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A002654 Number of ways of writing n as a sum of at most two nonzero squares, where order matters; also (number of divisors of n of form 4m+1) - (number of divisors of form 4m+3).
(Formerly M0012 N0001)
104
1, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3, 2, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 1, 3, 0, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 1, 4, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 1, 2, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 1, 0, 3, 2, 0, 0, 2, 0 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
1,5
COMMENTS
Glaisher calls this E(n) or E_0(n). - N. J. A. Sloane, Nov 24 2018
Number of sublattices of Z X Z of index n that are similar to Z X Z; number of (principal) ideals of Z[i] of norm n.
a(n) is also one fourth of the number of integer solutions of n = x^2 + y^2 (order and signs matter, and 0 (without signs) is allowed). a(n) = N(n)/4, with N(n) from p. 147 of the Niven-Zuckermann reference. See also Theorem 5.12, p. 150, which defines a (strongly) multiplicative function h(n) which coincides with A056594(n-1), n >= 1, and N(n)/4 = sum(h(d), d divides n). - Wolfdieter Lang, Apr 19 2013
a(2+8*N) = A008441(N) gives the number of ways of writing N as the sum of 2 (nonnegative) triangular numbers for N >= 0. - Wolfdieter Lang, Jan 12 2017
Coefficients of Dedekind zeta function for the quadratic number field of discriminant -4. See A002324 for formula and Maple code. - N. J. A. Sloane, Mar 22 2022
REFERENCES
J. M. Borwein, D. H. Bailey and R. Girgensohn, Experimentation in Mathematics, A K Peters, Ltd., Natick, MA, 2004. x+357 pp. See p. 194.
George Chrystal, Algebra: An elementary text-book for the higher classes of secondary schools and for colleges, 6th ed., Chelsea Publishing Co., New York, 1959, Part II, p. 346 Exercise XXI(17). MR0121327 (22 #12066)
Emil Grosswald, Representations of Integers as Sums of Squares. Springer-Verlag, NY, 1985, p. 15.
Ivan Niven and Herbert S. Zuckerman, An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers, New York: John Wiley, 1980, pp. 147 and 150.
Günter Scheja and Uwe Storch, Lehrbuch der Algebra, Tuebner, 1988, p. 251.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
J. V. Uspensky and M. A. Heaslet, Elementary Number Theory, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1939, p. 340.
LINKS
Michael Baake, Solution of the coincidence problem in dimensions d <= 4, in R. V. Moody, ed., The Mathematics of Long-Range Aperiodic Order, Kluwer 1997, pp. 9-44; arXiv:math/0605222 [math.MG], 2006.
Michael Baake and Uwe Grimm, Quasicrystalline combinatorics, 2002.
Shai Covo, Problem 3586, Crux Mathematicorum, Vol. 36, No. 7 (2010), pp. 461 and 463; Solution to Problem 3586 by the proposer, ibid., Vol. 37, No. 7 (2011), pp. 477-479.
J. W. L. Glaisher, On the function chi(n), Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 20 (1884), pp. 97-167.
J. W. L. Glaisher, On the function chi(n), Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 20 (1884), pp. 97-167. [Annotated scanned copy]
J. W. L. Glaisher, On the function which denotes the difference between the number of (4m+1)-divisors and the number of (4m+3)-divisors of a number, Proc. London Math. Soc., Vol. 15 (1884), pp. 104-122. [Annotated scanned copy of pages 104-107 only]
J. W. L. Glaisher, On the representations of a number as the sum of two, four, six, eight, ten, and twelve squares, Quart. J. Math., Vol. 38 (1907), pp. 1-62 (see p. 4 and p. 8).
Srinivasa Ramanujan, Some formulas in the analytic theory of numbers, Messenger of Mathematics, XLV, 1916, 81-84, section (K).
FORMULA
Dirichlet series: (1-2^(-s))^(-1)*Product (1-p^(-s))^(-2) (p=1 mod 4) * Product (1-p^(-2s))^(-1) (p=3 mod 4) = Dedekind zeta-function of Z[ i ].
Coefficients in expansion of Dirichlet series Product_p (1-(Kronecker(m, p)+1)*p^(-s)+Kronecker(m, p)*p^(-2s))^(-1) for m = -16.
If n=2^k*u*v, where u is product of primes 4m+1, v is product of primes 4m+3, then a(n)=0 unless v is a square, in which case a(n) = number of divisors of u (Jacobi).
