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A001653 Numbers k such that 2*k^2 - 1 is a square.
(Formerly M3955 N1630)
201
1, 5, 29, 169, 985, 5741, 33461, 195025, 1136689, 6625109, 38613965, 225058681, 1311738121, 7645370045, 44560482149, 259717522849, 1513744654945, 8822750406821, 51422757785981, 299713796309065, 1746860020068409, 10181446324101389, 59341817924539925 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
1,2
COMMENTS
Consider all Pythagorean triples (X,X+1,Z) ordered by increasing Z; sequence gives Z values.
The defining equation is X^2 + (X+1)^2 = Z^2, which when doubled gives 2Z^2 = (2X+1)^2 + 1. So the sequence gives Z's such that 2Z^2 = odd square + 1 (A069894).
(x,y) = (a(n), a(n+1)) are the solutions with x < y of x/(yz) + y/(xz) + z/(xy)=3 with z=2. - Floor van Lamoen, Nov 29 2001
Consequently the sum n^2*(2n^2 - 1) of the first n odd cubes (A002593) is also a square. - Lekraj Beedassy, Jun 05 2002
Numbers n such that 2*n^2 = ceiling(sqrt(2)*n*floor(sqrt(2)*n)). - Benoit Cloitre, May 10 2003
Also, number of domino tilings in S_5 X P_2n. - Ralf Stephan, Mar 30 2004. Here S_5 is the star graph on 5 vertices with the edges {1,2}, {1,3}, {1,4}, {1,5}.
If x is in the sequence then so is x*(8*x^2-3). - James R. Buddenhagen, Jan 13 2005
In general, Sum_{k=0..n} binomial(2n-k,k)j^(n-k) = (-1)^n*U(2n,i*sqrt(j)/2), i=sqrt(-1). - Paul Barry, Mar 13 2005
a(n) = L(n,6), where L is defined as in A108299; see also A002315 for L(n,-6). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Jun 01 2005
Define a T-circle to be a first-quadrant circle with integral radius that is tangent to the x- and y-axes. Such a circle has coordinates equal to its radius. Let C(0) be the T-circle with radius 1. Then for n >0, define C(n) to be the largest T-circle that intersects C(n-1). C(n) has radius a(n) and the coordinates of its points of intersection with C(n-1) are A001108(n) and A055997(n). Cf. A001109. - Charlie Marion, Sep 14 2005
Number of 01-avoiding words of length n on alphabet {0,1,2,3,4,5} which do not end in 0. - Tanya Khovanova, Jan 10 2007
The lower principal convergents to 2^(1/2), beginning with 1/1, 7/5, 41/29, 239/169, comprise a strictly increasing sequence; numerators = A002315 and denominators = {a(n)}. - Clark Kimberling, Aug 26 2008
Apparently Ljunggren shows that 169 is the last square term.
