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A000203 a(n) = sigma(n), the sum of the divisors of n. Also called sigma_1(n).
(Formerly M2329 N0921)
5042
1, 3, 4, 7, 6, 12, 8, 15, 13, 18, 12, 28, 14, 24, 24, 31, 18, 39, 20, 42, 32, 36, 24, 60, 31, 42, 40, 56, 30, 72, 32, 63, 48, 54, 48, 91, 38, 60, 56, 90, 42, 96, 44, 84, 78, 72, 48, 124, 57, 93, 72, 98, 54, 120, 72, 120, 80, 90, 60, 168, 62, 96, 104, 127, 84, 144, 68, 126, 96, 144 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
1,2
COMMENTS
Multiplicative: If the canonical factorization of n into prime powers is the product of p^e(p) then sigma_k(n) = Product_p ((p^((e(p)+1)*k))-1)/(p^k-1).
Sum_{d|n} 1/d^k is equal to sigma_k(n)/n^k. So sequences A017665-A017712 also give the numerators and denominators of sigma_k(n)/n^k for k = 1..24. The power sums sigma_k(n) are in sequences A000203 (this sequence) (k=1), A001157-A001160 (k=2,3,4,5), A013954-A013972 for k = 6,7,...,24. - Ahmed Fares (ahmedfares(AT)my-deja.com), Apr 05 2001
A number n is abundant if sigma(n) > 2n (cf. A005101), perfect if sigma(n) = 2n (cf. A000396), deficient if sigma(n) < 2n (cf. A005100).
a(n) is the number of sublattices of index n in a generic 2-dimensional lattice. - Avi Peretz (njk(AT)netvision.net.il), Jan 29 2001 [In the language of group theory, a(n) is the number of index-n subgroups of Z x Z. - Jianing Song, Nov 05 2022]
The sublattices of index n are in one-to-one correspondence with matrices [a b; 0 d] with a>0, ad=n, b in [0..d-1]. The number of these is Sum_{d|n} d = sigma(n), which is a(n). A sublattice is primitive if gcd(a,b,d) = 1; the number of these is n * Product_{p|n} (1+1/p), which is A001615. [Cf. Grady reference.]
Sum of number of common divisors of n and m, where m runs from 1 to n. - Naohiro Nomoto, Jan 10 2004
a(n) is the cardinality of all extensions over Q_p with degree n in the algebraic closure of Q_p, where p>n. - Volker Schmitt (clamsi(AT)gmx.net), Nov 24 2004. Cf. A100976, A100977, A100978 (p-adic extensions).
Let s(n) = a(n-1) + a(n-2) - a(n-5) - a(n-7) + a(n-12) + a(n-15) - a(n-22) - a(n-26) + ..., then a(n) = s(n) if n is not pentagonal, i.e., n != (3 j^2 +- j)/2 (cf. A001318), and a(n) is instead s(n) - ((-1)^j)*n if n is pentagonal. - Gary W. Adamson, Oct 05 2008 [corrected Apr 27 2012 by William J. Keith based on Ewell and by Andrey Zabolotskiy, Apr 08 2022]
Write n as 2^k * d, where d is odd. Then a(n) is odd if and only if d is a square. - Jon Perry, Nov 08 2012
Also total number of parts in the partitions of n into equal parts. - Omar E. Pol, Jan 16 2013
Note that sigma(3^4) = 11^2. On the other hand, Kanold (1947) shows that the equation sigma(q^(p-1)) = b^p has no solutions b > 2, q prime, p odd prime. - N. J. A. Sloane, Dec 21 2013, based on postings to the Number Theory Mailing List by Vladimir Letsko and Luis H. Gallardo
Limit_{m->infinity} (Sum_{n=1..prime(m)} a(n)) / prime(m)^2 = zeta(2)/2 = Pi^2/12 (A072691). See more at A244583. - Richard R. Forberg, Jan 04 2015
a(n) + A000005(n) is an odd number iff n = 2m^2, m>=1. - Richard R. Forberg, Jan 15 2015
a(n) = a(n+1) for n = 14, 206, 957, 1334, 1364 (A002961). - Zak Seidov, May 03 2016
Also the total number of horizontal rhombuses in the terraces of the n-th level of an irregular stepped pyramid (starting from the top) whose structure arises after the k-degree-zig-zag folding of every row of the diagram of the isosceles triangle A237593, where k is an angle greater than zero and less than 180 degrees. - Omar E. Pol, Jul 05 2016
