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A014105 Second hexagonal numbers: a(n) = n*(2*n + 1). 179
0, 3, 10, 21, 36, 55, 78, 105, 136, 171, 210, 253, 300, 351, 406, 465, 528, 595, 666, 741, 820, 903, 990, 1081, 1176, 1275, 1378, 1485, 1596, 1711, 1830, 1953, 2080, 2211, 2346, 2485, 2628, 2775, 2926, 3081, 3240, 3403, 3570, 3741, 3916, 4095, 4278 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

Note that when starting from a(n)^2, equality holds between series of first n+1 and next n consecutive squares: a(n)^2 + (a(n) + 1)^2 + ... + (a(n) + n)^2 = (a(n) + n + 1)^2 + (a(n) + n + 2)^2 + ... + (a(n) + 2*n)^2; e.g., 10^2 + 11^2 + 12^2 = 13^2 + 14^2. - Henry Bottomley, Jan 22 2001; with typos fixed by Zak Seidov, Sep 10 2015

a(n) = sum of second set of n consecutive even numbers - sum of the first set of n consecutive odd numbers: a(1) = 4-1, a(3) = (8+10+12) - (1+3+5) = 21. - Amarnath Murthy, Nov 07 2002

Partial sums of odd numbers 3 mod 4, that is, 3, 3+7, 3+7+11, ... See A001107. - Jon Perry, Dec 18 2004

If Y is a fixed 3-subset of a (2n+1)-set X then a(n) is the number of (2n-1)-subsets of X intersecting Y. - Milan Janjic, Oct 28 2007

More generally (see the first comment), for n > 0, let b(n,k) = a(n) + k*(4*n + 1). Then b(n,k)^2 + (b(n,k) + 1)^2 + ... + (b(n,k) + n)^2 = (b(n,k) + n + 1 + 2*k)^2 + ... + (b(n,k) + 2*n + 2*k)^2 + k^2; e.g., if n = 3 and k = 2, then b(n,k) = 47 and 47^2 + ... + 50^2 = 55^2 + ... + 57^2 + 2^2. - Charlie Marion, Jan 01 2011

Sequence found by reading the line from 0, in the direction 0, 10, ..., and the line from 3, in the direction 3, 21, ..., in the square spiral whose vertices are the triangular numbers A000217. - Omar E. Pol, Nov 09 2011

a(n) is the number of positions of a domino in a pyramidal board with base 2n+1. - César Eliud Lozada, Sep 26 2012

Differences of row sums of two consecutive rows of triangle A120070, i.e., first differences of A016061. - J. M. Bergot, Jun 14 2013. In other words, the partial sum of this series give A016061. - Leo Tavares, Nov 23 2021

a(n)*Pi is the total length of half circle spiral after n rotations. See illustration in links. - Kival Ngaokrajang, Nov 05 2013

For corresponding sums in first comment by Henry Bottomley, see A059255. - Zak Seidov, Sep 10 2015

a(n) also gives the dimension of the simple Lie algebras B_n (n >= 2) and C_n (n >= 3). - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 21 2015

With T_(i+1,i)=a(i+1) and all other elements of the lower triangular matrix T zero, T is the infinitesimal generator for unsigned A130757, analogous to A132440 for the Pascal matrix. - Tom Copeland, Dec 13 2015

Partial sums of squares with alternating signs, ending in an even term: a(n) = 0^2 - 1^2 +- ... + (2*n)^2, cf. Example & Formula from Berselli, 2013. - M. F. Hasler, Jul 03 2018

Also numbers k with the property that in the symmetric representation of sigma(k) the smallest Dyck path has a central peak and the largest Dyck path has a central valley, n > 0. (Cf. A237593.) - Omar E. Pol, Aug 28 2018

a(n) is the area of a triangle with vertices at (0,0), (2*n+1, 2*n), and ((2*n+1)^2, 4*n^2). - Art Baker, Dec 12 2018