If (p,q) is a solution of the Diophantine equation: X^2 + (X+1)^2 = Y^2 then (p+q) or (p+q+1) are perfect squares. If (p,q) is a solution of the Diophantine equation: X^2 + (X+1)^2 = Y^2 then (p+q) or (p+q)/8 are perfect squares. If (p,q) and (r,s) are two consecutive solutions of the Diophantine equation: X^2 + (X+1)^2 = Y^2 with p < r then s-r = p+q+1. - Mohamed Bouhamida, Aug 29 2009
If (p,q) and (r,s) are two consecutive solutions of the Diophantine equation: X^2 + (X + 1)^2 = Y^2 with p < r then r = 3p+2q+1 and s = 4p+3q+2. - Mohamed Bouhamida, Sep 02 2009
Equals INVERT transform of A005054: (1, 4, 20, 100, 500, 2500, ...) and INVERTi transform of A122074: (1, 6, 40, 268, 1796, ...). - Gary W. Adamson, Jul 22 2010
a(n) is the number of compositions of n when there are 5 types of 1 and 4 types of other natural numbers. - Milan Janjic, Aug 13 2010
The remainder after division of a(n) by a(k) appears to belong to a periodic sequence: 1, 5, ..., a(k-1), 0, a(k)-a(k-1), ..., a(k)-1, a(k)-1, ..., a(k)-a(k-1), 0, a(k-1), ..., 5, 1. See Bouhamida's Sep 01 2009 comment. - Charlie Marion, May 02 2011
Apart from initial 1: subsequence of A198389, see also A198385. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Oct 25 2011
(a(n+1), 2*b(n+1)) and (a(n+2), 2*b(n+1)), n >= 0, with b(n):= A001109(n), give the (u(2*n), v(2*n)) and (u(2*n+1), v(2*n+1)) sequences, respectively, for Pythagorean triples (x,y,z), where x=|u^2-v^2|, y=2*u*v and z=u^2+v^2, with u odd and v even, which are generated from (u(0)=1, v(0)=2) by the substitution rule (u,v) -> (2*v+u,v) if u < v and (u,v) -> (u,2*u+v) if u > v. This leads to primitive triples because gcd(u,v) = 1 is respected. This corresponds to (primitive) Pythagorean triangles with |x-y|=1 (the catheti differ by one length unit). This (u,v) sequence starts with (1,2), (5,2), (5,12), (29,12), (29,70) ... - Wolfdieter Lang, Mar 06 2012
Area of the Fibonacci snowflake of order n. - José Luis Ramírez Ramírez, Dec 13 2012
Area of the 3-generalized Fibonacci snowflake of order n, n >= 3. - José Luis Ramírez Ramírez, Dec 13 2012
For the o.g.f. given by Johannes W. Meijer, Aug 01 2010, in the formula section see a comment under A077445. - Wolfdieter Lang, Jan 18 2013
Positive values of x (or y) satisfying x^2 - 6xy + y^2 + 4 = 0. - Colin Barker, Feb 04 2014
Length of period of the continued fraction expansion of a(n)*sqrt(2) is 1, the corresponding repeating value is A077444(n). - Ralf Stephan, Feb 20 2014
Positive values of x (or y) satisfying x^2 - 34xy + y^2 + 144 = 0. - Colin Barker, Mar 04 2014
The value of the hypotenuse in each triple of the Tree of primitive Pythagorean triples (cf. Wikipedia link) starting with root (3,4,5) and recursively selecting the central branch at each triple node of the tree. - Stuart E Anderson, Feb 05 2015
Positive integers z such that z^2 is a centered square number (A001844). - Colin Barker, Feb 12 2015
The aerated sequence (b(n)) n >= 1 = [1, 0, 5, 0, 29, 0, 169, 0, ...] is a fourth-order linear divisibility sequence; that is, if n | m then b(n) | b(m). It is the case P1 = 0, P2 = -8, Q = 1 of the 3-parameter family of divisibility sequences found by Williams and Guy. See A100047 for the connection with Chebyshev polynomials. - Peter Bala, Mar 25 2015
A002315(n-1)/a(n) is the closest rational approximation of sqrt(2) with a denominator not larger than a(n). These rational approximations together with those obtained from the sequences A001541 and A001542 give a complete set of closest rational approximations of sqrt(2) with restricted numerator or denominator. A002315(n-1)/a(n) < sqrt(2). - A.H.M. Smeets, May 28 2017
Equivalently, numbers x such that (x-1)*x/2 + x*(x+1)/2 = y^2 + (y+1)^2. y-values are listed in A001652. Example: for x=29 and y=20, 28*29/2 + 29*30/2 = 20^2 + 21^2. - Bruno Berselli, Mar 19 2018
From Wolfdieter Lang, Jun 13 2018: (Start)
(a(n), a(n+1)), with a(0):= 1, give all proper positive solutions m1 = m1(n) and m2 = m2(n), with m1 < m2 and n >= 0, of the Markoff triple (m, m1, m2) (see A002559) for m = 2, i.e., m1^2 - 6*m1*m2 + m2^2 = -4. Hence the unique Markoff triple with largest value m = 2 is (1, 1, 2) (for general m from A002559 this is the famous uniqueness conjecture).