Equivalent to the Riemann hypothesis: a(n) < H(n) + exp(H(n))*log(H(n)), for all n>1, where H(n) is the n-th harmonic number (Jeffrey Lagarias). See A057641 for more details. - Ilya Gutkovskiy, Jul 05 2016
a(n) is the total number of even parts in the partitions of 2*n into equal parts. More generally, a(n) is the total number of parts congruent to 0 mod k in the partitions of k*n into equal parts (the comment dated Jan 16 2013 is the case for k = 1). - Omar E. Pol, Nov 18 2019
From Jianing Song, Nov 05 2022: (Start)
a(n) is also the number of order-n subgroups of C_n X C_n, where C_n is the cyclic group of order n. Proof: by the correspondence theorem in the group theory, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the order-n subgroups of C_n X C_n = (Z x Z)/(nZ x nZ) and the index-n subgroups of Z x Z containing nZ x nZ. But an index-n normal subgroup of a (multiplicative) group G contains {g^n : n in G} automaticly. The desired result follows from the comment from Naohiro Nomoto above.
The number of subgroups of C_n X C_n that are isomorphic to C_n is A001615(n). (End)
REFERENCES
M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards Applied Math. Series 55, 1964 (and various reprintings), p. 840.
T. M. Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, Springer-Verlag, 1976, page 38.
A. T. Benjamin and J. J. Quinn, Proofs that really count: the art of combinatorial proof, M.A.A. 2003, p. 116ff.
L. Comtet, Advanced Combinatorics, Reidel, 1974, p. 162, #16, (6), 2nd formula.
G. H. Hardy, Ramanujan: twelve lectures on subjects suggested by his life and work, AMS Chelsea Publishing, Providence, Rhode Island, 2002, pp. 141, 166.
H. Hardy and E. M. Wright, An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers, Fifth Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2003.
Ross Honsberger, "Mathematical Gems, Number One," The Dolciani Mathematical Expositions, Published and Distributed by The Mathematical Association of America, page 116.
Kanold, Hans Joachim, Kreisteilungspolynome und ungerade vollkommene Zahlen. (German), Ber. Math.-Tagung Tübingen 1946, (1947). pp. 84-87.
M. Krasner, Le nombre des surcorps primitifs d'un degré donné et le nombre des surcorps métagaloisiens d'un degré donné d'un corps de nombres p-adiques. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires, Académie des Sciences, Paris 254, 255, 1962.
A. Lubotzky, Counting subgroups of finite index, Proceedings of the St. Andrews/Galway 93 group theory meeting, Th. 2.1. LMS Lecture Notes Series no. 212 Cambridge University Press 1995.
D. S. Mitrinovic et al., Handbook of Number Theory, Kluwer, Section III.1, page 77.
G. Polya, Induction and Analogy in Mathematics, vol. 1 of Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning, Princeton Univ Press 1954, page 92.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
Robert M. Young, Excursions in Calculus, The Mathematical Association of America, 1992 p. 361.
LINKS
Daniel Forgues, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..100000 (first 20000 terms from N. J. A. Sloane)
M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards, Applied Math. Series 55, Tenth Printing, 1972 [alternative scanned copy].
B. Apostol and L. Petrescu, Extremal Orders of Certain Functions Associated with Regular Integers (mod n), Journal of Integer Sequences, 2013, # 13.7.5.
Joerg Arndt, On computing the generalized Lambert series, arXiv:1202.6525v3 [math.CA], (2012).