Multiplicative with a(p^e) = 1 if p = 2; e+1 if p == 1 (mod 4); (e+1) mod 2 if p == 3 (mod 4). - David W. Wilson, Sep 01 2001
G.f. A(x) satisfies 0 = f(A(x), A(x^2), A(x^4)) where f(u, v, w) = (u - v)^2 - (v - w) * (4*w + 1). - Michael Somos, Jul 19 2004
G.f.: Sum_{n>=1} ((-1)^floor(n/2)*x^((n^2+n)/2)/(1+(-x)^n)). - Vladeta Jovovic, Sep 15 2004
Expansion of (eta(q^2)^10 / (eta(q) * eta(q^4))^4 - 1)/4 in powers of q.
G.f.: Sum_{k>0} x^k / (1 + x^(2*k)) = Sum_{k>0} -(-1)^k * x^(2*k - 1) / (1 - x^(2*k - 1)). - Michael Somos, Aug 17 2005
a(4*n + 3) = a(9*n + 3) = a(9*n + 6) = 0. a(9*n) = a(2*n) = a(n). - Michael Somos, Nov 01 2006
a(4*n + 1) = A008441(n). a(3*n + 1) = A122865(n). a(3*n + 2) = A122856(n). a(12*n + 1) = A002175(n). a(12*n + 5) = 2 * A121444(n). 4 * a(n) = A004018(n) unless n=0.
a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n} A010052(k)*A010052(n-k). a(A022544(n)) = 0; a(A001481(n)) > 0.
- Reinhard Zumkeller, Sep 27 2008
a(n) = A001826(n) - A001842(n). - R. J. Mathar, Mar 23 2011
a(n) = Sum_{d|n} A056594(d-1), n >= 1. See the above comment on A056594(d-1) = h(d) of the Niven-Zuckerman reference. - Wolfdieter Lang, Apr 19 2013
Dirichlet g.f.: zeta(s)*beta(s) = zeta(s)*L(chi_2(4),s). - Ralf Stephan, Mar 27 2015
G.f.: (theta_3(x)^2 - 1)/4, where theta_3() is the Jacobi theta function. - Ilya Gutkovskiy, Apr 17 2018
a(n) = Sum_{ m: m^2|n } A000089(n/m^2). - Andrey Zabolotskiy, May 07 2018
a(n) = A053866(n) + 2 * A025441(n). - Andrey Zabolotskiy, Apr 23 2019
a(n) = Im(Sum_{d|n} i^d). - Ridouane Oudra, Feb 02 2020
a(n) = Sum_{d|n} sin((1/2)*d*Pi). - Ridouane Oudra, Jan 22 2021
Sum_{n>=1} (-1)^n*a(n)/n = Pi*log(2)/4 (Covo, 2010). - Amiram Eldar, Apr 07 2022
Asymptotic mean: Limit_{m->oo} (1/m) * Sum_{k=1..m} a(k) = Pi/4 = 0.785398... (A003881). - Amiram Eldar, Oct 11 2022
From Vaclav Kotesovec, Mar 10 2023: (Start)
Sum_{k=1..n} a(k)^2 ~ n * (log(n) + C) / 4, where C = A241011 =
4*gamma - 1 + log(2)/3 - 2*log(Pi) + 8*log(Gamma(3/4)) - 12*Zeta'(2)/Pi^2 = 2.01662154573340811526279685971511542645018417752364748061...
The constant C, published by Ramanujan (1916, formula (22)), 4*gamma - 1 + log(2)/3 - log(Pi) + 4*log(Gamma(3/4)) - 12*Zeta'(2)/Pi^2 = 2.3482276258576... is wrong! (End)
EXAMPLE
4 = 2^2, so a(4) = 1; 5 = 1^2 + 2^2 = 2^2 + 1^2, so a(5) = 2.
x + x^2 + x^4 + 2*x^5 + x^8 + x^9 + 2*x^10 + 2*x^13 + x^16 + 2*x^17 + x^18 + ...