For X = m2 - m1 and Y = m2 this becomes the reduced indefinite quadratic form representation X^2 + 4*X*Y - 4*Y^2 = -4, with discriminant 32, and the only proper fundamental solution (X(0), Y(0)) = (0, 1). For all nonnegative proper (X(n), Y(n)) solutions see (A005319(n) = a(n+1) - a(n), a(n+1)), for n >= 0. (End)
Each Pell(2*k+1) = a(k+1) number with k >= 3 appears as largest number of an ordered Markoff (Markov) triple [x, y, m] with smallest value x = 2 as [2, Pell(2*k-1), Pell(2*k+1)]. This known result follows also from all positive proper solutions of the Pell equation q^2 - 2*m^2 = -1 which are q = q(k) = A002315(k) and m = m(k) = Pell(2*k+1), for k >= 0. y = y(k) = m(k) - 2*q(k) = Pell(2*k-1), with Pell(-1) = 1. The k = 0 and 1 cases do not satisfy x=2 <= y(k) <= m(k). The numbers 1 and 5 appear also as largest Markoff triple members because they are also Fibonacci numbers, and for these triples x=1. - Wolfdieter Lang, Jul 11 2018
All of the positive integer solutions of a*b+1=x^2, a*c+1=y^2, b*c+1=z^2, x+z=2*y, 0 < a < b < c are given by a=A001542(n), b=A005319(n), c=A001542(n+1), x=A001541(n), y=a(n+1), z=A002315(n) with 0 < n. - Michael Somos, Jun 26 2022
REFERENCES
R. C. Alperin, A family of nonlinear recurrences and their linear solutions, Fib. Q., 57:4 (2019), 318-321.
A. H. Beiler, Recreations in the Theory of Numbers. New York: Dover, pp. 122-125, 1964.
W. Ljunggren, "Zur Theorie der Gleichung x^2+1=Dy^4", Avh. Norske Vid. Akad. Oslo I. 5, 27pp.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
P.-F. Teilhet, Query 2376, L'Intermédiaire des Mathématiciens, 11 (1904), 138-139. - N. J. A. Sloane, Mar 08 2022
David Wells, The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Numbers (Rev. ed. 1997), p. 91.
LINKS
I. Adler, Three Diophantine equations - Part II, Fib. Quart., 7 (1969), pp. 181-193.
César Aguilera, Notes on Perfect Numbers, OSF Preprints, 2023, p 21.
S. Barbero, U. Cerruti, and N. Murru, A Generalization of the Binomial Interpolated Operator and its Action on Linear Recurrent Sequences, J. Int. Seq. 13 (2010) # 10.9.7, proposition 16.
A. Blondin-Massé, S. Brlek, S. Labbé, and M. Mendès France, Fibonacci snowflakes, Special Issue dedicated to Paulo Ribenboim, Annales des Sciences Mathématiques du Québec 35, No 2 (2011).
A. J. C. Cunningham, Binomial Factorisations, Vols. 1-9, Hodgson, London, 1923-1929. See Vol. 1, page xxxv.
S. Falcon, Relationships between Some k-Fibonacci Sequences, Applied Mathematics, 2014, 5, 2226-2234.
Daniel C. Fielder, Special integer sequences controlled by three parameters, Fibonacci Quarterly 6, 1968, 64-70.
Daniel C. Fielder, Errata:Special integer sequences controlled by three parameters, Fibonacci Quarterly 6, 1968, 64-70.
Alex Fink, Richard K. Guy, and Mark Krusemeyer, Partitions with parts occurring at most thrice, Contributions to Discrete Mathematics, Vol 3, No 2 (2008), pp. 76-114. See Section 13.
T. W. Forget and T. A. Larkin, Pythagorean triads of the form X, X+1, Z described by recurrence sequences, Fib. Quart., 6 (No. 3, 1968), 94-104.