M. Baake and U. Grimm, Quasicrystalline combinatorics
C. K. Caldwell, The Prime Glossary, sigma function
Imanuel Chen and Michael Z. Spivey, Integral Generalized Binomial Coefficients of Multiplicative Functions, Preprint 2015; Summer Research Paper 238, Univ. Puget Sound.
D. Christopher and T. Nadu, Partitions with Fixed Number of Sizes, Journal of Integer Sequences, 15 (2015), #15.11.5.
J. N. Cooper and A. W. N. Riasanovsky, On the Reciprocal of the Binary Generating Function for the Sum of Divisors, 2012. - From N. J. A. Sloane, Dec 25 2012
Jason Earls, The Smarandache sum of composites between factors function, in Smarandache Notions Journal (2004), Vol. 14.1, page 243.
L. Euler, An observation on the sums of divisors, arXiv:math/0411587 [math.HO], 2004-2009.
J. A. Ewell, Recurrences for the sum of divisors, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 64 (2) 1977.
F. Firoozbakht and M. F. Hasler, Variations on Euclid's formula for Perfect Numbers, JIS 13 (2010) #10.3.1.
Daniele A. Gewurz and Francesca Merola, Sequences realized as Parker vectors ..., J. Integer Seqs., Vol. 6, 2003.
Johan Gielis and Ilia Tavkhelidze, The general case of cutting of GML surfaces and bodies, arXiv:1904.01414 [math.GM], 2019.
J. W. L. Glaisher, On the function chi(n), Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 20 (1884), 97-167.
J. W. L. Glaisher, On the function chi(n), Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 20 (1884), 97-167. [Annotated scanned copy]
M. J. Grady, A group theoretic approach to a famous partition formula, Amer. Math. Monthly, 112 (No. 7, 2005), 645-651.
Masazumi Honda and Takuya Yoda, String theory, N = 4 SYM and Riemann hypothesis, arXiv:2203.17091 [hep-th], 2022.
Douglas E. Iannucci, On sums of the small divisors of a natural number, arXiv:1910.11835 [math.NT], 2019.
P. A. MacMahon, Divisors of numbers and their continuations in the theory of partitions, Proc. London Math. Soc., 19 (1921), 75-113.
M. Maia and M. Mendez, On the arithmetic product of combinatorial species, arXiv:math.CO/0503436, 2005.
P. Pollack and C. Pomerance, Some problems of Erdős on the sum-of-divisors function, For Richard Guy on his 99th birthday: May his sequence be unbounded, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. Ser. B 3 (2016), 1-26; errata.
Carl Pomerance and Hee-Sung Yang, Variant of a theorem of Erdős on the sum-of-proper-divisors function, Math. Comp. 83 (2014), 1903-1913.
J. S. Rutherford, The enumeration and symmetry-significant properties of derivative lattices, Act. Cryst. (1992) A48, 500-508. - N. J. A. Sloane, Mar 14 2009
J. S. Rutherford, The enumeration and symmetry-significant properties of derivative lattices II, Acta Cryst. A49 (1993), 293-300. - N. J. A. Sloane, Mar 14 2009
N. J. A. Sloane, "A Handbook of Integer Sequences" Fifty Years Later, arXiv:2301.03149 [math.NT], 2023, p. 3.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Divisor Function
Wikipedia, Divisor function
FORMULA
Multiplicative with a(p^e) = (p^(e+1)-1)/(p-1). - David W. Wilson, Aug 01 2001
For the following bounds and many others, see Mitrinovic et al. - N. J. A. Sloane, Oct 02 2017
If n is composite, a(n) > n + sqrt(n).
a(n) < n*sqrt(n) for all n.
a(n) < (6/Pi^2)*n^(3/2) for n > 12.
