

A005563


a(n) = n*(n+2) = (n+1)^2  1.
(Formerly M2720)


286



0, 3, 8, 15, 24, 35, 48, 63, 80, 99, 120, 143, 168, 195, 224, 255, 288, 323, 360, 399, 440, 483, 528, 575, 624, 675, 728, 783, 840, 899, 960, 1023, 1088, 1155, 1224, 1295, 1368, 1443, 1520, 1599, 1680, 1763, 1848, 1935, 2024, 2115, 2208, 2303, 2400, 2499, 2600
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OFFSET

0,2


COMMENTS

Erdős conjectured that n^2  1 = k! has a solution if and only if n is 5, 11 or 71 (when k is 4, 5 or 7).
Secondorder linear recurrences y(m) = 2y(m1) + a(n)*y(m2), y(0) = y(1) = 1, have closed form solutions involving only powers of integers.  Len Smiley, Dec 08 2001
Number of edges in the join of two cycle graphs, both of order n, C_n * C_n.  Roberto E. Martinez II, Jan 07 2002
Let k be a positive integer, M_n be the n X n matrix m_(i,j) = k^abs(ij) then det(M_n) = (1)^(n1)*a(k1)^(n1).  Benoit Cloitre, May 28 2002
Also numbers n such that 4n + 4 is a square.  Cino Hilliard, Dec 18 2003
The function sqrt(x^2 + 1), starting with 1, produces an integer after n(n+2) iterations.  Gerald McGarvey, Aug 19 2004
a(n) is the number of divisors of a(n+1) that are not greater than n.  Reinhard Zumkeller, Apr 09 2007
Nonnegative X values of solutions to the equation X^3 + X^2 = Y^2. To find Y values: b(n) = n(n+1)(n+2).  Mohamed Bouhamida, Nov 06 2007
Sequence allows us to find X values of the equation: X + (X + 1)^2 + (X + 2)^3 = Y^2. To prove that X = n^2 + 2n: Y^2 = X + (X + 1)^2 + (X + 2)^3 = X^3 + 7*X^2 + 15X + 9 = (X + 1)(X^2 + 6X + 9) = (X + 1)*(X + 3)^2 it means: (X + 1) must be a perfect square, so X = k^2  1 with k>=1. we can put: k = n + 1, which gives: X = n^2 + 2n and Y = (n + 1)(n^2 + 2n + 3).  Mohamed Bouhamida, Nov 12 2007
Toads and Frogs puzzle:
This is also the number of moves that it takes n frogs to swap places with n toads on a strip of 2n + 1 squares (or positions, or lily pads) where a move is a single slide or jump, illustrated for n = 2, a(n) = 8 by
T T  F F
T  T F F
T F T  F
T F T F 
T F  F T
 F T F T
F  T F T
F F T  T
F F  T T
I was alerted to this by the Holton article, but on consulting Singmaster's sources, I find that the puzzle goes back at least to 1867.
Probably the first to publish the number of moves for n of each animal was Edouard Lucas in 1883. (End)
Final digit belongs to a periodic sequence: 0, 3, 8, 5, 4, 5, 8, 3, 0, 9.  Mohamed Bouhamida, Sep 04 2009 [Comment edited by N. J. A. Sloane, Sep 24 2009]
Let f(x) be a polynomial in x. Then f(x + n*f(x)) is congruent to 0 (mod(f(x)); here n belongs to N. There is nothing interesting in the quotients f(x + n*f(x))/f(x) when x belongs to Z. However, when x is irrational these quotients consist of two parts, a) rational integers and b) integer multiples of x. The present sequence represents the noninteger part when the polynomial is x^2 + x + 1 and x = sqrt(2), f(x+n*f(x))/f(x) = A056108(n) + a(n)*sqrt(2).  A.K. Devaraj, Sep 18 2009
For n >= 1, a(n) is the number for which 1/a(n) = 0.0101... (A000035) in base (n+1).  Rick L. Shepherd, Sep 27 2009
For n > 0, continued fraction [n, 1, n] = (n+1)/a(n); e.g., [6, 1, 6] = 7/48.  Gary W. Adamson, Jul 15 2010
Starting (3, 8, 15, ...) = binomial transform of [3, 5, 2, 0, 0, 0, ...]; e.g., a(3) = 15 = (1*3 + 2*5 +1*2) = (3 + 10 + 2).  Gary W. Adamson, Jul 30 2010
a(n) is essentially the case 0 of the polygonal numbers. The polygonal numbers are defined as P_k(n) = Sum_{i=1..n} ((k2)*i(k3)). Thus P_0(n) = 2*nn^2 and a(n) = P_0(n+2). See also A067998 and for the case k=1 A080956.  Peter Luschny, Jul 08 2011
a(n) is the maximal determinant of a 2 X 2 matrix with integer elements from {1, ..., n+1}, so the maximum determinant of a 2x2 matrix with integer elements from {1, ..., 5} = 5^2  1 = a(4) = 24.  Aldo González Lorenzo, Oct 12 2011