L. J. Gerstein, Pythagorean triples and inner products, Math. Mag., 78 (2005), 205-213.
Glass, Darren B. Critical groups of graphs with dihedral actions. II. Eur. J. Comb. 61, 25-46 (2017).
M. A. Gruber, Artemas Martin, A. H. Bell, J. H. Drummond, A. H. Holmes and H. C. Wilkes, Problem 47, Amer. Math. Monthly, 4 (1897), 25-28.
H. J. Hindin, Stars, hexes, triangular numbers and Pythagorean triples, J. Rec. Math., 16 (1983/1984), 191-193. (Annotated scanned copy)
Tanya Khovanova, Recursive Sequences
Giuseppe Lancia and Paolo Serafini, Polyhedra. Chapter 2 of Compact Extended Linear Programming Models (2018). EURO Advanced Tutorials on Operational Research. Springer, Cham., 11.
Giovanni Lucca, Integer Sequences and Circle Chains Inside a Hyperbola, Forum Geometricorum (2019) Vol. 19, 11-16.
A. Martin, Table of prime rational right-angled triangles, The Mathematical Magazine, 2 (1910), 297-324.
A. Martin, Table of prime rational right-angled triangles (annotated scans of a few pages).
Sam Northshield, Topographs; Conway and Otherwise, Fibonacci Quart. 58 (2020), no. 5, 172-189. See p. 16.
J.-C. Novelli and J.-Y. Thibon, Hopf Algebras of m-permutations,(m+1)-ary trees, and m-parking functions, arXiv preprint arXiv:1403.5962 [math.CO], 2014.
James M. Parks, Computing Pythagorean Triples, arXiv:2107.06891 [math.GM], 2021.
Simon Plouffe, Approximations de séries génératrices et quelques conjectures, Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992; arXiv:0911.4975 [math.NT], 2009.
Simon Plouffe, 1031 Generating Functions, Appendix to Thesis, Montreal, 1992
B. Polster and M. Ross, Marching in squares, arXiv preprint arXiv:1503.04658 [math.HO], 2015.
José L. Ramírez, Gustavo N. Rubiano, and Rodrigo de Castro, A Generalization of the Fibonacci Word Fractal and the Fibonacci Snowflake, arXiv preprint arXiv:1212.1368 [cs.DM], 2012-2014.
Dan Romik, The dynamics of Pythagorean Triples, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 360 (2008), 6045-6064.
Michael Z. Spivey and Laura L. Steil, The k-Binomial Transforms and the Hankel Transform, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 9 (2006), Article 06.1.1.
P. E. Trier, "Almost Isosceles" Right-Angled Triangles, Eureka, No. 4, May 1940, pp. 9 - 11.
Michel Waldschmidt, Continued fractions, Ecole de recherche CIMPA-Oujda, Théorie des Nombres et ses Applications, 18 - 29 mai 2015: Oujda (Maroc).
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, NSW Number
H. C. Williams and R. K. Guy, Some fourth-order linear divisibility sequences, Intl. J. Number Theory 7 (5) (2011) 1255-1277.
H. C. Williams and R. K. Guy, Some Monoapparitic Fourth Order Linear Divisibility Sequences, Integers, Volume 12A (2012) The John Selfridge Memorial Volume.
FORMULA
G.f.: x*(1-x)/(1-6*x+x^2).
a(n) = 6*a(n-1) - a(n-2) with a(1)=1, a(2)=5.
4*a(n) = A077445(n).
