OFFSET

0,3

COMMENTS

For n > 0, a(n) is the degree (n-1) "numbral" power of 5 (see A048888 for the definition of numbral arithmetic). Example: a(3) = 21, since the numbral square of 5 is 5(*)5 = 101(*)101(base 2) = 101 OR 10100 = 10101(base 2) = 21, where the OR is taken bitwise. - John W. Layman, Dec 18 2001

a(n) is composite for all n > 2 and has factors x, (3*x + 2*(-1)^n) where x belongs to A001045. In binary the terms greater than 0 are 1, 101, 10101, 1010101, etc. - John McNamara, Jan 16 2002

Number of n X 2 binary arrays with path of adjacent 1's from upper left corner to right column. - R. H. Hardin, Mar 16 2002

The Collatz-function iteration started at a(n), for n >= 1, will end at 1 after 2*n+1 steps. - Labos Elemer, Sep 30 2002 [corrected by Wolfdieter Lang, Aug 16 2021]

Second binomial transform of A001045. - Paul Barry, Mar 28 2003

All members of sequence are also generalized octagonal numbers (A001082). - Matthew Vandermast, Apr 10 2003

Also sum of squares of divisors of 2^(n-1): a(n) = A001157(A000079(n-1)), for n > 0. - Paul Barry, Apr 11 2003

Binomial transform of A000244 (with leading zero). - Paul Barry, Apr 11 2003

Number of walks of length 2n between two vertices at distance 2 in the cycle graph C_6. For n = 2 we have for example 5 walks of length 4 from vertex A to C: ABABC, ABCBC, ABCDC, AFABC and AFEDC. - Herbert Kociemba, May 31 2004

Also number of walks of length 2n + 1 between two vertices at distance 3 in the cycle graph C_12. - Herbert Kociemba, Jul 05 2004

a(n+1) is the number of steps that are made when generating all n-step random walks that begin in a given point P on a two-dimensional square lattice. To make one step means to mark one vertex on the lattice (compare A080674). - Pawel P. Mazur (Pawel.Mazur(AT)pwr.wroc.pl), Mar 13 2005

a(n+1) is the sum of square divisors of 4^n. - Paul Barry, Oct 13 2005

a(n+1) is the decimal number generated by the binary bits in the n-th generation of the Rule 250 elementary cellular automaton. - Eric W. Weisstein, Apr 08 2006

a(k) = [M^k]_2,1, where M is the 3 X 3 matrix defined as follows: M = [1, 1, 1; 1, 3, 1; 1, 1, 1]. - Simone Severini, Jun 11 2006

a(n-1) / a(n) = percentage of wasted storage if a single image is stored as a pyramid with a each subsequent higher resolution layer containing four times as many pixels as the previous layer. n is the number of layers. - Victor Brodsky (victorbrodsky(AT)gmail.com), Jun 15 2006

k is in the sequence if and only if C(4k + 1, k) (A052203) is odd. - Paul Barry, Mar 26 2007

This sequence also gives the number of distinct 3-colorings of the odd cycle C(2*n - 1). - Keith Briggs, Jun 19 2007

All numbers of the form m*4^m + (4^m-1)/3 have the property that they are sums of two squares and also their indices are the sum of two squares. This follows from the identity m*4^m + (4^m-1)/3 = 4(4(..4(4m + 1) + 1) + 1) + 1 ..) + 1. - Artur Jasinski, Nov 12 2007

For n > 0, terms are the numbers that, in base 4, are repunits: 1_4, 11_4, 111_4, 1111_4, etc. - Artur Jasinski, Sep 30 2008

Let A be the Hessenberg matrix of order n, defined by: A[1, j] = 1, A[i, i] := 5, (i > 1), A[i, i - 1] = -1, and A[i, j] = 0 otherwise. Then, for n >= 1, a(n) = charpoly(A,1). - Milan Janjic, Jan 27 2010

This is the sequence A(0, 1; 3, 4; 2) = A(0, 1; 4, 0; 1) of the family of sequences [a, b : c, d : k] considered by G. Detlefs, and treated as A(a, b; c, d; k) in the W. Lang link given below. - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 18 2010

6*a(n) + 1 is every second Mersenne number greater than or equal to M3, hence all Mersenne primes greater than M2 must be a 6*a(n) + 1 of this sequence. - Roderick MacPhee, Nov 01 2010

Smallest number having alternating bit sum n. Cf. A065359.

