

A002061


Central polygonal numbers: a(n) = n^2  n + 1.
(Formerly M2638 N1049)


340



1, 1, 3, 7, 13, 21, 31, 43, 57, 73, 91, 111, 133, 157, 183, 211, 241, 273, 307, 343, 381, 421, 463, 507, 553, 601, 651, 703, 757, 813, 871, 931, 993, 1057, 1123, 1191, 1261, 1333, 1407, 1483, 1561, 1641, 1723, 1807, 1893, 1981, 2071, 2163, 2257, 2353, 2451, 2551, 2653
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OFFSET

0,3


COMMENTS

These are Hogben's central polygonal numbers denoted by the symbol
...2....
....P...
...2.n..
(P with three attachments).
Also the maximal number of 1's that an n X n invertible {0,1} matrix can have. (See Halmos for proof.)  Felix Goldberg (felixg(AT)tx.technion.ac.il), Jul 07 2001
Maximal number of interior regions formed by n intersecting circles, for n >= 1.  Amarnath Murthy, Jul 07 2001
The terms are the smallest of n consecutive odd numbers whose sum is n^3: 1, 3 + 5 = 8 = 2^3, 7 + 9 + 11 = 27 = 3^3, etc.  Amarnath Murthy, May 19 2001
(n*a(n+1)+1)/(n^2+1) is the smallest integer of the form (n*k+1)/(n^2+1).  Benoit Cloitre, May 02 2002
For n >= 3, a(n) is also the number of cycles in the wheel graph W(n) of order n.  Sharon Sela (sharonsela(AT)hotmail.com), May 17 2002
Let b(k) be defined as follows: b(1) = 1 and b(k+1) > b(k) is the smallest integer such that Sum_{i=b(k)..b(k+1)} 1/sqrt(i) > 2; then b(n) = a(n) for n > 0.  Benoit Cloitre, Aug 23 2002
Drop the first three terms. Then n*a(n) + 1 = (n+1)^3. E.g., 7*1 + 1 = 8 = 2^3, 13*2 + 1 = 27 = 3^3, 21*3 + 1 = 64 = 4^3, etc.  Amarnath Murthy, Oct 20 2002
The nth term of an arithmetic progression with first term 1 and common difference n: a(1) = 1 > 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...; a(2) = 3 > 1, 3, ...; a(3) = 7 > 1, 4, 7, ...; a(4) = 13 > 1, 5, 9, 13, ...  Amarnath Murthy, Mar 25 2004
Number of walks of length 3 between any two distinct vertices of the complete graph K_{n+1} (n >= 1). Example: a(2) = 3 because in the complete graph ABC we have the following walks of length 3 between A and B: ABAB, ACAB and ABCB.  Emeric Deutsch, Apr 01 2004
Narayana transform of [1, 2, 0, 0, 0, ...] = [1, 3, 7, 13, 21, ...]. Let M = the infinite lower triangular matrix of A001263 and let V = the Vector [1, 2, 0, 0, 0, ...]. Then A002061 starting (1, 3, 7, ...) = M * V.  Gary W. Adamson, Apr 25 2006
The sequence 3, 7, 13, 21, 31, 43, 57, 73, 91, 111, ... is the trajectory of 3 under repeated application of the map n > n + 2 * square excess of n, cf. A094765.
Ignoring the first ones, these are rectangular parallelepipeds with integer dimensions that have integer interior diagonals. Using Pythagoras: sqrt(a^2 + b^2 + c^2) = d, an integer; then this sequence: sqrt(n^2 + (n+1)^2 + (n(n+1))^2) = 2T_n + 1 is the first and most simple example. Problem: Are there any integer diagonals which do not satisfy the following general formula? sqrt((k*n)^2 + (k*(n+(2*m+1)))^2 + (k*(n*(n+(2*m+1)) + 4*T_m))^2) = k*d where m >= 0, k >= 1, and T is a triangular number.  Marco Matosic, Nov 10 2006
Numbers n such that a(n) is prime are listed in A055494. Prime a(n) are listed in A002383. All terms are odd. Prime factors of a(n) are listed in A007645. 3 divides a(3*k1), 7 divides a(7*k4) and a(7*k2), 7^2 divides a(7^2*k18) and a(7^2*k+19), 7^3 divides a(7^3*k18) and a(7^3*k+19), 7^4 divides a(7^4*k+1048) and a(7^4*k1047), 7^5 divides a(7^5*k+1354) and a(7^5*k1353), 13 divides a(13*k9) and a(13*k3), 13^2 divides a(13^2*k+23) and a(13^2*k22), 13^3 divides a(13^3*k+1037) and a(13^3*k1036).  Alexander Adamchuk, Jan 25 2007
Numbers (sorted) on the main diagonal of a 2n X 2n spiral. For example, when n=2:
.
78910
 
