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A002064 Cullen numbers: a(n) = n*2^n + 1.
(Formerly M2795 N1125)
60
1, 3, 9, 25, 65, 161, 385, 897, 2049, 4609, 10241, 22529, 49153, 106497, 229377, 491521, 1048577, 2228225, 4718593, 9961473, 20971521, 44040193, 92274689, 192937985, 402653185, 838860801, 1744830465, 3623878657, 7516192769, 15569256449, 32212254721 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

Binomial transform is A084859. Inverse binomial transform is A004277. - Paul Barry, Jun 12 2003

Let A be the Hessenberg matrix of order n defined by: A[1,j]=1, A[i,i]:=2,(i>1), A[i,i-1] =-1, and A[i,j]=0 otherwise. Then, for n>=1, a(n-1)= (-1)^(n-1)*coeff(charpoly(A,x),x). - Milan Janjic, Jan 26 2010

Indices of primes are listed in A005849. - M. F. Hasler, Jan 18 2015

Add the list of fractions beginning with 1/2 + 3/4 + 7/8 + ....2^n-1/2^n and take the sums pairwise from left to right. For 1/2 + 3/4 = 5/4 with 5+4=9=a(2); for 5/4 + 7/8 = 17/8 with 17+8=25=a(3); for 17/8 + 15/16= 49/16 with 49+16=65=a(4); 49/16 +31/32=129/32 with 129+32=161=a(5). For each pairwise sum a/b, a+b=n*2^(n+1). - J. M. Bergot, May 06 2015

Number of divisors of (2^n)^(2^n). - Gus Wiseman, May 03 2021

Named after the Irish Jesuit priest James Cullen (1867-1933) who checked the primality of the terms up to n=100. - Amiram Eldar, Jun 05 2021

REFERENCES

G. Everest, A. van der Poorten, I. Shparlinski and T. Ward, Recurrence Sequences, Amer. Math. Soc., 2003; see esp. p. 255.

R. K. Guy, Unsolved Problems in Number Theory, B20.

W. Sierpiński, Elementary Theory of Numbers. Państ. Wydaw. Nauk., Warsaw, 1964, p. 346.

N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

LINKS

T. D. Noe, Table of n, a(n) for n=0..300

Ray Ballinger, Cullen Primes: Definition and Status.

Yuri Bilu, Diego Marques and Alain Togbé, Generalized Cullen numbers in linear recurrence sequences, Journal of Number Theory, Vol. 202 (2019), pp. 412-425; arXiv preprint, arXiv:1806.09441 [math.NT], 2018.

Daniel Birmajer, Juan B. Gil, David S. Kenepp, and Michael D. Weiner, Restricted generating trees for weak orderings, arXiv:2108.04302 [math.CO], 2021.

C. K. Caldwell, The Top Twenty: Cullen Primes.

James Cullen, Question 15897, Educational Times, Vol. 58 (December 1905), p. 534.

Jon Grantham and Hester Graves, The abc Conjecture Implies That Only Finitely Many Cullen Numbers Are Repunits, arXiv:2009.04052 [math.NT], 2020.

José María Grau and Florian Luca, Cullen numbers with the Lehmer property, Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 140, No. 1 (2012), pp. 129-134; arXiv preprint, arXiv:1103.3578 [math.NT], Mar 18 2011.

Paul Leyland, Factors of Cullen and Woodall numbers.

Paul Leyland, Generalized Cullen and Woodall numbers.

Diego Marques, On Generalized Cullen and Woodall Numbers That are Also Fibonacci Numbers, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 17 (2014), Article 14.9.4.

Hisanori Mishima, Factorizations of many number sequences, Cullen numbers (n = 1 to 100), (n = 101 to 200), (n = 201 to 300), (n = 301 to 323).

Simon Plouffe, Approximations de Séries Génératrices et Quelques Conjectures, Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992.

Simon Plouffe, 1031 Generating Functions, Appendix to Thesis, Montreal, 1992.

Wacław Sierpiński, Elementary Theory of Numbers, Warszawa 1964.

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, On the generalized sums of Mersenne, Fermat, Cullen and Woodall Numbers, Politecnico di Torino (Italy, 2019).

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, Composition Operations of Generalized Entropies Applied to the Study of Numbers, International Journal of Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019), pp. 87-92.

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, The groupoids of Mersenne, Fermat, Cullen, Woodall and other Numbers and their representations by means of integer sequences, Politecnico di Torino, Italy (2019), [math.NT].

