

A000396


Perfect numbers k: k is equal to the sum of the proper divisors of k.
(Formerly M4186 N1744)


614



6, 28, 496, 8128, 33550336, 8589869056, 137438691328, 2305843008139952128, 2658455991569831744654692615953842176, 191561942608236107294793378084303638130997321548169216
(list;
graph;
refs;
listen;
history;
text;
internal format)



OFFSET

1,1


COMMENTS

A number k is abundant if sigma(k) > 2k (cf. A005101), perfect if sigma(k) = 2k (this sequence), or deficient if sigma(k) < 2k (cf. A005100), where sigma(k) is the sum of the divisors of k (A000203).
The numbers 2^(p1)(2^p  1) are perfect, where p is a prime such that 2^p  1 is also prime (for the list of p's see A000043). There are no other even perfect numbers and it is believed that there are no odd perfect numbers.
All entries other than the first have digital root 1 (since 4^2 == 4 (mod 6), we have, by induction, 4^k == 4 (mod 6), or 2*2^(2*k) = 8 == 2 (mod 6) implying that Mersenne primes M = 2^p  1, for odd p, are of the form 6*t+1. Thus perfect numbers N, being Mth triangular, have the form (6*t+1)*(3*t+1), whence the property N mod 9 = 1 for all N after the first.  Lekraj Beedassy, Aug 21 2004
The earliest recorded mention of this sequence is in Euclid's Elements, IX 36, about 300 BC.  Artur Jasinski, Jan 25 2006
Theorem (Euclid, Euler). An even number n is a perfect number if and only if n = 2^(k1)*(2^k1), where 2^k1 is prime. Euler's idea came from Euclid's Proposition 36 of Book IX (see Weil). It follows that every even perfect number is also a triangular number.  Mohammad K. Azarian, Apr 16 2008
Triangular numbers (also generalized hexagonal numbers) A000217 whose indices are Mersenne primes A000668, assuming there are no odd perfect numbers.  Omar E. Pol, May 09 2008, Sep 15 2013
Except for 6, all even terms are of the form 30*k  2 or 45*k + 1.  Arkadiusz Wesolowski, Mar 11 2012
Theorem (Farideh Firoozbakht): If m is an integer and both p and p^km1 are prime numbers then x = p^(k1)*(p^km1) is a solution to the equation sigma(x) = (p*x+m)/(p1). For example, if we take m=0 and p=2 we get Euclid's result about perfect numbers.  Farideh Firoozbakht, Mar 01 2015
The cototient of the even perfect numbers is square; in particular, if 2^p  1 is a Mersenne prime, cototient(2^(p1) * (2^p  1)) = (2^(p1))^2 (see A152921). So, this sequence is a subsequence of A063752.  Bernard Schott, Jan 11 2019
Euler's (1747) proof that all the even perfect number are of the form 2^(p1)*(2^p1) implies that their asymptotic density is 0. Kanold (1954) proved that the asymptotic density of odd perfect numbers is 0.  Amiram Eldar, Feb 13 2021


REFERENCES

Tom M. Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, SpringerVerlag, 1976, page 4.
Albert H. Beiler, Recreations in the Theory of Numbers, Dover, NY, 1964, p. 19.
Stanley J. Bezuszka, Perfect Numbers, (Booklet 3, Motivated Math. Project Activities) Boston College Press, Chestnut Hill MA, 1980.
Euclid, Elements, Book IX, Section 36, about 300 BC.
G. H. Hardy and E. M. Wright, An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers. 3rd ed., Oxford Univ. Press, 1954, p. 239.
T. Koshy, "The Ends Of A Mersenne Prime And An Even Perfect Number", Journal of Recreational Mathematics, Baywood, NY, 1998, pp. 196202.
Joseph S. Madachy, Madachy's Mathematical Recreations, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1979, p. 149 (First publ. by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1966, under the title: Mathematics on Vacation)
József Sándor and Borislav Crstici, Handbook of Number Theory, II, Springer Verlag, 2004.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
Ian Stewart, L'univers des nombres, "Diviser Pour Régner", Chapter 14, pp. 7481 BelinPour La Science, Paris, 2000.
Horace S. Uhler, On the 16th and 17th perfect numbers, Scripta Math., Vol. 19 (1953), pp. 128131.
André Weil, Number Theory, An approach through history, From Hammurapi to Legendre, Birkhäuser, 1984, p 6.
David Wells, The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Numbers, pp. 107110, Penguin Books, 1987.


LINKS

Leonhard Euler, De numeris amicibilibus>, Commentationes arithmeticae collectae, Vol. 2 (1849), pp. 627636. Written in 1747.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Abundance.


FORMULA

The perfect number N = {2^(p1)}*(2^p  1) is also multiplicatively pperfect (i.e., A007955(N) = N^p), since tau(N) = 2*p.  Lekraj Beedassy, Sep 21 2004
a(n) = Sum of the first A000668(n) positive integers, assuming there are no odd perfect numbers.  Omar E. Pol, May 09 2008
a(n) = A000384(A019279(n)), assuming there are no odd perfect numbers and no odd superperfect numbers. a(n) = A000384(A061652(n)), assuming there are no odd perfect numbers.  Omar E. Pol, Aug 17 2008
A144912(8, a(n)) = 5 or 5 for all n except 2;
A144912(16, a(n)) = 4 or 13 for n > 1. (End)
a(n) = A019279(n)*A000668(n), assuming there are no odd perfect numbers and odd superperfect numbers. a(n) = A061652(n)*A000668(n), assuming there are no odd perfect numbers.  Omar E. Pol, Jan 09 2009
For n >= 2, a(n) = Sum_{k=1..A065549(n)} (2*k1)^3, assuming there are no odd perfect numbers.  Derek Orr, Sep 28 2013


EXAMPLE

6 is perfect because 6 = 1+2+3, the sum of all divisors of 6 less than 6; 28 is perfect because 28 = 1+2+4+7+14.


MATHEMATICA

Select[Range[9000], DivisorSigma[1, #]== 2*# &] (* G. C. Greubel, Oct 03 2017 *)
PerfectNumber[Range[15]] (* Requires Mathematica version 10 or later *) (* Harvey P. Dale, Dec 10 2018 *)


PROG

(PARI) isA000396(n) = (sigma(n) == 2*n);
(Haskell)
a000396 n = a000396_list !! (n1)
a000396_list = [x  x < [1..], a000203 x == 2 * x]
(Python)
from sympy import divisor_sigma
def ok(n): return n > 0 and divisor_sigma(n) == 2*n


CROSSREFS

See A000043 for the current state of knowledge about Mersenne primes.
Cf. A007539, A005820, A027687, A046060, A046061, A000668, A090748, A133033, A000217, A000384, A019279, A061652, A006516, A144912, A007691, A153800, A007593, A220290, A028499A028502, A034916, A065549, A275496, A063752, A156552, A152921, A324201.


KEYWORD

nonn,nice,core


AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS

I removed a large number of comments that assumed there are no odd perfect numbers. There were so many it was getting hard to tell which comments were true and which were conjectures.  N. J. A. Sloane, Apr 16 2023


STATUS

approved