Can be extended backwards by a(-n+1) = a(n).
a(n) = sqrt((A002315(n)^2 + 1)/2). [Inserted by N. J. A. Sloane, May 08 2000]
a(n+1) = S(n, 6)-S(n-1, 6), n>=0, with S(n, 6) = A001109(n+1), S(-2, 6) := -1. S(n, x)=U(n, x/2) are Chebyshev's polynomials of the second kind. Cf. triangle A049310. a(n+1) = T(2*n+1, sqrt(2))/sqrt(2), n>=0, with T(n, x) Chebyshev's polynomials of the first kind. [Offset corrected by Wolfdieter Lang, Mar 06 2012]
a(n) = A000129(2n+1). - Ira M. Gessel, Sep 27 2002
a(n) ~ (1/4)*sqrt(2)*(sqrt(2) + 1)^(2*n+1). - Joe Keane (jgk(AT)jgk.org), May 15 2002
a(n) = (((3 + 2*sqrt(2))^(n+1) - (3 - 2*sqrt(2))^(n+1)) - ((3 + 2*sqrt(2))^n - (3 - 2*sqrt(2))^n)) / (4*sqrt(2)). Limit_{n->infinity} a(n)/a(n-1) = 3 + 2*sqrt(2). - Gregory V. Richardson, Oct 12 2002
Let q(n, x) = Sum_{i=0..n} x^(n-i)*binomial(2*n-i, i); then q(n, 4) = a(n). - Benoit Cloitre, Nov 10 2002
For n and j >= 1, Sum_{k=0..j} a(k)*a(n) - Sum_{k=0..j-1} a(k)*a(n-1) = A001109(j+1)*a(n) - A001109(j)*a(n-1) = a(n+j); e.g., (1+5+29)*5 - (1+5)*1=169. - Charlie Marion, Jul 07 2003
From Charlie Marion, Jul 16 2003: (Start)
For n >= k >= 0, a(n)^2 = a(n+k)*a(n-k) - A084703(k)^2; e.g., 169^2 = 5741*5 - 144.
For n > 0, a(n) ^2 - a(n-1)^2 = 4*Sum_{k=0..2*n-1} a(k) = 4*A001109(2n); e.g., 985^2 - 169^2 = 4*(1 + 5 + 29 + ... + 195025) = 4*235416.
Sum_{k=0..n} ((-1)^(n-k)*a(k)) = A079291(n+1); e.g., -1 + 5 - 29 + 169 = 144.
A001652(n) + A046090(n) - a(n) = A001542(n); e.g., 119 + 120 - 169 = 70.
(End)
Sum_{k=0...n} ((2k+1)*a(n-k)) = A001333(n+1)^2 - (1 + (-1)^(n+1))/2; e.g., 1*169 + 3*29 + 5*5 + 7*1 = 288 = 17^2 - 1; 1*29 + 3*5 + 5*1 = 49 = 7^2. - Charlie Marion, Jul 18 2003
Sum_{k=0...n} a(k)*a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} a(2k) and Sum_{k=0..n} a(k)*a(n+1) = Sum_{k=0..n} a(2k+1); e.g., (1+5+29)*29 = 1+29+985 and (1+5+29)*169 = 5+169+5741. - Charlie Marion, Sep 22 2003
For n >= 3, a_{n} = 7(a_{n-1} - a_{n-2}) + a_{n-3}, with a_1 = 1, a_2 = 5 and a_3 = 29. a(n) = ((-1+2^(1/2))/2^(3/2))*(3 - 2^(3/2))^n + ((1+2^(1/2))/2^(3/2))*(3 + 2^(3/2))^n. - Antonio Alberto Olivares, Oct 13 2003
Let a(n) = A001652(n), b(n) = A046090(n) and c(n) = this sequence. Then for k > j, c(i)*(c(k) - c(j)) = a(k+i) + ... + a(i+j+1) + a(k-i-1) + ... + a(j-i) + k - j. For n < 0, a(n) = -b(-n-1). Also a(n)*a(n+2k+1) + b(n)*b(n+2k+1) + c(n)*c(n+2k+1) = (a(n+k+1) - a(n+k))^2; a(n)*a(n+2k) + b(n)*b(n+2k) + c(n)*c(n+2k) = 2*c(n+k)^2. - Charlie Marion, Jul 01 2003
Let a(n) = A001652(n), b(n) = A046090(n) and c(n) = this sequence. Then for n > 0, a(n)*b(n)*c(n)/(a(n)+b(n)+c(n)) = Sum_{k=0..n} c(2*k+1); e.g., 20*21*29/(20+21+29) = 5+169 = 174; a(n)*b(n)*c(n)/(a(n-1)+b(n-1)+c(n-1)) = Sum_{k=0..n} c(2*k); e.g., 119*120*169/(20+21+29) = 1+29+985+33461 = 34476. - Charlie Marion, Dec 01 2003
