen].  Sebastian Karlsson, Nov 25 2021
If n is not a prime, then a(n) >= 2*sqrt(n), or in other words, for all k >= 1 for which A002620(n)+k is not a prime, we have a(A002620(n)+k) > n. [See Ufnarovski and Åhlander, Theorem 9, point (3).]
(End)


EXAMPLE

6' = (2*3)' = 2'*3 + 2*3' = 1*3 + 2*1 = 5.
Note that, for example, 2' + 3' = 1 + 1 = 2, (2+3)' = 5' = 1. So ' is not linear.
G.f. = x^2 + x^3 + 4*x^4 + x^5 + 5*x^6 + x^7 + 12*x^8 + 6*x^9 + 7*x^10 + ...


MAPLE

A003415 := proc(n) local B, m, i, t1, t2, t3; B := 1000000000039; if n<=1 then RETURN(0); fi; if isprime(n) then RETURN(1); fi; t1 := ifactor(B*n); m := nops(t1); t2 := 0; for i from 1 to m do t3 := op(i, t1); if nops(t3) = 1 then t2 := t2+1/op(t3); else t2 := t2+op(2, t3)/op(op(1, t3)); fi od: t2 := t21/B; n*t2; end;
local a, f;
a := 0 ;
for f in ifactors(n)[2] do
a := a+ op(2, f)/op(1, f);
end do;
n*a ;


MATHEMATICA

a[ n_] := If[ Abs @ n < 2, 0, n Total[ #2 / #1 & @@@ FactorInteger[ Abs @ n]]]; (* Michael Somos, Apr 12 2011 *)
dn[0] = 0; dn[1] = 0; dn[n_?Negative] := dn[n]; dn[n_] := Module[{f = Transpose[FactorInteger[n]]}, If[PrimeQ[n], 1, Total[n*f[[2]]/f[[1]]]]]; Table[dn[n], {n, 0, 100}] (* T. D. Noe, Sep 28 2012 *)


PROG

(PARI) A003415(n) = {local(fac); if(n<1, 0, fac=factor(n); sum(i=1, matsize(fac)[1], n*fac[i, 2]/fac[i, 1]))} /* Michael B. Porter, Nov 25 2009 */
(PARI) apply( A003415(n)=vecsum([n/f[1]*f[2]f<factor(n+!n)~]), [0..99]) \\ M. F. Hasler, Sep 25 2013, updated Nov 27 2019
(PARI) a(n) = my(f=factor(n), r=[1/(e+!e)e<f[, 1]], c=f[, 2]); n*r*c; \\ Ruud H.G. van Tol, Sep 03 2023
(Haskell)
a003415 0 = 0
a003415 n = ad n a000040_list where
ad 1 _ = 0
ad n ps'@(p:ps)
 n < p * p = 1
 r > 0 = ad n ps
 otherwise = n' + p * ad n' ps' where
(n', r) = divMod n p
(Magma) Ad:=func<h  h*(&+[Factorisation(h)[i][2]/Factorisation(h)[i][1]: i in [1..#Factorisation(h)]])>; [n le 1 select 0 else Ad(n): n in [0..80]]; // Bruno Berselli, Oct 22 2013
(Python)
from sympy import factorint
return sum([int(n*e/p) for p, e in factorint(n).items()]) if n > 1 else 0
(Sage)
F = [] if n == 0 else factor(n)
return n * sum(g / f for f, g in F)
(GAP)
A003415:= Concatenation([0, 0], List(List([2..10^3], Factors),


CROSSREFS

Cf. A086134 (least prime factor of n').
Cf. A086131 (greatest prime factor of n').
Cf. A068237 (numerator of derivative of 1/n).
Cf. A068238 (denominator of derivative of 1/n).
Cf. A068328 (derivative of squarefree numbers).
Cf. A260619 (derivative of hyperfactorial(n)).
Cf. A260620 (derivative of superfactorial(n)).
Cf. A068312 (derivative of triangular numbers).
Cf. A068329 (derivative of Fibonacci(n)).
Cf. A096371 (derivative of partition number).
Cf. A099310 (derivative of phi(n)).
Cf. A342925 (derivative of sigma(n)).
Cf. A349905 (derivative of prime shift).
Cf. A327860 (derivative of prime product form of primorial base expansion of n).
Cf. A068346 (second derivative of n).
Cf. A099306 (third derivative of n).
Cf. A258644 (fourth derivative of n).
Cf. A258645 (fifth derivative of n).
Cf. A258646 (sixth derivative of n).
Cf. A258647 (seventh derivative of n).
Cf. A258648 (eighth derivative of n).
Cf. A258649 (ninth derivative of n).
Cf. A258650 (tenth derivative of n).
Cf. A185232 (nth derivative of n).
Cf. A258651 (A(n,k) = kth arithmetic derivative of n).
Cf. A098699 (least x such that x' = n, antiderivative of n).
Cf. A098700 (n such that x' = n has no integer solution).
Cf. A099302 (number of solutions to x' = n).
Cf. A099303 (greatest x such that x' = n).
Cf. A099304 (least k such that (n+k)' = n' + k').
Cf. A099305 (number of solutions to (n+k)' = n' + k').
Cf. A328235 (least k > 0 such that (n+k)' = u * n' for some natural number u).
Cf. A328236 (least m > 1 such that (m*n)' = u * n' for some natural number u).
Cf. A099307 (least k such that the kth arithmetic derivative of n is zero).
Cf. A099308 (kth arithmetic derivative of n is zero for some k).
Cf. A099309 (kth arithmetic derivative of n is nonzero for all k).
Cf. A129150 (nth derivative of 2^3).
Cf. A129151 (nth derivative of 3^4).
Cf. A129152 (nth derivative of 5^6).
Cf. A189481 (x' = n has a unique solution).
Cf. A229501 (n divides the nth partial sum).
Cf. A328303 (n' is not squarefree), A328252 (n' is squarefree, but n is not).
Cf. A328248 (least k such that the (k1)th derivative of n is squarefree).
Cf. A328251 (kth arithmetic derivative is never squarefree for any k >= 0).
Cf. A256750 (least k such that the kth derivative is either 0 or has a factor p^p).
Cf. A327928 (number of distinct primes p such that p^p divides n').
Cf. A342003 (max. exponent k for any prime power p^k that divides n').
Cf. A327929 (n' has at least one divisor of the form p^p).
Cf. A327978 (n' is primorial number > 1).
Cf. A328243 (n' is a partial sum of primorial numbers and larger than one).
Cf. A328310 (maximal prime exponent of n' minus maximal prime exponent of n).
Cf. A328320 (max. prime exponent of n' is less than that of n).
Cf. A328321 (max. prime exponent of n' is >= that of n).
Cf. A328383 (least k such that the kth derivative of n is either a multiple or a divisor of n, but not both).
Cf. A263111 (the ordinal transform of a).
Cf. A305809 (Dirichlet convolution square).
Cf. A069359 (similar formula which agrees on squarefree numbers).
Cf. A258851 (the pibased arithmetic derivative of n).
Cf. A038554 (another sequence using "derivative" in its name, but involving binary expansion of n).


KEYWORD



AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS



STATUS

approved



