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A085478 Triangle read by rows: T(n, k) = binomial(n + k, 2*k). 60
1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 6, 5, 1, 1, 10, 15, 7, 1, 1, 15, 35, 28, 9, 1, 1, 21, 70, 84, 45, 11, 1, 1, 28, 126, 210, 165, 66, 13, 1, 1, 36, 210, 462, 495, 286, 91, 15, 1, 1, 45, 330, 924, 1287, 1001, 455, 120, 17, 1, 1, 55, 495, 1716, 3003, 3003, 1820, 680, 153, 19, 1 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,5
COMMENTS
Coefficient array for Morgan-Voyce polynomial b(n,x). A053122 (unsigned) is the coefficient array for B(n,x). Reversal of A054142. - Paul Barry, Jan 19 2004
This triangle is formed from even-numbered rows of triangle A011973 read in reverse order. - Philippe Deléham, Feb 16 2004
T(n,k) is the number of nondecreasing Dyck paths of semilength n+1, having k+1 peaks. T(n,k) is the number of nondecreasing Dyck paths of semilength n+1, having k peaks at height >= 2. T(n,k) is the number of directed column-convex polyominoes of area n+1, having k+1 columns. - Emeric Deutsch, May 31 2004
Riordan array (1/(1-x), x/(1-x)^2). - Paul Barry, May 09 2005
The triangular matrix a(n,k) = (-1)^(n+k)*T(n,k) is the matrix inverse of A039599. - Philippe Deléham, May 26 2005
The n-th row gives absolute values of coefficients of reciprocal of g.f. of bottom-line of n-wave sequence. - Floor van Lamoen (fvlamoen(AT)planet.nl), Sep 24 2006
Unsigned version of A129818. - Philippe Deléham, Oct 25 2007
T(n, k) is also the number of idempotent order-preserving full transformations (of an n-chain) of height k >=1 (height(alpha) = |Im(alpha)|) and of waist n (waist(alpha) = max(Im(alpha))). - Abdullahi Umar, Oct 02 2008
A085478 is jointly generated with A078812 as a triangular array of coefficients of polynomials u(n,x): initially, u(1,x) = v(1,x) = 1; for n>1, u(n,x) = u(n-1,x)+x*v(n-1)x and v(n,x) = u(n-1,x)+(x+1)*v(n-1,x). See the Mathematica section. - Clark Kimberling, Feb 25 2012
Per Kimberling's recursion relations, see A102426. - Tom Copeland, Jan 19 2016
Subtriangle of the triangle given by (0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...) DELTA (1, 0, 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...) where DELTA is the operator defined in A084938. - Philippe Deléham, Mar 26 2012
T(n,k) is also the number of compositions (ordered partitions) of 2*n+1 into 2*k+1 parts which are all odd. Proof: The o.g.f. of column k, x^k/(1-x)^(2*k+1) for k >= 0, is the o.g.f. of the odd-indexed members of the sequence with o.g.f. (x/(1-x^2))^(2*k+1) (bisection, odd part). Thus T(n,k) is obtained from the sum of the multinomial numbers A048996 for the partitions of 2*n+1 into 2*k+1 parts, all of which are odd. E.g., T(3,1) = 3 + 3 from the numbers for the partitions [1,1,5] and [1,3,3], namely 3!/(2!*1!) and 3!/(1!*2!), respectively. The number triangle with the number of these partitions as entries is A152157. - Wolfdieter Lang, Jul 09 2012
The matrix elements of the inverse are T^(-1)(n,k) = (-1)^(n+k)*A039599(n,k). - R. J. Mathar, Mar 12 2013
T(n,k) = A258993(n+1,k) for k = 0..n-1. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Jun 22 2015
The n-th row polynomial in descending powers of x is the n-th Taylor polynomial of the algebraic function F(x)*G(x)^n about 0, where F(x) = (1 + sqrt(1 + 4*x))/(2*sqrt(1 + 4*x)) and G(x) = ((1 + sqrt(1 + 4*x))/2)^2. For example, for n = 4, (1 + sqrt(1 + 4*x))/(2*sqrt(1 + 4*x)) * ((1 + sqrt(1 + 4*x))/2)^8 = (x^4 + 10*x^3 + 15*x^2 + 7*x + 1) + O(x^5). - Peter Bala, Feb 23 2018
