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A000051 a(n) = 2^n + 1.
(Formerly M0717 N0266)
837
2, 3, 5, 9, 17, 33, 65, 129, 257, 513, 1025, 2049, 4097, 8193, 16385, 32769, 65537, 131073, 262145, 524289, 1048577, 2097153, 4194305, 8388609, 16777217, 33554433, 67108865, 134217729, 268435457, 536870913, 1073741825, 2147483649, 4294967297, 8589934593 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,1
COMMENTS
Same as Pisot sequence L(2,3).
Length of the continued fraction for Sum_{k=0..n} 1/3^(2^k). - Benoit Cloitre, Nov 12 2003
See also A004119 for a(n) = 2a(n-1)-1 with first term = 1. - Philippe Deléham, Feb 20 2004
From the second term on (n>=1), in base 2, these numbers present the pattern 1000...0001 (with n-1 zeros), which is the "opposite" of the binary 2^n-2: (0)111...1110 (cf. A000918). - Alexandre Wajnberg, May 31 2005
Let A be the Hessenberg matrix of order n, defined by: A[1,j]=1, A[i,i]:=5, (i>1), A[i,i-1]=-1, and A[i,j]=0 otherwise. Then, for n>=1, a(n-1)=(-1)^(n-1)* charpoly(A,3). - Milan Janjic, Jan 27 2010
First differences of A006127. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Apr 14 2011
The odd prime numbers in this sequence form A019434, the Fermat primes. - David W. Wilson, Nov 16 2011
Pisano period lengths: 1, 1, 2, 1, 4, 2, 3, 1, 6, 4, 10, 2, 12, 3, 4, 1, 8, 6, 18, 4, ... . - R. J. Mathar, Aug 10 2012
Is the mentioned Pisano period lengths (see above) the same as A007733? - Omar E. Pol, Aug 10 2012
Only positive integers that are not 1 mod (2k+1) for any k>1. - Jon Perry, Oct 16 2012
For n >= 1, a(n) is the total length of the segments of the Hilbert curve after n iterations. - Kival Ngaokrajang, Mar 30 2014
Frénicle de Bessy (1657) proved that a(3) = 9 is the only square in this sequence. - Charles R Greathouse IV, May 13 2014
a(n) is the number of distinct possible sums made with at most two elements in {1,...,a(n-1)} for n > 0. - Derek Orr, Dec 13 2014
For n > 0, given any set of a(n) lattice points in R^n, there exist 2 distinct members in this set whose midpoint is also a lattice point. - Melvin Peralta, Jan 28 2017
Also the number of independent vertex sets, irredundant sets, and vertex covers in the (n+1)-star graph. - Eric W. Weisstein, Aug 04 and Sep 21 2017
Also the number of maximum matchings in the 2(n-1)-crossed prism graph. - Eric W. Weisstein, Dec 31 2017
Conjecture: For any integer n >= 0, a(n) is the permanent of the (n+1) X (n+1) matrix with M(j, k) = -floor((j - k - 1)/(n + 1)). This conjecture is inspired by the conjecture of Zhi-Wei Sun in A036968. - Peter Luschny, Sep 07 2021
REFERENCES
Paul Bachmann, Niedere Zahlentheorie (1902, 1910), reprinted Chelsea, NY, 1968, vol. 2, p. 75.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
LINKS
E. R. Berlekamp, A contribution to mathematical psychometrics, Unpublished Bell Labs Memorandum, Feb 08 1968 [Annotated scanned copy]
Bakir Farhi, Summation of Certain Infinite Lucas-Related Series, J. Int. Seq., Vol. 22 (2019), Article 19.1.6.
Massimiliano Fasi and Gian Maria Negri Porzio, Determinants of Normalized Bohemian Upper Hessemberg Matrices, University of Manchester (England, 2019).
Bartomeu Fiol, Jairo Martínez-Montoya, and Alan Rios Fukelman, The planar limit of N=2 superconformal field theories, arXiv:2003.02879 [hep-th], 2020.
Bernard Frénicle de Bessy, Solutio duorum problematum circa numeros cubos et quadratos, (1657). Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.
Edouard Lucas, The Theory of Simply Periodic Numerical Functions, Fibonacci Association, 1969. English translation of article "Théorie des Fonctions Numériques Simplement Périodiques, I", Amer. J. Math., 1 (1878), 184-240.
Simon Plouffe, Approximations de séries génératrices et quelques conjectures, Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992; arXiv:0911.4975 [math.NT], 2009.
