

A016754


Odd squares: a(n) = (2n+1)^2. Also centered octagonal numbers.


285



1, 9, 25, 49, 81, 121, 169, 225, 289, 361, 441, 529, 625, 729, 841, 961, 1089, 1225, 1369, 1521, 1681, 1849, 2025, 2209, 2401, 2601, 2809, 3025, 3249, 3481, 3721, 3969, 4225, 4489, 4761, 5041, 5329, 5625, 5929, 6241, 6561, 6889, 7225, 7569
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OFFSET

0,2


COMMENTS

The brown rat (rattus norwegicus) breeds very quickly. It can give birth to other rats 7 times a year, starting at the age of three months. The average number of pups is 8. The present sequence gives the total number of rats, when the intervals are 12/7 of a year and a young rat starts having offspring at 24/7 of a year.  Hans Isdahl, Jan 26 2008
Numbers n such that tau(n) is odd where tau(x) denotes the Ramanujan tau function (A000594).  Benoit Cloitre, May 01 2003
If Y is a fixed 2subset of a (2n+1)set X then a(n1) is the number of 3subsets of X intersecting Y.  Milan Janjic, Oct 21 2007
Binomial transform of [1, 8, 8, 0, 0, 0, ...]; Narayana transform (A001263) of [1, 8, 0, 0, 0, ...].  Gary W. Adamson, Dec 29 2007
All terms of this sequence are of the form 8k+1. For numbers 8k+1 which aren't squares see A138393. Numbers 8k+1 are squares iff k is a triangular number from A000217. And squares have form 4n(n+1)+1.  Artur Jasinski, Mar 27 2008
Sequence arises from reading the line from 1, in the direction 1, 25, ... and the line from 9, in the direction 9, 49, ..., in the square spiral whose vertices are the squares A000290.  Omar E. Pol, May 24 2008
Odd numbers with odd abundance. Odd numbers with even abundance are in A088828. Even numbers with odd abundance are in A088827. Even numbers with even abundance are in A088829.  Jaroslav Krizek, May 07 2011
Appear as numerators in the nonsimple continued fraction expansion of Pi3: Pi3 = K_(k=1)^infinity (12*k)^2/6 = 1/(6+9/(6+25/(6+49/(6+...)))), see also the comment in A007509.  Alexander R. Povolotsky, Oct 12 2011
All terms end in 1, 5 or 9. Modulo 100, all terms are among { 1, 9, 21, 25, 29, 41, 49, 61, 69, 81, 89 }.  M. F. Hasler, Mar 19 2012
Also: Odd numbers which have an odd sum of divisors (= sigma = A000203).  M. F. Hasler, Feb 23 2013
Consider primitive Pythagorean triangles (a^2 + b^2 = c^2, gcd(a, b) = 1) with hypotenuse c (A020882) and respective even leg b (A231100); sequence gives values cb, sorted with duplicates removed.  K. G. Stier, Nov 04 2013
For n>1 a(n) is twice the area of the irregular quadrilateral created by the points ((n2)*(n1),(n1)*n/2), ((n1)*n/2,n*(n+1)/2), ((n+1)*(n+2)/2,n*(n+1)/2), and ((n+2)*(n+3)/2,(n+1)*(n+2)/2).  J. M. Bergot, May 27 2014
Number of pairs (x, y) of Z^2, such that max(abs(x), abs(y)) <= n.  Michel Marcus, Nov 28 2014
Except for a(1)=4, the number of active (ON,black) cells in nth stage of growth of twodimensional cellular automaton defined by "Rule 737", based on the 5celled von Neumann neighborhood.  Robert Price, May 23 2016
a(n) is the sum of 2n+1 consecutive numbers, the first of which is n+1.  Ivan N. Ianakiev, Dec 21 2016
a(n) is the number of 2 X 2 matrices with all elements in {0..n} with determinant = 2*permanent.  Indranil Ghosh, Dec 25 2016
a(n) is the number of large or small squares that are used to tile primitive squares of type 2 (A344332).  Bernard Schott, Jun 03 2021
Also, positive odd integers with an odd number of odd divisors (for similar sequence with 'even', see A348005).  Bernard Schott, Nov 21 2021
a(n) is the least odd number k = x + y, with 0 < x < y, such that there are n distinct pairs (x,y) for which x*y/k is an integer; for example, a(2) = 25 and the two corresponding pairs are (5,20) and (10,15). The similar sequence with 'even' is A016742 (see Comment of Jan 26 2018).  Bernard Schott, Feb 24 2023


LINKS



FORMULA

a(n) = 4*n*(n + 1) + 1 = 4*n^2 + 4*n + 1.  Artur Jasinski, Mar 27 2008
a(n+1) = a(n) + 4 + 4*sqrt(a(n)).
a(n1) = a(n) + 4  4*sqrt(a(n)).
a(n+1) = 2*a(n)  a(n1) + 8.
a(n+1) = 3*a(n)  3*a(n1) + a(n2).
(a(n+1)  a(n1))/8 = sqrt(a(n)).
a(n+1)*a(n1) = (a(n)4)^2.
Limit_{n > infinity} a(n)/a(n1) = 1.
(End)
a(n) = binomial(2*n+2,2) + binomial(2*n+1,2).  John Molokach, Jul 12 2013
Sum_{n>=0} a(n)/n! = 13*e.
Sum_{n>=0} (1)^(n+1)*a(n)/n! = 3/e. (End)
Product_{n>=0} (1 + 1/a(n)) = cosh(Pi/2).
Product_{n>=1} (1  1/a(n)) = Pi/4 (A003881). (End)
a(n) = A003154(n+1)  A046092(n). See Diamond Stars illustration. (End)


MATHEMATICA



PROG

(Haskell)
a016754 n = a016754_list !! n
a016754_list = scanl (+) 1 $ tail a008590_list


CROSSREFS

Cf. A000290, A000384, A001263, A001539, A001844, A003881, A005408, A006752, A014105, A016742, A016802, A016814, A016826, A016838, A033996, A046092, A060300, A138393, A167661, A167700.


KEYWORD

nonn,easy


AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS



STATUS

approved