This sequence is the largest subsequence of A000217 such that gcd(a(n), 2*n) = a(n) mod (2*n) = n, n > 0 up to a given value of n. It is the interleave of A033585 (a(n) is even) and A033567 (a(n) is odd). - Torlach Rush, Sep 09 2019

A generalization of Hasler's Comment (Jul 03 2018) follows. Let P(k,n) be the n-th k-gonal number. Then for k > 1, partial sums of {P(k,n)} with alternating signs, ending in an even term, = n*((k-2)*n + 1). - Charlie Marion, Mar 02 2021

Let U_n(H) = {A in M_n(H): A*A^H = I_n} be the group of n X n unitary matrices over the quaternions (A^H is the conjugate transpose of A. Note that over the quaternions we still have A*A^H = I_n <=> A^H*A = I_n by mapping A and A^H to (2n) X (2n) complex matrices), then a(n) is the dimension of its Lie algebra u_n(H) = {A in M_n(H): A + A^H = 0} as a real vector space. A basis is given by {(E_{st}-E_{ts}), i*(E_{st}+E_{ts}), j*(E_{st}+E_{ts}), k*(E_{st}+E_{ts}): 1 <= s < t <= n} U {i*E_{tt}, j*E_{tt}, k*E_{tt}: t = 1..n}, where E_{st} is the matrix with all entries zero except that its (st)-entry is 1. - Jianing Song, Apr 05 2021

REFERENCES

Louis Comtet, Advanced Combinatorics, Reidel, 1974, pp. 77-78. (In the integral formula on p. 77 a left bracket is missing for the cosine argument.)

LINKS

Reinhard Zumkeller, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..10000

Guo-Niu Han, Enumeration of Standard Puzzles, 2011. [Cached copy]

Guo-Niu Han, Enumeration of Standard Puzzles, arXiv:2006.14070 [math.CO], 2020.

Milan Janjic, Two Enumerative Functions, University of Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2017).

Ângela Mestre and José Agapito, Square Matrices Generated by Sequences of Riordan Arrays, J. Int. Seq., Vol. 22 (2019), Article 19.8.4.

Kival Ngaokrajang, Illustration of half circle spiral.

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, The groupoids of Mersenne, Fermat, Cullen, Woodall and other Numbers and their representations by means of integer sequences, Politecnico di Torino, Italy (2019).

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, The groupoid of the Triangular Numbers and the generation of related integer sequences, Politecnico di Torino, Italy (2019).

Leo Tavares, Illustration: Squared Hexagons.

Index entries for two-way infinite sequences

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (3,-3,1).

FORMULA

a(n) = 3*Sum_{k=1..n} tan^2(k*Pi/(2*(n + 1))). - Ignacio Larrosa Cañestro, Apr 17 2001

a(n)^2 = n*(a(n) + 1 + a(n) + 2 + ... + a(n) + 2*n); e.g., 10^2 = 2*(11 + 12 + 13 + 14). - Charlie Marion, Jun 15 2003

From N. J. A. Sloane, Sep 13 2003: (Start)

G.f.: x*(3 + x)/(1 - x)^3.

E.g.f.: exp(x)*(3*x + 2*x^2).

a(n) = A000217(2*n) = A000384(-n). (End)

a(n) = A084849(n) - 1; A100035(a(n) + 1) = 1. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Oct 31 2004

a(n) = A126890(n, k) + A126890(n, n-k), 0 <= k <= n. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Dec 30 2006

a(2*n) = A033585(n); a(3*n) = A144314(n). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Sep 17 2008

a(n) = a(n-1) + 4*n - 1 (with a(0) = 0). - Vincenzo Librandi, Dec 24 2010

a(n) = Sum_{k=0.2*n} (-1)^k*k^2. - Bruno Berselli, Aug 29 2013

a(n) = A242342(2*n + 1). - Reinhard Zumkeller, May 11 2014

a(n) = Sum_{k=0..2} C(n-2+k, n-2) * C(n+2-k, n), for n > 1. - J. M. Bergot, Jun 14 2014

a(n) = floor(Sum_{j=(n^2 + 1)..((n+1)^2 - 1)} sqrt(j)). Fractional portion of each sum converges to 1/6 as n -> infinity. See A247112 for a similar summation sequence on j^(3/2) and references to other such sequences. - Richard R. Forberg, Dec 02 2014

a(n) = 3*a(n-1) - 3*a(n-2) + a(n-3) for n >= 3, with a(0) = 0, a(1) = 3, and a(2) = 10. - Harvey P. Dale, Feb 10 2015