Also solutions x > 0 of the equation floor(x*r*floor(x/r))==floor(x/r*floor(x*r)) where r=1+sqrt(2). - Benoit Cloitre, Feb 15 2004
a(n)*a(n+3) = 24 + a(n+1)*a(n+2). - Ralf Stephan, May 29 2004
For n >= k, a(n)*a(n+2*k+1) - a(n+k)*a(n+k+1) = a(k)^2-1; e.g., 29*195025-985*5741 = 840 = 29^2-1; 1*169-5*29 = 24 = 5^2-1; a(n)*a(n+2*k)-a(n+k)^2 = A001542(k)^2; e.g., 169*195025-5741^2 = 144 = 12^2; 1*29-5^2 = 4 = 2^2. - Charlie Marion Jun 02 2004
For all k, a(n) is a factor of a((2n+1)*k+n). a((2*n+1)*k+n) = a(n)*(Sum_{j=0..k-1} (-1)^j*(a((2*n+1)*(k-j)) + a((2*n+1)*(k-j)-1))+(-1)^k); e.g., 195025 = 5*(33461+5741-169-29+1); 7645370045 = 169*(6625109+1136689-1).- Charlie Marion, Jun 04 2004
a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} binomial(n+k, 2*k)4^k. - Paul Barry, Aug 30 2004 [offset 0]
a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} binomial(2*n+1, 2*k+1)*2^k. - Paul Barry, Sep 30 2004 [offset 0]
For n < k, a(n)*A001541(k) = A011900(n+k)+A053141(k-n-1); e.g., 5*99 = 495 = 493+2. For n >= k, a(n)*A001541(k) = A011900(n+k)+A053141(n-k); e.g., 29*3 = 87 = 85+2. - Charlie Marion, Oct 18 2004
a(n) = (-1)^n*U(2*n, i*sqrt(4)/2) = (-1)^n*U(2*n, i), U(n, x) Chebyshev polynomial of second kind, i=sqrt(-1). - Paul Barry, Mar 13 2005 [offset 0]
a(n) = Pell(2*n+1) = Pell(n)^2 + Pell(n+1)^2. - Paul Barry, Jul 18 2005 [offset 0]
a(n)*a(n+k) = A000129(k)^2 + A000129(2n+k+1)^2; e.g., 29*5741 = 12^2+169^2. - Charlie Marion, Aug 02 2005
Let a(n)*a(n+k) = x. Then 2*x^2-A001541(k)*x+A001109(k)^2 = A001109(2*n+k+1)^2; e.g., let x=29*985; then 2x^2-17x+6^2 = 40391^2; cf. A076218. - Charlie Marion, Aug 02 2005
With a=3+2*sqrt(2), b=3-2*sqrt(2): a(n) = (a^((2n+1)/2)+b^((2n+1)/2))/(2*sqrt(2)). a(n) = A001109(n+1)-A001109(n). - Mario Catalani (mario.catalani(AT)unito.it), Mar 31 2003
If k is in the sequence, then the next term is floor(k*(3+2*sqrt(2))). - Lekraj Beedassy, Jul 19 2005
a(n) = Jacobi_P(n,-1/2,1/2,3)/Jacobi_P(n,-1/2,1/2,1). - Paul Barry, Feb 03 2006 [offset 0]
a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} Sum_{j=0..n-k} C(n,j)*C(n-j,k)*Pell(n-j+1), where Pell = A000129. - Paul Barry, May 19 2006 ]offset 0]
a(n) = round(sqrt(A002315(n)^2/2)). - Lekraj Beedassy, Jul 15 2006
a(n) = A079291(n) + A079291(n+1). - Lekraj Beedassy, Aug 14 2006
a(n+1) = 3*a(n) + sqrt(8*a(n)^2-4), a(1)=1. - Richard Choulet, Sep 18 2007
6*a(n)*a(n+1) = a(n)^2+a(n+1)^2+4; e.g., 6*5*29 = 29^2+5^2+4; 6*169*985 = 169^2+985^2+4. - Charlie Marion, Oct 07 2007
