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A016754 Odd squares: a(n) = (2n+1)^2. Also centered octagonal numbers. 291
1, 9, 25, 49, 81, 121, 169, 225, 289, 361, 441, 529, 625, 729, 841, 961, 1089, 1225, 1369, 1521, 1681, 1849, 2025, 2209, 2401, 2601, 2809, 3025, 3249, 3481, 3721, 3969, 4225, 4489, 4761, 5041, 5329, 5625, 5929, 6241, 6561, 6889, 7225, 7569 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,2
COMMENTS
The brown rat (rattus norwegicus) breeds very quickly. It can give birth to other rats 7 times a year, starting at the age of three months. The average number of pups is 8. The present sequence gives the total number of rats, when the intervals are 12/7 of a year and a young rat starts having offspring at 24/7 of a year. - Hans Isdahl, Jan 26 2008
Numbers n such that tau(n) is odd where tau(x) denotes the Ramanujan tau function (A000594). - Benoit Cloitre, May 01 2003
If Y is a fixed 2-subset of a (2n+1)-set X then a(n-1) is the number of 3-subsets of X intersecting Y. - Milan Janjic, Oct 21 2007
Binomial transform of [1, 8, 8, 0, 0, 0, ...]; Narayana transform (A001263) of [1, 8, 0, 0, 0, ...]. - Gary W. Adamson, Dec 29 2007
All terms of this sequence are of the form 8k+1. For numbers 8k+1 which aren't squares see A138393. Numbers 8k+1 are squares iff k is a triangular number from A000217. And squares have form 4n(n+1)+1. - Artur Jasinski, Mar 27 2008
Sequence arises from reading the line from 1, in the direction 1, 25, ... and the line from 9, in the direction 9, 49, ..., in the square spiral whose vertices are the squares A000290. - Omar E. Pol, May 24 2008
First quadrisection of A061038: A061038(4n). - Paul Curtz, Oct 26 2008
Equals the triangular numbers convolved with [1, 6, 1, 0, 0, 0, ...]. - Gary W. Adamson & Alexander R. Povolotsky, May 29 2009
First differences: A008590(n) = a(n) - a(n-1) for n>0. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 08 2009
Central terms of the triangle in A176271; cf. A000466, A053755. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Apr 13 2010
Odd numbers with odd abundance. Odd numbers with even abundance are in A088828. Even numbers with odd abundance are in A088827. Even numbers with even abundance are in A088829. - Jaroslav Krizek, May 07 2011
Appear as numerators in the non-simple continued fraction expansion of Pi-3: Pi-3 = K_{k>=1} (1-2*k)^2/6 = 1/(6+9/(6+25/(6+49/(6+...)))), see also the comment in A007509. - Alexander R. Povolotsky, Oct 12 2011
Ulam's spiral (SE spoke). - Robert G. Wilson v, Oct 31 2011
All terms end in 1, 5 or 9. Modulo 100, all terms are among { 1, 9, 21, 25, 29, 41, 49, 61, 69, 81, 89 }. - M. F. Hasler, Mar 19 2012
Right edge of both triangles A214604 and A214661: a(n) = A214604(n+1,n+1) = A214661(n+1,n+1). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Jul 25 2012
Also: Odd numbers which have an odd sum of divisors (= sigma = A000203). - M. F. Hasler, Feb 23 2013
Consider primitive Pythagorean triangles (a^2 + b^2 = c^2, gcd(a, b) = 1) with hypotenuse c (A020882) and respective even leg b (A231100); sequence gives values c-b, sorted with duplicates removed. - K. G. Stier, Nov 04 2013
For n>1 a(n) is twice the area of the irregular quadrilateral created by the points ((n-2)*(n-1),(n-1)*n/2), ((n-1)*n/2,n*(n+1)/2), ((n+1)*(n+2)/2,n*(n+1)/2), and ((n+2)*(n+3)/2,(n+1)*(n+2)/2). - J. M. Bergot, May 27 2014
