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A024036 a(n) = 4^n - 1. 53
0, 3, 15, 63, 255, 1023, 4095, 16383, 65535, 262143, 1048575, 4194303, 16777215, 67108863, 268435455, 1073741823, 4294967295, 17179869183, 68719476735, 274877906943, 1099511627775, 4398046511103, 17592186044415, 70368744177663, 281474976710655 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,2
COMMENTS
This sequence is the normalized length per iteration of the space-filling Peano-Hilbert curve. The curve remains in a square, but its length increases without bound. The length of the curve, after n iterations in a unit square, is a(n)*2^(-n) where a(n) = 4*a(n-1)+3. This is the sequence of a(n) values. a(n)*(2^(-n)*2^(-n)) tends to 1, the area of the square where the curve is generated, as n increases. The ratio between the number of segments of the curve at the n-th iteration (A015521) and a(n) tends to 4/5 as n increases. - Giorgio Balzarotti, Mar 16 2006
Numbers whose base-4 representation is 333....3. - Zerinvary Lajos, Feb 03 2007
From Eric Desbiaux, Jun 28 2009: (Start)
It appears that for a given area, a square n^2 can be divided into n^2+1 other squares.
It's a rotation and zoom out of a Cartesian plan, which creates squares with side
= sqrt( (n^2) / (n^2+1) ) --> A010503|A010532|A010541... --> limit 1,
and diagonal sqrt(2*sqrt((n^2)/(n^2+1))) --> A010767|... --> limit A002193.
(End)
Also the total number of line segments after the n-th stage in the H tree, if 4^(n-1) H's are added at the n-th stage to the structure in which every "H" is formed by 3 line segments. A164346 (the first differences of this sequence) gives the number of line segments added at the n-th stage. - Omar E. Pol, Feb 16 2013
a(n) is the cumulative number of segment deletions in a Koch snowflake after (n+1) iterations. - Ivan N. Ianakiev, Nov 22 2013
Inverse binomial transform of A005057. - Wesley Ivan Hurt, Apr 04 2014
For n > 0, a(n) is one-third the partial sums of A002063(n-1). - J. M. Bergot, May 23 2014
Also the cyclomatic number of the n-Sierpinski tetrahedron graph. - Eric W. Weisstein, Sep 18 2017
REFERENCES
Graham Everest, Alf van der Poorten, Igor Shparlinski, and Thomas Ward, Recurrence Sequences, Amer. Math. Soc., 2003; see esp. p. 255.
LINKS
Alexander V. Kitaev, Meromorphic Solution of the Degenerate Third Painlevé Equation Vanishing at the Origin, Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications, Vol. 15 (2019), 046, 53 pages; arXiv preprint, arXiv:1809.00122 [math.CA], 2018-2019.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Cyclomatic Number.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Sierpinski Tetrahedron Graph.
FORMULA
a(n) = 3*A002450(n). - N. J. A. Sloane, Feb 19 2004
G.f.: 3*x/((-1+x)*(-1+4*x)) = 1/(-1+x) - 1/(-1+4*x). - R. J. Mathar, Nov 23 2007
E.g.f.: exp(4*x) - exp(x). - Mohammad K. Azarian, Jan 14 2009
a(n) = A000051(n)*A000225(n). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 14 2009
A079978(a(n)) = 1. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 22 2009
a(n) = A179857(A000225(n)), for n > 0; a(n) > A179857(m), for m < A000225(n). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Jul 31 2010
a(n) = 4*a(n-1) + 3, with a(0) = 0. - Vincenzo Librandi, Aug 01 2010
A000120(a(n)) = 2*n. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 07 2011
a(n) = (3/2)*A020988(n). - Omar E. Pol, Mar 15 2012
a(n) = (Sum_{i=0..n} A002001(i)) - 1 = A178789(n+1) - 3. - Ivan N. Ianakiev, Nov 22 2013
a(n) = n*E(2*n-1,1)/B(2*n,1), for n > 0, where E(n,x) denotes the Euler polynomials and B(n,x) the Bernoulli polynomials. - Peter Luschny, Apr 04 2014
a(n) = A000302(n) - 1. - Sean A. Irvine, Jun 18 2019
Sum_{n>=1} 1/a(n) = A248721. - Amiram Eldar, Nov 13 2020
a(n) = A080674(n) - A002450(n). - Elmo R. Oliveira, Dec 02 2023
EXAMPLE
G.f. = 3*x + 15*x^2 + 63*x^3 + 255*x^4 + 1023*x^5 + 4095*x^6 + ...
MAPLE
A024036:=n->4^n-1; seq(A024036(n), n=0..30); # Wesley Ivan Hurt, Apr 04 2014
MATHEMATICA
Array[4^# - 1 &, 50, 0] (* Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Nov 03 2009 *)
(* Start from Eric W. Weisstein, Sep 19 2017 *)
Table[4^n - 1, {n, 0, 20}]
4^Range[0, 20] - 1
LinearRecurrence[{5, -4}, {0, 3}, 20]
CoefficientList[Series[3 x/(1 - 5 x + 4 x^2), {x, 0, 20}], x]
(* End *)
PROG
(Sage) [gaussian_binomial(2*n, 1, 2) for n in range(21)] # Zerinvary Lajos, May 28 2009
(Sage) [stirling_number2(2*n+1, 2) for n in range(21)] # Zerinvary Lajos, Nov 26 2009
(Haskell)
a024036 = (subtract 1) . a000302
a024036_list = iterate ((+ 3) . (* 4)) 0
-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Oct 03 2012
(PARI) for(n=0, 100, print1(4^n-1, ", ")) \\ Felix Fröhlich, Jul 04 2014
CROSSREFS
Sequence in context: A218236 A218282 A103454 * A111303 A118339 A083858
KEYWORD
nonn,easy
AUTHOR
EXTENSIONS
More terms Wesley Ivan Hurt, Apr 04 2014
STATUS
approved

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Last modified April 24 17:29 EDT 2024. Contains 371962 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)