6 12 11
  
543 12

16151413
.
a(n) = AlexanderPolynomial[n] defined as Det[Transpose[S]n S] where S is Seifert matrix {{1, 1}, {0, 1}}.  Artur Jasinski, Mar 31 2008
Starting (1, 3, 7, 13, 21, ...) = binomial transform of [1, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0]; example: a(4) = 13 = (1, 3, 3, 1) dot (1, 2, 2, 0) = (1 + 6 + 6 + 0).  Gary W. Adamson, May 10 2008
a(n) = k such that floor((1/2)*(1 + sqrt(4*k3))) + k = (n^2+1), that is A000037(a(n)) = A002522(n) = n^2 + 1, for n >= 1.  Jaroslav Krizek, Jun 21 2009
a(n) is also the Wiener index of the fan graph F(n). The fan graph F(n) is defined as the graph obtained by joining each node of an nnode path graph with an additional node. The Wiener index of a connected graph is the sum of the distances between all unordered pairs of vertices in the graph. The Wiener polynomial of the graph F(n) is (1/2)t[(n1)(n2)t + 2(2n1)]. Example: a(2)=3 because the corresponding fan graph is a cycle on 3 nodes (a triangle), having distances 1, 1, and 1.
(End)
For all elements k = n^2  n + 1 of the sequence, sqrt(4*(k1)+1) is an integer because 4*(k1) + 1 = (2*n1)^2 is a perfect square. Building the intersection of this sequence with A000225, k may in addition be of the form k = 2^x  1, which happens only for k = 1, 3, 7, 31, and 8191. [Proof: Still 4*(k1)+1 = 2^(x+2)  7 must be a perfect square, which has the finite number of solutions provided by A060728: x = 1, 2, 3, 5, or 13.] In other words, the sequence A038198 defines all elements of the form 2^x  1 in this sequence. For example k = 31 = 6*6  6 + 1; sqrt((311)*4+1) = sqrt(121) = 11 = A038198(4).  Alzhekeyev Ascar M, Jun 01 2011
Sum_{n > 0} arccot(a(n)) = Pi/2.  Franz Vrabec, Dec 02 2012
If you draw a triangle with one side of unit length and one side of length n, with an angle of Pi/3 radians between them, then the length of the third side of the triangle will be the square root of a(n).  Elliott Line, Jan 24 2013
a(n+1) is the number j such that j^2 = j + m + sqrt(j*m), with corresponding number m given by A100019(n). Also: sqrt(j*m) = A027444(n) = n * a(n+1).  Richard R. Forberg, Sep 03 2013
Let p(x) the interpolating polynomial of degree n1 passing through the n points (n,n) and (1,1), (2,1), ..., (n1,1). Then p(n+1) = a(n).  Giovanni Resta, Feb 09 2014
The number of square roots >= sqrt(n) and < n+1 (n >= 0) gives essentially the same sequence, 1, 3, 7, 13, 21, 31, 43, 57, 73, 91, 111, 133, 157, 183, 211, ... .  Michael G. Kaarhus, May 21 2014
For n > 1: a(n) is the maximum total number of queens that can coexist without attacking each other on an [n+1] X [n+1] chessboard. Specifically, this will be a lone queen of one color placed in any position on the perimeter of the board, facing an opponent's "army" of size a(n)1 == A002378(n1).  Bob Selcoe, Feb 07 2015
a(n+1) is, for n >= 1, the number of points as well as the number of lines of a finite projective plane of order n (cf. Hughes and Piper, 1973, Theorem 3.5., pp. 7980). For n = 3, a(4) = 13, see the 'Finite example' in the Wikipedia link, section 2.3, for the pointline matrix.  Wolfdieter Lang, Nov 20 2015
Denominators of the solution to the generalization of the Feynman triangle problem. If each vertex of a triangle is joined to the point (1/p) along the opposite side (measured say clockwise), then the area of the inner triangle formed by these lines is equal to (p  2)^2/(p^2  p + 1) times the area of the original triangle, p > 2. For example, when p = 3, the ratio of the areas is 1/7. The numerators of the ratio of the areas is given by A000290 with an offset of 2. [Cook & Wood, 2004.]  Joe Marasco, Feb 20 2017