Row n also gives the coefficients of the characteristc polynomial of the tridiagonal n X n matrix M_n given in A332602: Phi(n, x) := Det(M_n - x*1_n) = Sum_{k=0..n} T(n, k)*(-x)^k, for n >= 0, with Phi(0, x) := 1. - Wolfdieter Lang, Mar 25 2020
It appears that the largest root of the n-th degree polynomial is equal to the sum of the distinct diagonals of a (2n+1)-gon including the edge, 1. The largest root of x^3 - 6x^2 + 5x - 1 is 5.048917... = the sum of (1 + 1.80193... + 2.24697...). Alternatively, the largest root of the n-th degree polynomial is equal to the square of sigma(2n+1). Check: 5.048917... is the square of sigma(7), 2.24697.... Given N = 2n+1, sigma(N) (N odd) can be defined as 1/(2*sin(Pi/(2*N)). Relating to the 9-gon, the largest root of x^4 - 10x^3 + 15x^2 - 7x + 1 is 8.290859..., = the sum of (1 + 1.879385... + 2.532088... + 2.879385...), and is the square of sigma(9), 2.879385... Refer to A231187 for a further clarification of sigma(7). - Gary W. Adamson, Jun 28 2022
For n >=1, the n-th row is given by the coefficients of the minimal polynomial of -4*sin(Pi/(4*n + 2))^2. - Eric W. Weisstein, Jul 12 2023
Denoting this lower triangular array by L, then L * diag(binomial(2*k,k)^2) * transpose(L) is the LDU factorization of A143007, the square array of crystal ball sequences for the A_n X A_n lattices. - Peter Bala, Feb 06 2024
LINKS
J.P. Allouche and M. Mendes France, Stern-Brocot polynomials and power series, arXiv preprint arXiv:1202.0211 [math.NT], 2012. - N. J. A. Sloane, May 10 2012
E. Barcucci, A. Del Lungo, S. Fezzi and R. Pinzani, Nondecreasing Dyck paths and q-Fibonacci numbers, Discrete Math., 170, 1997, 211-217.
Paul Barry, A Catalan Transform and Related Transformations on Integer Sequences, J. Integer Sequ., Vol. 8 (2005), Article 05.4.5.
Paul Barry and A. Hennessey, Notes on a Family of Riordan Arrays and Associated Integer Hankel Transforms , JIS 12 (2009) 09.5.3.
Paul Barry, The second production matrix of a Riordan array, arXiv:2011.13985 [math.CO], 2020.
E. Czabarka et al, Enumerations of peaks and valleys on non-decreasing Dyck paths, Disc. Math. 341 (2018) 2789-2807, Theorem 3.
Emeric Deutsch and H. Prodinger, A bijection between directed column-convex polyominoes and ordered trees of height at most three, Theoretical Comp. Science, 307, 2003, 319-325.
James East and Nicholas Ham, Lattice paths and submonoids of Z^2, arXiv:1811.05735 [math.CO], 2018.
A. Laradji and A. Umar, Combinatorial results for semigroups of order-preserving full transformations, Semigroup Forum 72 (2006), 51-62. - Abdullahi Umar, Oct 02 2008
Donatella Merlini and Renzo Sprugnoli, Arithmetic into geometric progressions through Riordan arrays, Discrete Mathematics 340.2 (2017): 160-174.
Yidong Sun, Numerical Triangles and Several Classical Sequences, Fib. Quart. 43, no. 4, (2005) 359-370.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Morgan-Voyce Polynomials
FORMULA
T(n, k) = (n+k)!/((n-k)!*(2*k)!).
G.f.: (1-z)/((1-z)^2-tz). - Emeric Deutsch, May 31 2004
Row sums are A001519 (Fibonacci(2n+1)). Diagonal sums are A011782. Binomial transform of A026729 (product of lower triangular matrices). - Paul Barry, Jun 21 2004
T(n, 0) = 1, T(n, k) = 0 if n<k; T(n, k) = Sum_{j>=0} T(n-1-j, k-1)*(j+1). T(0, 0) = 1, T(0, k) = 0 if k>0; T(n, k) = T(n-1, k-1) + T(n-1, k) + Sum_{j>=0} (-1)^j*T(n-1, k+j)*A000108(j). For the column k, g.f.: Sum_{n>=0} T(n, k)*x^n = (x^k) / (1-x)^(2*k+1). - Philippe Deléham, Feb 15 2004