Simon Plouffe, 1031 Generating Functions, Appendix to Thesis, Montreal, 1992
Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, On the generalized sums of Mersenne, Fermat, Cullen and Woodall Numbers, Politecnico di Torino (Italy, 2019).
Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, Composition Operations of Generalized Entropies Applied to the Study of Numbers, International Journal of Sciences (2019) Vol. 8, No. 4, 87-92.
Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, Some Groupoids and their Representations by Means of Integer Sequences, International Journal of Sciences (2019) Vol. 8, No. 10.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Crossed Prism Graph.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Cunningham Number.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Fermat-Lucas Number.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Hilbert curve.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Independent Vertex Set.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Irredundant Set.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Matching Number.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Maximum Independent Edge Set.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Rudin-Shapiro Sequence.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Star Graph.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Vertex Cover.
FORMULA
a(n) = 2*a(n-1) - 1 = 3*a(n-1) - 2*a(n-2).
G.f.: (2-3*x)/((1-x)*(1-2*x)).
First differences of A052944. - Emeric Deutsch, Mar 04 2004
a(0) = 1, then a(n) = (Sum_{i=0..n-1} a(i)) - (n-2). - Gerald McGarvey, Jul 10 2004
Inverse binomial transform of A007689. Also, V sequence in Lucas sequence L(3, 2). - Ross La Haye, Feb 07 2005
a(n) = A127904(n+1) for n>0. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 05 2007
Equals binomial transform of [2, 1, 1, 1, ...]. - Gary W. Adamson, Apr 23 2008
a(n) = A000079(n)+1. - Omar E. Pol, May 18 2008
E.g.f.: exp(x) + exp(2*x). - Mohammad K. Azarian, Jan 02 2009
a(n) = A024036(n)/A000225(n). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 14 2009
From Peter Luschny, Apr 20 2009: (Start)
A weighted binomial sum of the Bernoulli numbers A027641/A027642 with A027641(1)=1 (which amounts to the definition B_{n} = B_{n}(1)).
a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} C(n,k)*B_{n-k}*2^(k+1)/(k+1). (See also A052584.) (End)
a(n) is the a(n-1)-th odd number for n >= 1. - Jaroslav Krizek, Apr 25 2009
From Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 28 2010: (Start)
a(n)*A000225(n) = A000225(2*n).
a(n) = A173786(n,0). (End)
If p[i]=Fibonacci(i-4) and if A is the Hessenberg matrix of order n defined by: A[i,j]=p[j-i+1], (i<=j), A[i,j]=-1, (i=j+1), and A[i,j]=0 otherwise, then, for n>=1, a(n-1)= det A. - Milan Janjic, May 08 2010
a(n+2) = a(n) + a(n+1) + A000225(n). - Ivan N. Ianakiev, Jun 24 2012
a(A006521(n)) mod A006521(n) = 0. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Jul 17 2014
a(n) = 3*A007583((n-1)/2) for n odd. - Eric W. Weisstein, Jul 17 2017
Sum_{n>=0} 1/a(n) = A323482. - Amiram Eldar, Nov 11 2020
MAPLE
A000051:=-(-2+3*z)/(2*z-1)/(z-1); # Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation
a := n -> add(binomial(n, k)*bernoulli(n-k, 1)*2^(k+1)/(k+1), k=0..n); # Peter Luschny, Apr 20 2009
MATHEMATICA
Table[2^n + 1, {n, 0, 33}]
2^Range[0, 20] + 1 (* Eric W. Weisstein, Jul 17 2017 *)
LinearRecurrence[{3, -2}, {2, 3}, 20] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Sep 21 2017 *)
PROG
(PARI) a(n)=2^n+1
(PARI) first(n) = Vec((2 - 3*x)/((1 - x)*(1 - 2*x)) + O(x^n)) \\ Iain Fox, Dec 31 2017
(Haskell)
a000051 = (+ 1) . a000079
a000051_list = iterate ((subtract 1) . (* 2)) 2
-- Reinhard Zumkeller, May 03 2012
(Python)
def A000051(n): return (1<<n)|1 if n else 2 # Chai Wah Wu, Dec 21 2022
CROSSREFS
Apart from the initial 1, identical to A094373.
See A008776 for definitions of Pisot sequences.
Column 2 of array A103438.
Cf. A007583 (a((n-1)/2)/3 for odd n).
Sequence in context: A091697 A109740 A248155 * A094373 A213705 A295637
KEYWORD
nonn,easy
AUTHOR
STATUS
approved

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Last modified July 15 16:36 EDT 2024. Contains 374333 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)