Number of pairs (x, y) of Z^2, such that max(abs(x), abs(y)) <= n. - Michel Marcus, Nov 28 2014
Except for a(1)=4, the number of active (ON,black) cells in n-th stage of growth of two-dimensional cellular automaton defined by "Rule 737", based on the 5-celled von Neumann neighborhood. - Robert Price, May 23 2016
a(n) is the sum of 2n+1 consecutive numbers, the first of which is n+1. - Ivan N. Ianakiev, Dec 21 2016
a(n) is the number of 2 X 2 matrices with all elements in {0..n} with determinant = 2*permanent. - Indranil Ghosh, Dec 25 2016
Engel expansion of Pi*StruveL_0(1)/2 where StruveL_0(1) is A197037. - Benedict W. J. Irwin, Jun 21 2018
Consider all Pythagorean triples (X,Y,Z=Y+1) ordered by increasing Z; the segments on the hypotenuse {p = a(n)/A001844(n), q = A060300(n)/A001844(n) = A001844(n) - p} and their ratio p/q = a(n)/A060300(n) are irreducible fractions in Q\Z. X values are A005408, Y values are A046092, Z values are A001844. - Ralf Steiner, Feb 25 2020
a(n) is the number of large or small squares that are used to tile primitive squares of type 2 (A344332). - Bernard Schott, Jun 03 2021
Also, positive odd integers with an odd number of odd divisors (for similar sequence with 'even', see A348005). - Bernard Schott, Nov 21 2021
a(n) is the least odd number k = x + y, with 0 < x < y, such that there are n distinct pairs (x,y) for which x*y/k is an integer; for example, a(2) = 25 and the two corresponding pairs are (5,20) and (10,15). The similar sequence with 'even' is A016742 (see Comment of Jan 26 2018). - Bernard Schott, Feb 24 2023
REFERENCES
L. Lorentzen and H. Waadeland, Continued Fractions with Applications, North-Holland 1992, p. 586.
LINKS
Paolo Xausa, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..9999 (terms 0..1000 from T. D. Noe)
Jeremiah Bartz, Bruce Dearden and Joel Iiams, Classes of Gap Balancing Numbers, arXiv:1810.07895 [math.NT], 2018.
Bruce C. Berndt and Ken Ono, Ramanujan's unpublished manuscript on the partition and tau functions with proofs and commentary, Séminaire Lotharingien de Combinatoire, B42c (1999), 63 pp.
Scientific American, Cover of the March 1964 issue.
Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, Groupoids of OEIS A002378 and A016754 Numbers (oblong and odd square numbers), Politecnico di Torino (Italy, 2019).
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Moore Neighborhood.
FORMULA
a(n) = 1 + Sum_{i=1..n} 8*i = 1 + 8*A000217(n). - Xavier Acloque, Jan 21 2003; Zak Seidov, May 07 2006; Robert G. Wilson v, Dec 29 2010
O.g.f.: (1+6*x+x^2)/(1-x)^3. - R. J. Mathar, Jan 11 2008
a(n) = 4*n*(n + 1) + 1 = 4*n^2 + 4*n + 1. - Artur Jasinski, Mar 27 2008
Sum_{n>=0} 1/a(n) = Pi^2/8. - Jaume Oliver Lafont, Mar 07 2009
a(n) = A000290(A005408(n)). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 08 2009
a(n) = a(n-1) + 8*n with n>0, a(0)=1. - Vincenzo Librandi, Aug 01 2010
a(n) = A033951(n) + n. - Reinhard Zumkeller, May 17 2009
a(n) = A033996(n) + 1. - Omar E. Pol, Oct 03 2011
a(n) = (A005408(n))^2. - Zak Seidov, Nov 29 2011
From George F. Johnson, Sep 05 2012: (Start)
a(n+1) = a(n) + 4 + 4*sqrt(a(n)).
a(n-1) = a(n) + 4 - 4*sqrt(a(n)).
a(n+1) = 2*a(n) - a(n-1) + 8.
a(n+1) = 3*a(n) - 3*a(n-1) + a(n-2).
(a(n+1) - a(n-1))/8 = sqrt(a(n)).
a(n+1)*a(n-1) = (a(n)-4)^2.
a(n) = 2*A046092(n) + 1 = 2*A001844(n) - 1 = A046092(n) + A001844(n).