n^2 equal triangular tiles with side lengths 1 X 1 X 1 may be put together to form an n X n X n triangle. For n>=2 a(n1) is the number of different 2 X 2 X 2 triangles being contained.  Heinrich Ludwig, Mar 13 2017
For n >= 0, the continued fraction [n, n+1, n+2] = (n^3 + 3n^2 + 4n + 2)/(n^2 + 3n + 3) = A034262(n+1)/a(n+2) = n + (n+2)/a(n+2); e.g., [2, 3, 4] = A034262(3)/a(4) = 30/13 = 2 + 4/13.  Rick L. Shepherd, Apr 06 2017
Starting with b(1) = 1 and not allowing the digit 0, let b(n) = smallest nonnegative integer not yet in the sequence such that the last digit of b(n1) plus the first digit of b(n) is equal to k for k = 1, ..., 9. This defines 9 finite sequences, each of length equal to a(k), k = 1, ..., 9. (See A289283A289287 for the cases k = 5..9.) For k = 10, the sequence is infinite (A289288). For example, for k = 4, b(n) = 1,3,11,31,32,2,21,33,12,22,23,13,14. These terms can be ordered in the following array of size k*(k1)+1:
1 2 3
21 22 23
31 32 33
11 12 13 14
.
The sequence ends with the term 1k, which lies outside the rectangular array and gives the term +1 (see link). Enrique Navarrete, Jul 02 2017
The central polygonal numbers are the delimiters (in parenthesis below) when you write the natural numbers in groups of odd size 2*n+1 starting with the group {2} of size 1: (1) 2 (3) 4,5,6 (7) 8,9,10,11,12 (13) 14,15,16,17,18,19,20 (21) 22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30 (31) 32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42 (43) ...  Enrique Navarrete, Jul 11 2017
Also the number of (nonnull) connected induced subgraphs in the ncycle graph.  Eric W. Weisstein, Aug 09 2017
Since (n+1)^2  (n+1) + 1 = n^2 + n + 1 then from 7 onwards these are also exactly the numbers that are represented as 111 in all number bases: 111(2)=7, 111(3)=13, ...  Ron Knott, Nov 14 2017
Number of binary 2 X (n1) matrices such that each row and column has at most one 1.  Dmitry Kamenetsky, Jan 20 2018
Observed to be the squares visited by bishop moves on a spirally numbered board and moving to the lowest available unvisited square at each step, beginning at the second term (cf. A316667). It should be noted that the bishop will only travel to squares along the first diagonal of the spiral.  Benjamin Knight, Jan 30 2019
Bound for nsubset coverings. Values in A138077 covered by difference sets.
C(7,3,2}, {1,2,4}
C(13,4,2}, {0,1,3,9}
C(21,5,2}, {3,6,7,12,14}
C(31,6,2}, {1,5,11,24,25,27}
C(43,7,2}, existence unresolved
C(57,8,2}, {0,1,6,15,22,26,45,55}
Next unresolved cases are C(111,11,2) and C(157,13,2). (End)
"In the range we explored carefully, the optimal packings were substantially irregular only for n of the form n = k(k+1)+1, k = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, i.e., for n = 13, 21, 31, 43, and 57." (cited from Lubachevsky, Graham link, Introduction).  Rainer Rosenthal, May 27 2020
For n >= 1, a(n) is the number of solutions x in the interval 1 <= x <= n of the equation x^2  [x^2] = (x  [x])^2, where [x] = floor(x). For n = 3, the a(3) = 7 solutions in the interval [1, 3] are 1, 3/2, 2, 9/4, 5/2, 11/4 and 3.
This sequence is the answer to the 4th problem proposed during the 20th British Mathematical Olympiad in 1984 (see link B.M.O 1984. and Gardiner reference). (End)
Called "Hogben numbers" after the British zoologist, statistician and writer Lancelot Thomas Hogben (18951975).  Amiram Eldar, Jun 24 2021
Minimum Wiener index of 2degenerate graphs with n+1 vertices (n>0). A maximal 2degenerate graph can be constructed from a 2clique by iteratively adding a new 2leaf (vertex of degree 2) adjacent to two existing vertices. The extremal graphs are maximal 2degenerate graphs with diameter at most 2.  Allan Bickle, Oct 14 2022
a(n) is the number of parking functions of size n avoiding the patterns 123, 213, and 312.  Lara Pudwell, Apr 10 2023