Using four consecutive triangular numbers t1, t2, t3 and t4, plot the points (0, 0), (t1, t2), and (t3, t4) to create a triangle. Twice the area of this triangle are the numbers in this sequence beginning with n = 1 to give 8.  J. M. Bergot, May 03 2012
Given a particle with spin S = n/2 (always a halfinteger value), the quantummechanical expectation value of the square of the magnitude of its spin vector evaluates to <S^2> = S(S+1) = n(n+2)/4, i.e., one quarter of a(n) with n = 2S. This plays an important role in the theory of magnetism and magnetic resonance.  Stanislav Sykora, May 26 2012
Twice the harmonic mean [H(x, y) = (2*x*y)/(x + y)] of consecutive triangular numbers A000217(n) and A000217(n+1).  Raphie Frank, Sep 28 2012
Number m such that floor(sqrt(m)) = floor(m/floor(sqrt(m)))  2 for m > 0.  Takumi Sato, Oct 10 2012
The solutions of equation 1/(i  sqrt(j)) = i + sqrt(j), when i = (n+1), j = a(n). For n = 1, 2 + sqrt(3) = 3.732050.. = A019973. For n = 2, 3 + sqrt(8) = 5.828427... = A156035.  Kival Ngaokrajang, Sep 07 2013
The integers in the closed form solution of a(n) = 2*a(n1) + a(m2)*a(n2), n >= 2, a(0) = 0, a(1) = 1 mentioned by Len Smiley, Dec 08 2001, are m and m + 2 where m >= 3 is a positive integer.  Felix P. Muga II, Mar 18 2014
Let m >= 3 be a positive integer. If a(n) = 2*a(n1) + a(m2) * a(n2), n >= 2, a(0) = 0, a(1) = 1, then lim_{n>infinity} a(n+1)/a(n) = m.  Felix P. Muga II, Mar 18 2014
For n >= 4 the Szeged index of the wheel graph W_n (with n + 1 vertices). In the Sarma et al. reference, Theorem 2.7 is incorrect.  Emeric Deutsch, Aug 07 2014
If P_{k}(n) is the nth kgonal number, then a(n) = t*P_{s}(n+2)  s*P_{t}(n+2) for s=t+1.  Bruno Berselli, Sep 04 2014
For n >= 1, a(n) is the dimension of the simple Lie algebra A_n.  Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 21 2015
Finding all positive integers (n, k) such that n^2  1 = k! is known as Brocard's problem, (see A085692).  David Covert, Jan 15 2016
For n > 0, a(n) mod (n+1) = a(n) / (n+1) = n.  Torlach Rush, Apr 04 2016
Conjecture: When using the Sieve of Eratosthenes and sieving (n+1..a(n)), with divisors (1..n) and n>0, there will be no more than a(n1) composite numbers.  Fred Daniel Kline, Apr 08 2016
a(n) mod 8 is periodic with period 4 repeating (0,3,0,7), that is a(n) mod 8 = 5/2  (5/2) cos(n*Pi)  sin(n*Pi/2) + sin(3*n*Pi/2).  Andres Cicuttin, Jun 02 2016
Also for n>0, a(n) is the number of times that n1 occurs among the first (n+1)! terms of A055881.  R. J. Cano, Dec 21 2016
The second diagonal of composites (the only prime is number 3) from the right on the Klauber triangle (see Kival Ngaokrajang link), which is formed by taking the positive integers and taking the first 1, the next 3, the following 5, and so on, each centered below the last.  Charles Kusniec, Jul 03 2017
Also the number of independent vertex sets in the nbarbell graph.  Eric W. Weisstein, Aug 16 2017
a(n) is the number of degrees of freedom in a triangular cell for a RaviartThomas or Nédélec first kind finite element space of order n.  Matthew Scroggs, Apr 22 2020
For n > 1, a(n2) is the maximum number of elements in the second stage of the QuineMcCluskey algorithm whose minterms are not covered by the functions of n bits. At n=3, we have a(32) = a(1) = 1*(1+2) = 3 and f(A,B,C) = sigma(0,1,2,5,6,7).
.
0 1 2 5 6 7
+
*(0,1) X X
(0,2) X X
(1,5) X X
*(2,6) X X
*(5,7) X X
(6,7) X X
.
*: represents the elements that are covered. (End)
1/a(n) is the ratio of the sum of the first k odd numbers and the sum of the next n*k odd numbers.  Melvin Peralta, Jul 15 2021
For n >= 1, the continued fraction expansion of sqrt(a(n)) is [n; {1, 2n}].  Magus K. Chu, Sep 09 2022