For n = 1, 2, ..., the last digit of a(n) is 1, 5, 1, 5, ... . - Washington Bomfim, Jan 21 2011

Rule 50 elementary cellular automaton generates this sequence. This sequence also appears in the second column of array in A173588. - Paul Muljadi, Jan 27 2011

Sequence found by reading the line from 0, in the direction 0, 5, ... and the line from 1, in the direction 1, 21, ..., in the square spiral whose edges are the Jacobsthal numbers A001045 and whose vertices are the numbers A000975. These parallel lines are two semi-diagonals in the spiral. - Omar E. Pol, Sep 10 2011

a(n), n >= 1, is also the inverse of 3, denoted by 3^(-1), Modd(2^(2*n - 1)). For Modd n see a comment on A203571. E.g., a(2) = 5, 3 * 5 = 15 == 1 (Modd 8), because floor(15/8) = 1 is odd and -15 == 1 (mod 8). For n = 1 note that 3 * 1 = 3 == 1 (Modd 2) because floor(3/2) = 1 and -3 == 1 (mod 2). The inverse of 3 taken Modd 2^(2*n) coincides with 3^(-1) (mod 2^(2*n)) given in A007583(n), n >= 1. - Wolfdieter Lang, Mar 12 2012

If an AVL tree has a leaf at depth n, then the tree can contain no more than a(n+1) nodes total. - Mike Rosulek, Nov 20 2012

Also, this is the Lucas sequence V(5, 4). - Bruno Berselli, Jan 10 2013

Also, for n > 0, a(n) is an odd number whose Collatz trajectory contains no odd number other than n and 1. - Jayanta Basu, Mar 24 2013

Sum_{n >= 1} 1/a(n) converges to (3*(log(4/3) - QPolyGamma[0, 1, 1/4]))/log(4) = 1.263293058100271... = A321873. - K. G. Stier, Jun 23 2014

Consider n spheres in R^n: the i-th one (i=1, ..., n) has radius r(i) = 2^(1-i) and the coordinates of its center are (0, 0, ..., 0, r(i), 0, ..., 0) where r(i) is in position i. The coordinates of the intersection point in the positive orthant of these spheres are (2/a(n), 4/a(n), 8/a(n), 16/a(n), ...). For example in R^2, circles centered at (1, 0) and (0, 1/2), and with radii 1 and 1/2, meet at (2/5, 4/5). - Jean M. Morales, May 19 2015

From Peter Bala, Oct 11 2015: (Start)

2*a(n) = A020988(n) gives the values of m such that binomial(4*m + 2, m) is odd.

4*a(n) = A080674(n) gives the values of m such that binomial(4*m + 4, m) is odd. (End)

Collatz Conjecture Corollary: Except for powers of 2, the Collatz iteration of any positive integer must eventually reach a(n) and hence terminate at 1. - Gregory L. Simay, May 09 2016

Number of active (ON, black) cells at stage 2^n - 1 of the two-dimensional cellular automaton defined by "Rule 598", based on the 5-celled von Neumann neighborhood. - Robert Price, May 16 2016

From Luca Mariot and Enrico Formenti, Sep 26 2016: (Start)

a(n) is also the number of coprime pairs of polynomials (f, g) over GF(2) where both f and g have degree n + 1 and nonzero constant term.

a(n) is also the number of pairs of one-dimensional binary cellular automata with linear and bipermutive local rule of neighborhood size n+1 giving rise to orthogonal Latin squares of order 2^m, where m is a multiple of n. (End)

Except for 0, 1 and 5, all terms are Brazilian repunits numbers in base 4, and so belong to A125134. For n >= 3, all these terms are composite because a(n) = {(2^n-1) * (2^n + 1)}/3 and either (2^n - 1) or (2^n + 1) is a multiple of 3. - Bernard Schott, Apr 29 2017

Given the 3 X 3 matrix A = [2, 1, 1; 1, 2, 1; 1, 1, 2] and the 3 X 3 unit matrix I_3, A^n = a(n)(A - I_3) + I_3. - Nicolas Patrois, Jul 05 2017

The binary expansion of a(n) (n >= 1) consists of n 1's alternating with n - 1 0's. Example: a(4) = 85 = 1010101_2. - Emeric Deutsch, Aug 30 2017

a(n) (n >= 1) is the viabin number of the integer partition [n, n - 1, n - 2, ..., 2, 1] (for the definition of viabin number see comment in A290253). Example: a(4) = 85 = 1010101_2; consequently, the southeast border of the Ferrers board of the corresponding integer partition is ENENENEN, where E = (1, 0), N = (0, 1); this leads to the integer partition [4, 3, 2, 1]. - Emeric Deutsch, Aug 30 2017