G.f.: -x*deriv(eta(x))/eta(x) where eta(x) = Product_{n>=1} (1-x^n). - Joerg Arndt, Mar 14 2010
L.g.f.: -log(Product_{j>=1} (1-x^j)) = Sum_{n>=1} a(n)/n*x^n. - Joerg Arndt, Feb 04 2011
Dirichlet convolution of phi(n) and tau(n), i.e., a(n) = sum_{d|n} phi(n/d)*tau(d), cf. A000010, A000005.
a(n) is odd iff n is a square or twice a square. - Robert G. Wilson v, Oct 03 2001
a(n) = a(n*prime(n)) - prime(n)*a(n). - Labos Elemer, Aug 14 2003 (Clarified by Omar E. Pol, Apr 27 2016)
a(n) = n*A000041(n) - Sum_{i=1..n-1} a(i)*A000041(n-i). - Jon Perry, Sep 11 2003
a(n) = -A010815(n)*n - Sum_{k=1..n-1} A010815(k)*a(n-k). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 30 2003
a(n) = f(n, 1, 1, 1), where f(n, i, x, s) = if n = 1 then s*x else if p(i)|n then f(n/p(i), i, 1+p(i)*x, s) else f(n, i+1, 1, s*x) with p(i) = i-th prime (A000040). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 17 2004
Recurrence: n^2*(n-1)*a(n) = 12*Sum_{k=1..n-1} (5*k*(n-k) - n^2)*a(k)*a(n-k), if n>1. - Dominique Giard (dominique.giard(AT)gmail.com), Jan 11 2005
G.f.: Sum_{k>0} k * x^k / (1 - x^k) = Sum_{k>0} x^k / (1 - x^k)^2. Dirichlet g.f.: zeta(s)*zeta(s-1). - Michael Somos, Apr 05 2003. See the Hardy-Wright reference, p. 312. first equation, and p. 250, Theorem 290. - Wolfdieter Lang, Dec 09 2016
For odd n, a(n) = A000593(n). For even n, a(n) = A000593(n) + A074400(n/2). - Jonathan Vos Post, Mar 26 2006
Equals the inverse Moebius transform of the natural numbers. Equals row sums of A127093. - Gary W. Adamson, May 20 2007
A127093 * [1/1, 1/2, 1/3, ...] = [1/1, 3/2, 4/3, 7/4, 6/5, 12/6, 8/7, ...]. Row sums of triangle A135539. - Gary W. Adamson, Oct 31 2007
a(n) = A054785(2*n) - A000593(2*n). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Apr 23 2008
a(n) = n*Sum_{k=1..n} A060642(n,k)/k*(-1)^(k+1). - Vladimir Kruchinin, Aug 10 2010
Dirichlet convolution of A037213 and A034448. - R. J. Mathar, Apr 13 2011
G.f.: A(x) = x/(1-x)*(1 - 2*x*(1-x)/(G(0) - 2*x^2 + 2*x)); G(k) = -2*x - 1 - (1+x)*k + (2*k+3)*(x^(k+2)) - x*(k+1)*(k+3)*((-1 + (x^(k+2)))^2)/G(k+1); (continued fraction). - Sergei N. Gladkovskii, Dec 06 2011
a(n) = A001065(n) + n. - Mats Granvik, May 20 2012
a(n) = A006128(n) - A220477(n). - Omar E. Pol, Jan 17 2013
a(n) = Sum_{k=1..A003056(n)} (-1)^(k-1)*A196020(n,k). - conjectured by Omar E. Pol, Feb 02 2013, and proved by Max Alekseyev, Nov 17 2013
a(n) = Sum_{k=1..A003056(n)} (-1)^(k-1)*A000330(k)*A000716(n-A000217(k)). - Mircea Merca, Mar 05 2014
a(n) = A240698(n, A000005(n)). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Apr 10 2014
a(n) = Sum_{d^2|n} A001615(n/d^2) = Sum_{d^3|n} A254981(n/d^3). - Álvar Ibeas, Mar 06 2015
a(3*n) = A144613(n). a(3*n + 1) = A144614(n). a(3*n + 2) = A144615(n). - Michael Somos, Jul 19 2015
a(n) = Sum{i=1..n} Sum{j=1..i} cos((2*Pi*n*j)/i). - Michel Lagneau, Oct 14 2015
a(n) = A000593(n) + A146076(n). - Omar E. Pol, Apr 05 2016
a(n) = A065475(n) + A048050(n). - Omar E. Pol, Nov 28 2016
a(n) = (Pi^2*n/6)*Sum_{q>=1} c_q(n)/q^2, with the Ramanujan sums c_q(n) given in A054533 as a c_n(k) table. See the Hardy reference, p. 141, or Hardy-Wright, Theorem 293, p. 251. - Wolfdieter Lang, Jan 06 2017
G.f. also (1 - E_2(q))/24, with the g.f. E_2 of A006352. See e.g., Hardy, p. 166, eq. (10.5.5). - Wolfdieter Lang, Jan 31 2017
From Antti Karttunen, Nov 25 2017: (Start)
a(n) = A048250(n) + A162296(n).