REFERENCES

E. R. Berlekamp, J. H. Conway and R. K. Guy, Winning Ways, Academic Press, NY, 2 vols., 1982, see index under Toads and Frogs Puzzle.
Martin Gardner, Perplexing Puzzles and Tantalizing Teasers, page 21 (for "The Dime and Penny Switcheroo")
R. K. Guy, Unsolved Problems in Theory of Numbers, Section D25.
Derek Holton, Math in School, 37 #1 (Jan 2008) 2022.
Edouard Lucas, Récréations Mathématiques, GauthierVillars, Vol. 2 (1883) 141143.
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).


LINKS



FORMULA

a(n) = (n! + (n+1)!)/(n1)!, n>0.  Gary Detlefs, Aug 10 2009
a(n) = floor(n^5/(n^3+1)) with offset 1 (a(1)=0).  Gary Detlefs, Feb 11 2010
a(n) = 2/(Integral_{x=0..Pi/2} (sin(x))^(n1)*(cos(x))^3), for n>0.  Francesco Daddi, Aug 02 2011
G.f.: U(0) where U(k)= 1 + (k+1)^2/(1  x/(x + (k+1)^2/U(k+1))) ; (continued fraction, 3step).  Sergei N. Gladkovskii, Oct 19 2012
a(n) = 15*C(n+4,3)*C(n+4,5)/(C(n+4,2)*C(n+4,4)).  Gary Detlefs, Aug 05 2013
For n >= 1, a(n^2 + n  2) = a(n1) * a(n).  Miko Labalan, Oct 15 2017
Sum_{n>=1} (1)^(n+1)/a(n) = 1/4.  Amiram Eldar, Nov 04 2020
Product_{n>=1} (1 + 1/a(n)) = 2.
Product_{n>=1} (1  1/a(n)) = sqrt(2)*sin(sqrt(2)*Pi)/Pi. (End)


EXAMPLE

G.f. = 3*x + 8*x^2 + 15*x^3 + 24*x^4 + 35*x^5 + 48*x^6 + 63*x^7 + 80*x^8 + ...


MATHEMATICA

ListCorrelate[{1, 2}, Range[1, 50], {1, 1}, 0, Plus, Times] (* Harvey P. Dale, Aug 29 2015 *)
LinearRecurrence[{3, 3, 1}, {3, 8, 15}, {0, 20}] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Aug 16 2017 *)
CoefficientList[Series[((3 + x) x)/(1 + x)^3, {x, 0, 20}], x] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Aug 16 2017 *)


PROG

(PARI) concat(0, Vec(x*(3x)/(1x)^3 + O(x^90))) \\ Altug Alkan, Oct 22 2015
(Maxima) makelist(n*(n+2), n, 0, 56); /* Martin Ettl, Oct 15 2012 */
(Haskell)
a005563 n = n * (n + 2)


CROSSREFS

a(n+1), n>=2, first column of triangle A120070.


KEYWORD

nonn,easy


AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS



STATUS

approved