Numbers whose binary and Gray-code representations are both palindromes (i.e., intersection of A006995 and A281379). - Amiram Eldar, May 17 2021

Starting with n = 1 the sequence satisfies {a(n) mod 6} = repeat{1, 5, 3}. - Wolfdieter Lang, Jan 14 2022

Terms >= 5 are those q for which the multiplicative order of 2 mod q is floor(log_2(q)) + 2 (and which is 1 more than the smallest possible order for any q). - Tim Seuré, Mar 09 2024

The order of 2 modulo a(n) is 2*n for n >= 2. - Joerg Arndt, Mar 09 2024

REFERENCES

A. Fletcher, J. C. P. Miller, L. Rosenhead and L. J. Comrie, An Index of Mathematical Tables. Vols. 1 and 2, 2nd ed., Blackwell, Oxford and Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1962, Vol. 1, p. 112.

J. Riordan, Combinatorial Identities, Wiley, 1968, p. 217.

N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

LINKS

T. D. Noe, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..200

Peter Bala, A characterization of A002450, A020988 and A080674.

Henry Bottomley, Illustration of initial terms

Sung-Hyuk Cha, On Complete and Size Balanced k-ary Tree Integer Sequences, International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Issue 2, Volume 6, 2012, pp. 67-75. - From N. J. A. Sloane, Dec 24 2012

Robert Coquereaux and Jean-Bernard Zuber, Counting partitions by genus. II. A compendium of results, arXiv:2305.01100 [math.CO], 2023. See p. 8.

Carlos M. da Fonseca and Anthony G. Shannon, A formal operator involving Fermatian numbers, Notes Num. Theor. Disc. Math. (2024) Vol. 30, No. 3, 491-498.

D. Dumont, Interprétations combinatoires des nombres de Genocchi, Duke Math. J., 41 (1974), 305-318. (Annotated scanned copy)

David Eppstein, Making Change in 2048, arXiv:1804.07396 [cs.DM], 2018.

C. Ernst and D. W. Sumners, The Growth of the Number of Prime Knots, Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 102, 303-315, 1987

Ernesto Estrada and José A. de la Peña, Integer sequences from walks in graphs, Notes on Number Theory and Discrete Mathematics, Vol. 19, 2013, No. 3, 78-84.

Rigoberto Flórez, Robinson A. Higuita, and Antara Mukherjee, Alternating Sums in the Hosoya Polynomial Triangle, Article 14.9.5 Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 17 (2014).

Enrico Formenti and Luca Mariot, Exhaustive Generation of Linear Orthogonal CA, Automata 2023, Univ. Twente (Netherlands), see p. 22 of 38.

Mattia Fregola, Elementary Cellular Automata Rule 1 generating OEIS sequence A277799, A058896, A141725, A002450

A. Frosini and S. Rinaldi, On the Sequence A079500 and Its Combinatorial Interpretations, J. Integer Seq., Vol. 9 (2006), Article 06.3.1.

Andreas M. Hinz and Paul K. Stockmeyer, Precious Metal Sequences and Sierpinski-Type Graphs, J. Integer Seq., Vol 25 (2022), Article 22.4.8.

INRIA Algorithms Project, Encyclopedia of Combinatorial Structures 373

Petro Kosobutskyy, Anastasiia Yedyharova, and Taras Slobodzyan, From Newton's binomial and Pascal's triangle to Collatz's problem, Comp. Des. Sys., Theor. Practice (2023) Vol. 5, No. 1, 121-127.

Wolfdieter Lang, Notes on certain inhomogeneous three term recurrences.

J. V. Leyendekkers and A.G. Shannon, Modular Rings and the Integer 3, Notes on Number Theory & Discrete Mathematics, 17 (2011), 47-51.

Luca Mariot, Cryptography by Cellular Automata, 2017.

Luca Mariot, Orthogonal labelings in de Bruijn graphs, IWOCA 2020 - Open Problems Session, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands).

Luca Mariot, Connections between Latin squares, Cellular Automata and Coprime Polynomials, Univ. Twente (Netherlands, 2023). See p. 16/37.

Luca Mariot and Enrico Formenti, The number of coprime/non-coprime pairs of polynomials over F_2 with degree n and nonzero constant term.

Luca Mariot, Enrico Formenti and Alberto Leporati, Constructing Orthogonal Latin Squares from Linear Cellular Automata. In: Exploratory papers of AUTOMATA 2016.