2*A001541(k)*a(n)*a(n+k) = a(n)^2+a(n+k)^2+A001542(k)^2; e.g., 2*3*5*29 = 5^2+29^2+2^2; 2*99*29*5741 = 2*99*29*5741=29^2+5741^2+70^2. - Charlie Marion, Oct 12 2007
[a(n), A001109(n)] = [1,4; 1,5]^n * [1,0]. - Gary W. Adamson, Mar 21 2008
From Charlie Marion, Apr 10 2009: (Start)
In general, for n >= k, a(n+k) = 2*A001541(k)*a(n)-a(n-k);
e.g., a(n+0) = 2*1*a(n)-a(n); a(n+1) = 6*a(n)-a(n-1); a(6+0) = 33461 = 2*33461-33461; a(5+1) = 33461 = 6*5741-985; a(4+2) = 33461 = 34*985-29; a(3+3) = 33461 = 198*169-1.
(End)
G.f.: sqrt(x)*tan(4*arctan(sqrt(x)))/4. - Johannes W. Meijer, Aug 01 2010
Given k = (sqrt(2)+1)^2 = 3+2*sqrt(2) and a(0)=1, then a(n) = a(n-1)*k-((k-1)/(k^n)). - Charles L. Hohn, Mar 06 2011
Given k = (sqrt(2)+1)^2 = 3+2*sqrt(2) and a(0)=1, then a(n) = (k^n)+(k^(-n))-a(n-1) = A003499(n) - a(n-1)). - Charles L. Hohn, Apr 04 2011
Let T(n) be the n-th triangular number; then, for n > 0, T(a(n)) + A001109(n-1) = A046090(n)^2. See also A046090. - Charlie Marion, Apr 25 2011
For k > 0, a(n+2*k-1) - a(n) = 4*A001109(n+k-1)*A002315(k-1); a(n+2*k) - a(n) = 4*A001109(k)*A002315(n+k-1). - Charlie Marion, Jan 06 2012
a(k+j+1) = (A001541(k)*A001541(j) + A002315(k)*A002315(j))/2. - Charlie Marion, Jun 25 2012
a(n)^2 = 2*A182435(n)*(A182435(n)-1)+1. - Bruno Berselli, Oct 23 2012
a(n) = A143608(n-1)*A143608(n) + 1 = A182190(n-1)+1. - Charlie Marion, Dec 11 2012
G.f.: G(0)*(1-x)/(2-6*x), where G(k) = 1 + 1/(1 - x*(8*k-9)/( x*(8*k-1) - 3/G(k+1) )); (continued fraction). - Sergei N. Gladkovskii, Aug 12 2013
a(n+1) = 4*A001652(n) + 3*a(n) + 2 [Mohamed Bouhamida's 2009 (p,q)(r,s) comment above rewritten]. - Hermann Stamm-Wilbrandt, Jul 27 2014
a(n)^2 = A001652(n-1)^2 + (A001652(n-1)+1)^2. - Hermann Stamm-Wilbrandt, Aug 31 2014
Sum_{n >= 2} 1/( a(n) - 1/a(n) ) = 1/4. - Peter Bala, Mar 25 2015
a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} binomial(n,k) * 3^(n-k) * 2^k * 2^floor(k/2). - David Pasino, Jul 09 2016
E.g.f.: (sqrt(2)*sinh(2*sqrt(2)*x) + 2*cosh(2*sqrt(2)*x))*exp(3*x)/2. - Ilya Gutkovskiy, Jul 09 2016
a(n+2) = (a(n+1)^2 + 4)/a(n). - Vladimir M. Zarubin, Sep 06 2016
a(n) = 2*A053141(n)+1. - R. J. Mathar, Aug 16 2019
For n>1, a(n) is the numerator of the continued fraction [1,4,1,4,...,1,4] with (n-1) repetitions of 1,4. For the denominators see A005319. - Greg Dresden, Sep 10 2019
a(n) = round(((2+sqrt(2))*(3+2*sqrt(2))^(n-1))/4). - Paul Weisenhorn, May 23 2020
a(n+1) = Sum_{k >= n} binomial(2*k,2*n)*(1/2)^(k+1). Cf. A102591. - Peter Bala, Nov 29 2021
a(n+1) = 3*a(n) + A077444(n). - César Aguilera, Jul 13 2023
EXAMPLE
From Muniru A Asiru, Mar 19 2018: (Start)
For k=1, 2*1^2 - 1 = 2 - 1 = 1 = 1^2.