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, Some Groupoids and their Representations by Means of Integer Sequences, International Journal of Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 10 (2019).

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Cullen Number.

Wikipedia, Cullen number.

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (5,-8,4).

FORMULA

a(n) = 4a(n-1) - 4a(n-2) + 1. - Paul Barry, Jun 12 2003

a(n) = sum of row (n+1) of triangle A130197. Example: a(3) = 25 = (12 + 8 + 4 + 1), row 4 of A130197. - Gary W. Adamson, May 16 2007

Row sums of triangle A134081. - Gary W. Adamson, Oct 07 2007

Equals row sums of triangle A143038. - Gary W. Adamson, Jul 18 2008

Equals row sums of triangle A156708. - Gary W. Adamson, Feb 13 2009

G.f.: -(1-2*x+2*x^2)/((-1+x)*(2*x-1)^2). a(n) = A001787(n+1)+1-A000079(n). - R. J. Mathar, Nov 16 2007

a(n) = 1 + 2^(n + log_2(n)) ~ 1 + A000079(n+A004257(n)). a(n) ~ A000051(n+A004257(n)). - Jonathan Vos Post, Jul 20 2008

a(0)=1, a(1)=3, a(2)=9, a(n) = 5*a(n-1)-8*a(n-2)+4*a(n-3). - Harvey P. Dale, Oct 13 2011

a(n) = A036289(n) + 1 = A003261(n) + 2. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Mar 16 2013

E.g.f.: 2*x*exp(2*x) + exp(x). - Robert Israel, Dec 12 2014

a(n) = 2^n * A000325(n) = 4^n * A186947(-n) for all n in Z. - Michael Somos, Jul 18 2018

a(n) = Sum_{i=0..n-1} a(i) + A000325(n+1). - Ivan N. Ianakiev, Aug 07 2019

a(n) = sigma((2^n)^(2^n)) = A000005(A057156(n)) = A062319(2^n). - Gus Wiseman, May 03 2021

Sum_{n>=0} 1/a(n) = A340841. - Amiram Eldar, Jun 05 2021

EXAMPLE

G.f. = 1 + 3*x + 9*x^2 + 25*x^3 + 65*x^4 + 161*x^5 + 385*x^6 + 897*x^7 + ... - Michael Somos, Jul 18 2018

MAPLE

A002064:=-(1-2*z+2*z**2)/((z-1)*(-1+2*z)**2); # conjectured by Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation

MATHEMATICA

Table[n*2^n+1, {n, 0, 2*4!}] (* Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Apr 25 2010 *)

LinearRecurrence[{5, -8, 4}, {1, 3, 9}, 51] (* Harvey P. Dale, Oct 13 2011 *)

CoefficientList[Series[(1 - 2 x + 2 x^2)/((1 - x) (2 x - 1)^2), {x, 0, 50}], x] (* Vincenzo Librandi, May 07 2015 *)

PROG

(PARI) A002064(n)=n*2^n+1  \\ M. F. Hasler, Oct 31 2012

(Haskell)

a002064 n = n * 2 ^ n + 1

a002064_list = 1 : 3 : (map (+ 1) $ zipWith (-) (tail xs) xs)

   where xs = map (* 4) a002064_list

-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Mar 16 2013

(MAGMA) [n*2^n + 1: n in [0..40]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, May 07 2015

CROSSREFS

Cf. A005849, A003261, A050914, A130197, A134081, A001787, A143038, A156708, A181527.

Cf. A000325, A186947.

Diagonal k = n + 1 of A046688.

A000005 counts divisors of n.

A000312 = n^n.

A002109 gives hyperfactorials (sigma: A260146, omega: A303281).

A057156 = (2^n)^(2^n).

A062319 counts divisors of n^n.

A173339 lists positions of squares in A062319.

A188385 gives the highest prime exponent in n^n.

A249784 counts divisors of n^n^n.

Cf. A000169, A000272, A036289, A066959, A176029, A340841, A343656.

Sequence in context: A292326 A195417 A295142 * A129589 A335472 A096322

Adjacent sequences:  A002061 A002062 A002063 * A002065 A002066 A002067

KEYWORD

nonn,easy,nice

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane

EXTENSIONS

Edited by M. F. Hasler, Oct 31 2012

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 25 09:10 EDT 2022. Contains 354051 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)