2 = (+1)^2 + (+1)^2 = (+1)^2 + (-1)^2 = (-1)^2 + (+1)^2 = (-1)^2 + (-1)^2. Hence there are 4 integer solutions, called N(2) in the Niven-Zuckerman reference, and a(2) = N(2)/4 = 1. 4 = 0^1 + (+2)^2 = (+2)^2 + 0^2 = 0^2 + (-2)^2 = (-2)^2 + 0^2. Hence N(4) = 4 and a(4) = N(4)/4 = 1. N(5) = 8, a(5) = 2. - Wolfdieter Lang, Apr 19 2013
MAPLE
with(numtheory):
A002654 := proc(n)
local count1, count3, d;
count1 := 0:
count3 := 0:
for d in numtheory[divisors](n) do
if d mod 4 = 1 then
count1 := count1+1
elif d mod 4 = 3 then
count3 := count3+1
fi:
end do:
count1-count3;
end proc:
# second Maple program:
a:= n-> add(`if`(d::odd, (-1)^((d-1)/2), 0), d=numtheory[divisors](n)):
seq(a(n), n=1..100); # Alois P. Heinz, Feb 04 2020
MATHEMATICA
a[n_] := Count[Divisors[n], d_ /; Mod[d, 4] == 1] - Count[Divisors[n], d_ /; Mod[d, 4] == 3]; a/@Range[105] (* Jean-François Alcover, Apr 06 2011, after R. J. Mathar *)
QP = QPochhammer; CoefficientList[(1/q)*(QP[q^2]^10/(QP[q]*QP[q^4])^4-1)/4 + O[q]^100, q] (* Jean-François Alcover, Nov 24 2015 *)
f[2, e_] := 1; f[p_, e_] := If[Mod[p, 4] == 1, e + 1, Mod[e + 1, 2]]; a[1] = 1; a[n_] := Times @@ f @@@ FactorInteger[n]; Array[a, 100] (* Amiram Eldar, Sep 19 2020 *)
Rest[CoefficientList[Series[EllipticTheta[3, 0, q]^2/4, {q, 0, 100}], q]] (* Vaclav Kotesovec, Mar 10 2023 *)
PROG
(PARI) direuler(p=2, 101, 1/(1-X)/(1-kronecker(-4, p)*X))
(PARI) {a(n) = polcoeff( sum(k=1, n, x^k / (1 + x^(2*k)), x * O(x^n)), n)}
(PARI) {a(n) = sumdiv( n, d, (d%4==1) - (d%4==3))}
(PARI) {a(n) = local(A); A = x * O(x^n); polcoeff( eta(x^2 + A)^10 / (eta(x + A) * eta(x^4 + A))^4 / 4, n)} \\ Michael Somos, Jun 03 2005
(PARI) a(n)=my(f=factor(n>>valuation(n, 2))); prod(i=1, #f~, if(f[i, 1]%4==1, f[i, 2]+1, (f[i, 2]+1)%2)) \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Sep 09 2014
(Haskell)
a002654 n = product $ zipWith f (a027748_row m) (a124010_row m) where
f p e | p `mod` 4 == 1 = e + 1
| otherwise = (e + 1) `mod` 2
m = a000265 n
-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Mar 18 2013
(Python)
from math import prod
from sympy import factorint
def A002654(n): return prod(1 if p == 2 else (e+1 if p % 4 == 1 else (e+1) % 2) for p, e in factorint(n).items()) # Chai Wah Wu, May 09 2022
CROSSREFS
Equals 1/4 of A004018. Partial sums give A014200.
Cf. A002175, A008441, A121444, A122856, A122865, A022544, A143574, A000265, A027748, A124010, A025426 (two squares, order does not matter), A120630 (Dirichlet inverse), A101455 (Mobius transform), A000089, A241011.
If one simply reads the table in Glaisher, PLMS 1884, which omits the zero entries, one gets A213408.
Dedekind zeta functions for imaginary quadratic number fields of discriminants -3, -4, -7, -8, -11, -15, -19, -20 are A002324, A002654, A035182, A002325, A035179, A035175, A035171, A035170, respectively.
Dedekind zeta functions for real quadratic number fields of discriminants 5, 8, 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 28, 29, 33, 37, 40 are A035187, A035185, A035194, A035195, A035199, A035203, A035188, A035210, A035211, A035215, A035219, A035192, respectively.
Sequence in context: A228347 A209314 A079632 * A113652 A106139 A350871
KEYWORD
core,easy,nonn,nice,mult
AUTHOR
STATUS
approved

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Last modified February 20 20:53 EST 2024. Contains 370217 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)