Limit_{n -> oo} a(n)/a(n-1) = 1. (End)
a(n) = binomial(2*n+2,2) + binomial(2*n+1,2). - John Molokach, Jul 12 2013
E.g.f.: (1 + 8*x + 4*x^2)*exp(x). - Ilya Gutkovskiy, May 23 2016
a(n) = A101321(8,n). - R. J. Mathar, Jul 28 2016
Product_{n>=1} A033996(n)/a(n) = Pi/4. - Daniel Suteu, Dec 25 2016
a(n) = A014105(n) + A000384(n+1). - Bruce J. Nicholson, Nov 11 2017
a(n) = A003215(n) + A002378(n). - Klaus Purath, Jun 09 2020
From Amiram Eldar, Jun 20 2020: (Start)
Sum_{n>=0} a(n)/n! = 13*e.
Sum_{n>=0} (-1)^(n+1)*a(n)/n! = 3/e. (End)
Sum_{n>=0} (-1)^n/a(n) = A006752. - Amiram Eldar, Oct 10 2020
From Amiram Eldar, Jan 28 2021: (Start)
Product_{n>=0} (1 + 1/a(n)) = cosh(Pi/2).
Product_{n>=1} (1 - 1/a(n)) = Pi/4 (A003881). (End)
From Leo Tavares, Nov 24 2021: (Start)
a(n) = A014634(n) - A002943(n). See Diamond Triangles illustration.
a(n) = A003154(n+1) - A046092(n). See Diamond Stars illustration. (End)
From Peter Bala, Mar 11 2024: (Start)
Sum_{k = 1..n+1} 1/(k*a(k)*a(k-1)) = 1/(9 - 3/(17 - 60/(33 - 315/(57 - ... - n^2*(4*n^2 - 1)/((2*n + 1)^2 + 2*2^2 ))))).
3/2 - 2*log(2) = Sum_{k >= 1} 1/(k*a(k)*a(k-1)) = 1/(9 - 3/(17 - 60/(33 - 315/(57 - ... - n^2*(4*n^2 - 1)/((2*n + 1)^2 + 2*2^2 - ... ))))).
Row 2 of A142992. (End)
From Peter Bala, Mar 26 2024: (Start)
8*a(n) = (2*n + 1)*(a(n+1) - a(n-1)).
Sum_{n >= 0} (-1)^n/(a(n)*a(n+1)) = 1/2 - Pi/8 = 1/(9 + (1*3)/(8 + (3*5)/(8 + ... + (4*n^2 - 1)/(8 + ... )))). For the continued fraction use Lorentzen and Waadeland, p. 586, equation 4.7.9 with n = 1. Cf. A057813. (End)
MATHEMATICA
A016754[nmax_]:=Range[1, 2nmax+1, 2]^2; A016754[100] (* Paolo Xausa, Mar 05 2023 *)
PROG
(PARI) A016754(n)=(n<<1+1)^2 \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Jun 16 2011, corrected and edited by M. F. Hasler, Apr 11 2023
(Haskell)
a016754 n = a016754_list !! n
a016754_list = scanl (+) 1 $ tail a008590_list
-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Apr 02 2012
(Maxima) A016754(n):=(n+n+1)^2$
makelist(A016754(n), n, 0, 20); /* Martin Ettl, Nov 12 2012 */
(Magma) [n^2: n in [1..100 by 2]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Jan 03 2017
(Python)
def A016754(n): return ((n<<1)|1)**2 # Chai Wah Wu, Jul 06 2023
CROSSREFS
Cf. A000447 (partial sums).
Cf. A348005.
Partial sums of A022144.
Sequences on the four axes of the square spiral: Starting at 0: A001107, A033991, A007742, A033954; starting at 1: A054552, A054556, A054567, A033951.
Sequences on the four diagonals of the square spiral: Starting at 0: A002939 = 2*A000384, A016742 = 4*A000290, A002943 = 2*A014105, A033996 = 8*A000217; starting at 1: A054554, A053755, A054569, A016754.
Sequences obtained by reading alternate terms on the X and Y axes and the two main diagonals of the square spiral: Starting at 0: A035608, A156859, A002378 = 2*A000217, A137932 = 4*A002620; starting at 1: A317186, A267682, A002061, A080335.
Sequence in context: A325701 A113745 A348742 * A110487 A259417 A030156
KEYWORD
nonn,easy
AUTHOR
EXTENSIONS
Additional description from Terrel Trotter, Jr., Apr 06 2002
STATUS
approved

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Last modified April 18 18:58 EDT 2024. Contains 371781 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)