REFERENCES

Archimedeans Problems Drive, Eureka, 22 (1959), 15.
Steve Dinh, The Hard Mathematical Olympiad Problems And Their Solutions, AuthorHouse, 2011, Problem 1 of the British Mathematical Olympiad 2007, page 160.
Anthony Gardiner, The Mathematical Olympiad Handbook: An Introduction to Problem Solving, Oxford University Press, 1997, reprinted 2011, Problem 4 pp. 64 and 173 (1984).
Paul R. Halmos, Linear Algebra Problem Book, MAA, 1995, pp. 756, 2424.
Ross Honsberger, Ingenuity in Mathematics, Random House, 1970, p. 87.
Daniel R. Hughes and Frederick Charles Piper, Projective Planes, Springer, 1973.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).


LINKS

R. J. Cook and G. V. Wood, Feynman's Triangle, Mathematical Gazette, Vol. 88, No. 512 (2004), pp. 299302.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Fan Graph.


FORMULA

G.f.: (1  2*x + 3*x^2)/(1x)^3.  Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation
a(n) = (n5)*a(n1) + (n2)*a(n2).
a(n) = Phi_6(n) = Phi_3(n1), where Phi_k is the kth cyclotomic polynomial.
x*(1+x^2)/(1x)^3 is g.f. for 0, 1, 3, 7, 13, ...
a(n) = 2*C(n, 2) + C(n1, 0).
E.g.f.: (1+x^2)*exp(x). (End)
a(n) = ceiling((n1/2)^2).  Benoit Cloitre, Apr 16 2003. [Hence the terms are about midway between successive squares and so (except for 1) are not squares.  N. J. A. Sloane, Nov 01 2005]
a(n) = 1 + Sum_{j=0..n1} (2*j).  Xavier Acloque, Oct 08 2003
a(n) = leftmost term in M^(n1) * [1 1 1], where M = the 3 X 3 matrix [1 1 1 / 0 1 2 / 0 0 1]. E.g., a(6) = 31 since M^5 * [1 1 1] = [31 11 1].  Gary W. Adamson, Nov 11 2004
a(n+1) = n^2 + n + 1. a(n+1)*a(n) = (n^61)/(n^21) = n^4 + n^2 + 1 = a(n^2+1) (a product of two consecutive numbers from this sequence belongs to this sequence). (a(n+1) + a(n))/2 = n^2 + 1. (a(n+1)  a(n))/2 = n. a((a(n+1) + a(n))/2) = a(n+1)*a(n).  Alexander Adamchuk, Apr 13 2006
a(n+3) is the numerator of ((n + 1)! + (n  1)!)/ n!.  Artur Jasinski, Jan 09 2007
a(n) = Det[Transpose[{{1, 1}, {0, 1}}]  n {{1, 1}, {0, 1}}].  Artur Jasinski, Mar 31 2008
a(n) = (n1)^2 + (n1) + 1 = 111 read in base n1 (for n > 2).  Jason Kimberley, Oct 18 2011
G.f.: 1 / (1  x / (1  2*x / (1 + x / (1  2*x / (1 + x))))).  Michael Somos, Apr 03 2014
Sum_{n>=0} 1/a(n) = 1 + Pi*tanh(Pi*sqrt(3)/2)/sqrt(3) = 2.79814728056269018... .  Vaclav Kotesovec, Apr 10 2016
Sum_{n>=1} arctan(1/a(n)) = Pi/2.  Amiram Eldar, Nov 01 2020
Product_{n>=1} (1 + 1/a(n)) = cosh(sqrt(7)*Pi/2)*sech(sqrt(3)*Pi/2).
Product_{n>=2} (1  1/a(n)) = Pi*sech(sqrt(3)*Pi/2). (End)
For n > 1, sqrt(a(n)+sqrt(a(n)sqrt(a(n)+sqrt(a(n) ...)))) = n.  Diego Rattaggi, Apr 17 2021
a(n) = (1 + (n1)^4 + n^4) / (1 + (n1)^2 + n^2) [see link B.M.O. 2007 and Steve Dinh reference].  Bernard Schott, Dec 27 2021


EXAMPLE

G.f. = 1 + x + 3*x^2 + 7*x^3 + 13*x^4 + 21*x^5 + 31*x^6 + 43*x^7 + ...


MAPLE

numtheory[cyclotomic](6, n) ;
end proc:


MATHEMATICA

LinearRecurrence[{3, 3, 1}, {1, 1, 3}, 60] (* Harvey P. Dale, May 25 2011 *)
CoefficientList[Series[(1  2x + 3x^2)/(1  x)^3, {x, 0, 52}], x] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Feb 18 2018 *)


PROG

(PARI) a(n) = n^2  n + 1
(Maxima) makelist(n^2  n + 1, n, 0, 55); /* Martin Ettl, Oct 16 2012 */
(Haskell)


CROSSREFS

Cf. A000037, A000124, A000217, A001263, A001844, A002383, A004273, A005408, A005563, A007645, A014206, A051890, A055494, A091776, A132014, A132382, A135668, A137928, A139250, A256188, A028387.
Cf. A010000 (minimum Weiner index of 3degenerate graphs).


KEYWORD

nonn,easy,nice


AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS



STATUS

approved