Sum_{k=0..n} T(n,k)*x^(2*k) = A000012(n), A001519(n+1), A001653(n), A078922(n+1), A007805(n), A097835(n), A097315(n), A097838(n), A078988(n), A097841(n), A097727(n), A097843(n), A097730(n), A098244(n), A097733(n), A098247(n), A097736(n), A098250(n), A097739(n), A098253(n), A097742(n), A098256(n), A097767(n), A098259(n), A097770(n), A098262(n), A097773(n), A098292(n), A097776(n) for x=0,1,2,...,27,28 respectively. - Philippe Deléham, Dec 31 2007
T(2*n,n) = A005809(n). - Philippe Deléham, Sep 17 2009
A183160(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} T(n,k)*T(n,n-k). - Paul D. Hanna, Dec 27 2010
T(n,k) = 2*T(n-1,k) + T(n-1,k-1) - T(n-2,k). - Philippe Deléham, Feb 06 2012
O.g.f. for column k: x^k/(1-x)^(2*k+1), k >= 0. [See the o.g.f. of the triangle above, and a comment on compositions. - Wolfdieter Lang, Jul 09 2012]
E.g.f.: (2/sqrt(x + 4))*sinh((1/2)*t*sqrt(x + 4))*cosh((1/2)*t*sqrt(x)) = t + (1 + x)*t^3/3! + (1 + 3*x + x^2)*t^5/5! + (1 + 6*x + 5*x^2 + x^3)*t^7/7! + .... Cf. A091042. - Peter Bala, Jul 29 2013
T(n, k) = A065941(n+3*k, 4*k) = A108299(n+3*k, 4*k) = A194005(n+3*k, 4*k). - Johannes W. Meijer, Sep 05 2013
Sum_{k=0..n} (-1)^k*T(n,k)*A000108(k) = A000007(n) for n >= 0. - Werner Schulte, Jul 12 2017
Sum_{k=0..floor(n/2)} T(n-k,k)*A000108(k) = A001006(n) for n >= 0. - Werner Schulte, Jul 12 2017
EXAMPLE
Triangle begins as:
1;
1 1;
1 3 1;
1 6 5 1;
1 10 15 7 1;
1 15 35 28 9 1;
1 21 70 84 45 11 1;
1 28 126 210 165 66 13 1;
1 36 210 462 495 286 91 15 1;
1 45 330 924 1287 1001 455 120 17 1;
1 55 495 1716 3003 3003 1820 680 153 19 1;
...
From Philippe Deléham, Mar 26 2012: (Start)
(0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, ...) DELTA (1, 0, 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, ...) begins:
1
0, 1
0, 1, 1
0, 1, 3, 1
0, 1, 6, 5, 1
0, 1, 10, 15, 7, 1
0, 1, 15, 35, 28, 9, 1
0, 1, 21, 70, 84, 45, 11, 1
0, 1, 28, 126, 210, 165, 66, 13, 1. (End)
MAPLE
T := (n, k) -> binomial(n+k, 2*k): seq(seq(T(n, k), k=0..n), n=0..11);
MATHEMATICA
(* First program *)
u[1, x_]:= 1; v[1, x_]:= 1; z = 13;
u[n_, x_]:= u[n-1, x] + x*v[n-1, x];
v[n_, x_]:= u[n-1, x] + (x+1)*v[n-1, x];
Table[Expand[u[n, x]], {n, 1, z/2}]
Table[Expand[v[n, x]], {n, 1, z/2}]
cu = Table[CoefficientList[u[n, x], x], {n, 1, z}];
TableForm[cu]
Flatten[%] (* A085478 *)
Table[Expand[v[n, x]], {n, 1, z}]
cv = Table[CoefficientList[v[n, x], x], {n, 1, z}];
TableForm[cv]
Flatten[%] (* A078812 *) (*Clark Kimberling, Feb 25 2012 *)
(* Second program *)
Table[Binomial[n + k, 2 k], {n, 0, 12}, {k, 0, n}] // Flatten (* G. C. Greubel, Aug 01 2019 *)
CoefficientList[Table[Fibonacci[2 n + 1, Sqrt[x]], {n, 0, 10}], x] // Flatten (* Eric W. Weisstein, Jul 03 2023 *)
Join[{{1}}, CoefficientList[Table[MinimalPolynomial[-4 Sin[Pi/(4 n + 2)]^2, x], {n, 20}], x]] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Jul 12 2023 *)
PROG
(PARI) T(n, k) = binomial(n+k, n-k)
(Haskell)
a085478 n k = a085478_tabl !! n !! k
a085478_row n = a085478_tabl !! n
a085478_tabl = zipWith (zipWith a007318) a051162_tabl a025581_tabl
-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Jun 22 2015
(Magma) [Binomial(n+k, 2*k): k in [0..n], n in [0..12]]; // G. C. Greubel, Aug 01 2019
(Sage) [[binomial(n+k, 2*k) for k in (0..n)] for n in (0..12)] # G. C. Greubel, Aug 01 2019
(GAP) Flat(List([0..12], n-> List([0..n], k-> Binomial(n+k, 2*k) ))); # G. C. Greubel, Aug 01 2019
CROSSREFS
Row sums: A001519. Signed versions: A123970, A129818.
Sequence in context: A121524 A361682 A103141 * A129818 A123970 A055898
KEYWORD
nonn,tabl,easy
AUTHOR
Philippe Deléham, Aug 14 2003
STATUS
approved

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Last modified February 27 12:56 EST 2024. Contains 370375 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)