For k=5, 2*5^2 - 1 = 50 - 1 = 49 = 7^2.
For k=29, 2*29^2 - 1 = 1682 - 1 = 1681 = 41^2.
... (End)
G.f. = x + 5*x^2 + 29*x^3 + 169*x^4 + 985*x^5 + 5741*x^6 + ... - Michael Somos, Jun 26 2022
MAPLE
a[0]:=1: a[1]:=5: for n from 2 to 26 do a[n]:=6*a[n-1]-a[n-2] od: seq(a[n], n=0..20); # Zerinvary Lajos, Jul 26 2006
A001653:=-(-1+5*z)/(z**2-6*z+1); # Conjectured (correctly) by Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation; gives sequence except for one of the leading 1's
MATHEMATICA
LinearRecurrence[{6, -1}, {1, 5}, 40] (* Harvey P. Dale, Jul 12 2011 *)
a[ n_] := -(-1)^n ChebyshevU[2 n - 2, I]; (* Michael Somos, Jul 22 2018 *)
Numerator[{1} ~Join~
Table[FromContinuedFraction[Flatten[Table[{1, 4}, n]]], {n, 1, 40}]]; (* Greg Dresden, Sep 10 2019 *)
PROG
(PARI) {a(n) = subst(poltchebi(n-1) + poltchebi(n), x, 3)/4}; /* Michael Somos, Nov 02 2002 */
(PARI) a(n)=([5, 2; 2, 1]^(n-1))[1, 1] \\ Lambert Klasen (lambert.klasen(AT)gmx.de), corrected by Eric Chen, Jun 14 2018
(PARI) {a(n) = -(-1)^n * polchebyshev(2*n-2, 2, I)}; /* Michael Somos, Jun 26 2022 */
(Haskell)
a001653 n = a001653_list !! n
a001653_list = 1 : 5 : zipWith (-) (map (* 6) $ tail a001653_list) a001653_list
-- Reinhard Zumkeller, May 07 2013
(Magma) I:=[1, 5]; [n le 2 select I[n] else 6*Self(n-1)-Self(n-2): n in [1..30]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Feb 22 2014
(GAP) a:=[1, 5];; for n in [3..25] do a[n]:=6*a[n-1]-a[n-2]; od; a; # Muniru A Asiru, Mar 19 2018
CROSSREFS
Other two sides are A001652, A046090.
Cf. A001519, A001109, A005054, A122074, A056220, A056869 (subset of primes).
Row 6 of array A094954.
Row 1 of array A188647.
Cf. similar sequences listed in A238379.
Sequence in context: A291017 A141812 A227206 * A370175 A141814 A175883
KEYWORD
nonn,easy,nice
AUTHOR
EXTENSIONS
Additional comments from Wolfdieter Lang, Feb 10 2000
Better description from Harvey P. Dale, Jan 15 2002
Edited by N. J. A. Sloane, Nov 02 2002
STATUS
approved

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Last modified May 29 08:50 EDT 2024. Contains 372926 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)