a(n) = A092261(n) * A295294(n). [This can be further expanded, see comment in A291750.] (End)
a(n) = A000593(n) * A038712(n). - Ivan N. Ianakiev and Omar E. Pol, Nov 26 2017
a(n) = Sum_{q=1..n} c_q(n) * floor(n/q), where c_q(n) is the Ramanujan's sum function given in A054533. - Daniel Suteu, Jun 14 2018
a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n} gcd(n, k) / phi(n / gcd(n, k)), where phi(k) is the Euler totient function. - Daniel Suteu, Jun 21 2018
a(n) = (2^(1 + (A000005(n) - A001227(n))/(A000005(n) - A183063(n))) - 1)*A000593(n) = (2^(1 + (A183063(n)/A001227(n))) - 1)*A000593(n). - Omar E. Pol, Nov 03 2018
a(n) = Sum_{i=1..n} tau(gcd(n, i)). - Ridouane Oudra, Oct 15 2019
From Peter Bala, Jan 19 2021: (Start)
G.f.: A(x) = Sum_{n >= 1} x^(n^2)*(x^n + n*(1 - x^(2*n)))/(1 - x^n)^2 - differentiate equation 5 in Arndt w.r.t. x, and set x = 1.
A(x) = F(x) + G(x), where F(x) is the g.f. of A079667 and G(x) is the g.f. of A117004. (End)
a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n} tau(n/gcd(n,k))*phi(gcd(n,k))/phi(n/gcd(n,k)). - Richard L. Ollerton, May 07 2021
With the convention that a(n) = 0 for n <= 0 we have the recurrence a(n) = t(n) + Sum_{k >= 1} (-1)^(k+1)*(2*k + 1)*a(n - k*(k + 1)/2), where t(n) = (-1)^(m+1)*(2*m+1)*n/3 if n = m*(m + 1)/2, with m positive, is a triangular number else t(n) = 0. For example, n = 10 = (4*5)/2 is a triangular number, t(10) = -30, and so a(10) = -30 + 3*a(9) - 5*a(7) + 7*a(4) = -30 + 39 - 40 + 49 = 18. - Peter Bala, Apr 06 2022
Recurrence: a(p^x) = p*a(p^(x-1)) + 1, if p is prime and for any integer x. E.g., a(5^3) = 5*a(5^2) + 1 = 5*31 + 1 = 156. - Jules Beauchamp, Nov 11 2022
Sum_{n>=1} a(n)/exp(2*Pi*n) = 1/24 - 1/(8*Pi) = A319462. - Vaclav Kotesovec, May 07 2023
EXAMPLE
For example, 6 is divisible by 1, 2, 3 and 6, so sigma(6) = 1 + 2 + 3 + 6 = 12.
Let L = <V,W> be a 2-dimensional lattice. The 7 sublattices of index 4 are generated by <4V,W>, <V,4W>, <4V,W+-V>, <2V,2W>, <2V+W,2W>, <2V,2W+V>. Compare A001615.