Luca Mariot, Maximilien Gadouleau, Enrico Formenti, and Alberto Leporati, Mutually Orthogonal Latin Squares based on Cellular Automata, arXiv:1906.08249 [cs.DM], 2019.

Luca Mariot, Counting Coprime Polynomials over Finite Fields with Formal Languages and Compositions of Natural Numbers, Univ. Twente (Netherlands 2023). See p. 11.

Mircea Merca, A Note on Cosine Power Sums J. Integer Sequences, Vol. 15 (2012), Article 12.5.3.

Mező István, Several Generating Functions for Second-Order Recurrence Sequences , JIS 12 (2009) 09.3.7.

Simon Plouffe, Approximations de séries génératrices et quelques conjectures, Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992; arXiv:0911.4975 [math.NT], 2009.

Simon Plouffe, 1031 Generating Functions, Appendix to Thesis, Montreal, 1992.

Kalika Prasad, Munesh Kumari, Rabiranjan Mohanta, and Hrishikesh Mahato, The sequence of higher order Mersenne numbers and associated binomial transforms, arXiv:2307.08073 [math.NT], 2023.

A. G. Shannon, Some recurrence relations for binary sequence matrices, NNTDM 17 (2011), 4, 913. - From N. J. A. Sloane, Jun 13 2012

T. N. Thiele, Interpolationsrechnung, Teubner, Leipzig, 1909, p. 35.

Wikipedia, Elementary cellular automaton

Wikipedia, Lucas sequence: Specific names.

Michael Williams, Collatz conjecture: an order isomorphic recursive machine, ResearchGate (2024). See pp. 8, 13.

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (5,-4).

FORMULA

From Wolfdieter Lang, Apr 24 2001: (Start)

a(n+1) = Sum_{m = 0..n} A060921(n, m).

G.f.: x/((1-x)*(1-4*x)). (End)

a(n) = Sum_{k = 0..n-1} 4^k; a(n) = A001045(2*n). - Paul Barry, Mar 17 2003

E.g.f.: (exp(4*x) - exp(x))/3. - Paul Barry, Mar 28 2003

a(n) = (A007583(n) - 1)/2. - N. J. A. Sloane, May 16 2003

a(n) = A000975(2*n)/2. - N. J. A. Sloane, Sep 13 2003

a(n) = A084160(n)/2. - N. J. A. Sloane, Sep 13 2003

a(n+1) = 4*a(n) + 1, with a(0) = 0. - Philippe Deléham, Feb 25 2004

a(n) = Sum_{i = 0..n-1} C(2*n - 1 - i, i)*2^i. - Mario Catalani (mario.catalani(AT)unito.it), Jul 23 2004

a(n+1) = Sum_{k = 0..n} binomial(n+1, k+1)*3^k. - Paul Barry, Aug 20 2004

a(n) = center term in M^n * [1 0 0], where M is the 3 X 3 matrix [1 1 1 / 1 3 1 / 1 1 1]. M^n * [1 0 0] = [A007583(n-1) a(n) A007583(n-1)]. E.g., a(4) = 85 since M^4 * [1 0 0] = [43 85 43] = [A007583(3) a(4) A007583(3)]. - Gary W. Adamson, Dec 18 2004

a(n) = Sum_{k = 0..n, j = 0..n} C(n, j)*C(j, k)*A001045(j - k). - Paul Barry, Feb 15 2005

a(n) = Sum_{k = 0..n} C(n, k)*A001045(n-k)*2^k = Sum_{k = 0..n} C(n, k)*A001045(k)*2^(n-k). - Paul Barry, Apr 22 2005

a(n) = A125118(n, 3) for n > 2. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 21 2006

a(n) = Sum_{k = 0..n} 2^(n - k)*A128908(n, k), n >= 1. - Philippe Deléham, Oct 19 2008