Sum_{n >= 1} 1/a(n) = 2*(1 - log(2)) = 0.61370563888010938... (A188859). - Vaclav Kotesovec, Apr 27 2016

From  Wolfdieter Lang, Apr 27 2018: (Start)

a(n) = trinomial(2*n, 2) = trinomial(2*n, 2*(2*n-1)), for n >= 1, with the trinomial irregular triangle A027907; i.e., trinomial(n,k) = A027907(n,k).

a(n) = (1/Pi) * Integral_{x=0..2} (1/sqrt(4 - x^2)) * (x^2 - 1)^(2*n) * R(4*(n-1), x), for n >= 0, with the R polynomial coefficients given in A127672, and R(-m, x) = R(m, x). [See Comtet, p. 77, the integral formula for q = 3, n -> 2*n, k = 2, rewritten with x = 2*cos(phi).] (End)

a(n) = A002943(n)/2. - Ralf Steiner, Jul 23 2019

a(n) = A000290(n) + A002378(n). - Torlach Rush, Nov 02 2020

a(n) = A003215(n) - A000290(n+1). See Squared Hexagons illustration. Leo Tavares, Nov 23 2021

Sum_{n>=1} (-1)^(n+1)/a(n) = Pi/2 + log(2) - 2. - Amiram Eldar, Nov 28 2021

EXAMPLE

For n=6, a(6) = 0^2 - 1^2 + 2^2 - 3^2 + 4^2 - 5^2 + 6^2 - 7^2 + 8^2 - 9^2 + 10^2 - 11^2 + 12^2 = 78. - Bruno Berselli, Aug 29 2013

MAPLE

seq(binomial(2*n+1, 2), n=0..46); # Zerinvary Lajos, Jan 21 2007

MATHEMATICA

Table[n*(2*n+1), {n, 0, 100}] (* Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Nov 16 2008 *)

LinearRecurrence[{3, -3, 1}, {0, 3, 10}, 50] (* Harvey P. Dale, Feb 10 2015 *)

CoefficientList[Series[x*(3 + x)/(1 - x)^3, {x, 0, 50}], x] (* Stefano Spezia, Sep 02 2018 *)

PROG

(PARI) a(n)=n*(2*n+1)

(Haskell)

a014105 n = n * (2 * n + 1)

a014105_list = scanl (+) 0 a004767_list  -- Reinhard Zumkeller, Oct 03 2012

(MAGMA) [ n*(2*n+1) : n in [0..50] ]; // Wesley Ivan Hurt, Jun 14 2014

(GAP) List([0..50], n->n*(2*n+1)); # Muniru A Asiru, Oct 31 2018

(Sage) [n*(2*n+1) for n in range(50)] # G. C. Greubel, Dec 16 2018

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000217, A000290, A000384, A002378, A002943, A100040, A100041, A081266, A144312.

Cf. A033567, A033585, A059255, A130757, A132440, A027907.

Second column of array A094416.

Equals A033586(n) divided by 4.

See Comments of A132124.

Second n-gonal numbers: A005449, A147875, A045944, A179986, A033954, A062728, A135705.

Row sums in triangle A253580.

Cf. A016061, A003215, A000290, A188859.

Sequence in context: A289183 A194141 A281153 * A146012 A027917 A038347

Adjacent sequences:  A014102 A014103 A014104 * A014106 A014107 A014108

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane, Jun 14 1998

EXTENSIONS

Link added and minor errors corrected by Johannes W. Meijer, Feb 04 2010

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 20 08:18 EDT 2022. Contains 353852 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)