MAPLE
with(numtheory): A000203 := n->sigma(n); seq(A000203(n), n=1..100);
MATHEMATICA
Table[ DivisorSigma[1, n], {n, 100}]
a[ n_] := SeriesCoefficient[ QPolyGamma[ 1, 1, q] / Log[q]^2, {q, 0, n}]; (* Michael Somos, Apr 25 2013 *)
PROG
(Magma) [SumOfDivisors(n): n in [1..70]];
(Magma) [DivisorSigma(1, n): n in [1..70]]; // Bruno Berselli, Sep 09 2015
(PARI) {a(n) = if( n<1, 0, sigma(n))};
(PARI) {a(n) = if( n<1, 0, direuler( p=2, n, 1 / (1 - X) /(1 - p*X))[n])};
(PARI) {a(n) = if( n<1, 0, polcoeff( sum( k=1, n, x^k / (1 - x^k)^2, x * O(x^n)), n))}; /* Michael Somos, Jan 29 2005 */
(PARI) max_n = 30; ser = - sum(k=1, max_n, log(1-x^k)); a(n) = polcoeff(ser, n)*n \\ Gottfried Helms, Aug 10 2009
(MuPAD) numlib::sigma(n)$ n=1..81 // Zerinvary Lajos, May 13 2008
(SageMath) [sigma(n, 1) for n in range(1, 71)] # Zerinvary Lajos, Jun 04 2009
(Maxima) makelist(divsum(n), n, 1, 1000); \\ Emanuele Munarini, Mar 26 2011
(Haskell)
a000203 n = product $ zipWith (\p e -> (p^(e+1)-1) `div` (p-1)) (a027748_row n) (a124010_row n)
-- Reinhard Zumkeller, May 07 2012
(Scheme) (definec (A000203 n) (if (= 1 n) n (let ((p (A020639 n)) (e (A067029 n))) (* (/ (- (expt p (+ 1 e)) 1) (- p 1)) (A000203 (A028234 n)))))) ;; Uses macro definec from http://oeis.org/wiki/Memoization#Scheme - Antti Karttunen, Nov 25 2017
(Scheme) (define (A000203 n) (let ((r (sqrt n))) (let loop ((i (inexact->exact (floor r))) (s (if (integer? r) (- r) 0))) (cond ((zero? i) s) ((zero? (modulo n i)) (loop (- i 1) (+ s i (/ n i)))) (else (loop (- i 1) s)))))) ;; (Stand-alone program) - Antti Karttunen, Feb 20 2024
(GAP)
A000203:=List([1..10^2], n->Sigma(n)); # Muniru A Asiru, Oct 01 2017
(Python)
from sympy import divisor_sigma
def a(n): return divisor_sigma(n, 1)
print([a(n) for n in range(1, 71)]) # Michael S. Branicky, Jan 03 2021
(Python)
from math import prod
from sympy import factorint
def a(n): return prod((p**(e+1)-1)//(p-1) for p, e in factorint(n).items())
print([a(n) for n in range(1, 51)]) # Michael S. Branicky, Feb 25 2024
(APL, Dyalog dialect) A000203 ← +/{ð←⍵{(0=⍵|⍺)/⍵}⍳⌊⍵*÷2 ⋄ 1=⍵:ð ⋄ ð, (⍵∘÷)¨(⍵=(⌊⍵*÷2)*2)↓⌽ð} ⍝ Antti Karttunen, Feb 20 2024
CROSSREFS
See A034885, A002093 for records. Bisections give A008438, A062731. Values taken are listed in A007609. A054973 is an inverse function.
For partial sums see A024916.
Row sums of A127093.
Cf. A009194, A082062 (gcd(a(n),n) and its largest prime factor), A179931, A192795 (gcd(a(n),A001157(n)) and largest prime factor).
Cf. also A034448 (sum of unitary divisors).
Cf. A007955 (products of divisors).
A001227, A000593 and this sequence have the same parity: A053866. - Omar E. Pol, May 14 2016
Cf. A054533.
Sequence in context: A287926 A097012 A143348 * A324545 A003979 A084250
KEYWORD
easy,core,nonn,nice,mult
AUTHOR
STATUS
approved

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Last modified July 23 13:35 EDT 2024. Contains 374549 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)