If we define f(m, j, x) = Sum_{k = j..m} binomial(m, k)*stirling2(k, j)*x^(m - k) then a(n-1) = f(2*n, 4, -2), n >= 2. - Milan Janjic, Apr 26 2009

a(n) = 4*a(n-1) + a(n-2) - 4*a(n-3) = 5*a(n-1) - 4*a(n-2), a(0) = 0, a(1) = 1, a(2) = 5. - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 18 2010

a(0) = 0, a(n+1) = a(n) + 2^(2*n). - Washington Bomfim, Jan 21 2011

A036555(a(n)) = 2*n. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Jan 28 2011

a(n) = Sum_{k = 1..floor((n+2)/3)} C(2*n + 1, n + 2 - 3*k). - Mircea Merca, Jun 25 2011

a(n) = Sum_{i = 1..n} binomial(2*n + 1, 2*i)/3. - Wesley Ivan Hurt, Mar 14 2015

a(n+1) = 2^(2*n) + a(n), a(0) = 0. - Ben Paul Thurston, Dec 27 2015

a(k*n)/a(n) = 1 + 4^n + ... + 4^((k-1)*n). - Gregory L. Simay, Jun 09 2016

Dirichlet g.f.: (PolyLog(s, 4) - zeta(s))/3. - Ilya Gutkovskiy, Jun 26 2016

A000120(a(n)) = n. - André Dalwigk, Mar 26 2018

a(m) divides a(m*n), in particular: a(2*n) == 0 (mod 5), a(3*n) == 0 (mod 3*7), a(5*n) == 0 (mod 11*31), etc. - M. F. Hasler, Oct 19 2018

a(n) = 4^(n-1) + a(n-1). - Bob Selcoe, Jan 01 2020

a(n) = A000225(2*n)/3. - John Keith, Jan 22 2022

EXAMPLE

Apply Collatz iteration to 9: 9, 28, 14, 7, 22, 11, 34, 17, 52, 26, 13, 40, 20, 10, 5 and hence 16, 8, 4, 2, 1.

Apply Collatz iteration to 27: 27, 82, 41, 124, 62, 31, 94, 47, 142, 71, 214, 107, 322, 161, 484, 242, 121, 364, 182, 91, 274, 137, 412, 206, 103, 310, 155, 466, 233, 700, 350, 175, 526, 263, 790, 395, 1186, 593, 1780, 890, 445, 1336, 668, 334, 167, 502, 251, 754, 377, 1132, 566, 283, 850, 425, 1276, 638, 319, 958, 479, 1438, 719, 2158, 1079, 3238, 1619, 4858, 2429, 7288, 3644, 1822, 911, 2734, 1367, 4102, 2051, 6154, 3077, 9232, 4616, 2308, 1154, 577, 1732, 866, 433, 1300, 650, 325, 976, 488, 244, 122, 61, 184, 92, 46, 23, 70, 35, 106, 53, 160, 80, 40, 20, 10, 5 and hence 16, 8, 4, 2, 1. [Corrected by Sean A. Irvine at the suggestion of Stephen Cornelius, Mar 04 2024]

a(5) = (4^5 - 1)/3 = 341 = 11111_4 = {(2^5 - 1) * (2^5 + 1)}/3 = 31 * 33/3 = 31 * 11. - Bernard Schott, Apr 29 2017

MAPLE

[seq((4^n-1)/3, n=0..40)];

A002450:=1/(4*z-1)/(z-1); # Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation, dropping the initial zero

MATHEMATICA

Table[(4^n - 1)/3, {n, 0, 127}] (* Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Sep 29 2008 *)

LinearRecurrence[{5, -4}, {0, 1}, 30] (* Harvey P. Dale, Jun 23 2013 *)

PROG

(Magma) [ (4^n-1)/3: n in [0..25] ]; // Klaus Brockhaus, Oct 28 2008

(Magma) [n le 2 select n-1 else 5*Self(n-1)-4*Self(n-2): n in [1..70]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Jun 13 2015

(PARI) a(n) = (4^n-1)/3;

(PARI) my(z='z+O('z^40)); Vec(z/((1-z)*(1-4*z))) \\ Altug Alkan, Oct 11 2015

(Haskell)

a002450 = (`div` 3) . a024036

a002450_list = iterate ((+ 1) . (* 4)) 0

-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Oct 03 2012

(Maxima) makelist((4^n-1)/3, n, 0, 30); /* Martin Ettl, Nov 05 2012 */

(GAP) List([0..25], n -> (4^n-1)/3); # Muniru A Asiru, Feb 18 2018

(Scala) ((List.fill(20)(4: BigInt)).scanLeft(1: BigInt)(_ * _)).scanLeft(0: BigInt)(_ + _) // Alonso del Arte, Sep 17 2019

(Python)

def A002450(n): return ((1<<(n<<1))-1)//3 # Chai Wah Wu, Jan 29 2023

CROSSREFS

Partial sums of powers of 4, A000302.

When converted to binary, this gives A094028.

Subsequence of A003714.

Primitive factors: A129735.

KEYWORD

nonn,easy,nice

AUTHOR

STATUS

approved