

A005940


The Doudna sequence: write n1 in binary; power of prime(k) in a(n) is # of 1's that are followed by k1 0's.
(Formerly M0509)


378



1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 8, 7, 10, 15, 12, 25, 18, 27, 16, 11, 14, 21, 20, 35, 30, 45, 24, 49, 50, 75, 36, 125, 54, 81, 32, 13, 22, 33, 28, 55, 42, 63, 40, 77, 70, 105, 60, 175, 90, 135, 48, 121, 98, 147, 100, 245, 150, 225, 72, 343, 250, 375, 108, 625, 162, 243, 64, 17, 26, 39
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OFFSET

1,2


COMMENTS

The even bisection, when halved, gives the sequence back.  Antti Karttunen, Jun 28 2014
This irregular table can be represented as a binary tree. Each child to the left is obtained by applying A003961 to the parent, and each child to the right is obtained by doubling the parent:
1

...................2...................
3 4
5......../ \........6 9......../ \........8
/ \ / \ / \ / \
/ \ / \ / \ / \
/ \ / \ / \ / \
7 10 15 12 25 18 27 16
11 14 21 20 35 30 45 24 49 50 75 36 125 54 81 32
etc.
Sequence A163511 is obtained by scanning the same tree level by level, from right to left. Also in binary trees A253563 and A253565 the terms on level of the tree are some permutation of the terms present on the level n of this tree. A252464(n) gives the distance of n from 1 in all these trees.
A252737(n) gives the sum and A252738(n) the product of terms on row n (where 1 is on row 0, 2 on row 1, 3 and 4 on row 2, etc.). A252745(n) gives the number of nodes on level n whose left child is larger than the right child, A252750 the difference between left and right child for each node from node 2 onward.
(End)
Each term has the same even part (equivalently, the same 2adic valuation) as its index.
Using the tree depicted in Antti Karttunen's 2014 comment:
Numbers are on the right branch (4 and descendants) if and only if divisible by the square of their largest prime factor (cf. A070003).
Numbers on the left branch, together with 2, are listed in A102750.
(End)
According to Kutz (1981), he learned of this sequence from American mathematician Byron Leon McAllister (19292017) who attributed the invention of the sequence to a graduate student by the name of Doudna (first name Paul?) in the mid1950's at the University of Wisconsin.  Amiram Eldar, Jun 17 2021
Alternative (recursive) definition: If n is a power of 2 then a(n)=n. Otherwise, if 2^j is the greatest power of 2 not exceeding n, and if k = n  2^j, then a(n) is the least m*a(k) that has not occurred previously, where m is an odd prime.
Example: Use recursion with n = 77 = 2^6 + 13. a(13) = 25 and since 11 is the smallest odd prime m such that m*a(13) has not already occurred (see a(27), a(29),a(45)), then a(77) = 11*25 = 275. (End)
The odd bisection, when transformed by replacing all prime(k)^e in a(2*n  1) with prime(k1)^e, returns a(n), and thus gives the sequence back.  David James Sycamore, Sep 28 2022


REFERENCES

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).


LINKS

Ronald E. Kutz, Two unusual sequences, TwoYear College Mathematics Journal, Vol. 12, No. 5 (1981), pp. 316319.


FORMULA

a(n) = f(n1, 1, 1)
where f(n, i, x) = x if n = 0,
= f(n/2, i+1, x) if n > 0 is even
= f((n1)/2, i, x*prime(i)) otherwise. (End)
Define a startingoffset 0 version of this sequence as:
b(0)=1, b(1)=2, [base cases]
and then compute the rest either with recurrence:
or
b(2n) = A003961(b(n)), b(2n+1) = 2 * b(n). [Compare this to the similar recurrence given for A163511.]
Then define a(n) = b(n1), where a(n) gives this sequence A005940 with the starting offset 1.
Can be also defined as a composition of related permutations:
This permutation also maps between the partitions as enumerated in the lists A125106 and A112798, providing identities between:
A243499(n) = A003963(a(n+1)). [... and the products of parts of those partitions.]
(End)
A002110(n) = a(1+A002450(n)). [Primorials occur at (4^n  1)/3 in the offset0 version of the sequence.]
(End)
(End)
a(2n) = 2*a(n), or generally a(2^k*n) = 2^k*a(n).  Amiram Eldar, Oct 03 2022
If n1 = Sum_{i} 2^(q_i1), then a(n) = Product_{i} prime(q_ii+1). These are the Heinz numbers of the rows of A125106. If the offset is changed to 0, the inverse is A156552.  Gus Wiseman, Dec 28 2022


EXAMPLE

Let c_i = number of 1's in binary expansion of n1 that have i 0's to their right, and let p(j) = jth prime. Then a(n) = Product_i p(i+1)^c_i.
If n=9, n1 is 1000, c_3 = 1, a(9) = p(4)^1 = 7.
If n=10, n1 = 1001, c_0 = 1, c_2 = 1, a(10) = p(1)*p(3) = 2*5 = 10.
If n=11, n1 = 1010, c_1 = 1, c_2 = 1, a(11) = p(2)*p(3) = 15. (End)


MAPLE

f := proc(n, i, x) option remember ; if n = 0 then x; elif type(n, 'even') then procname(n/2, i+1, x) ; else procname((n1)/2, i, x*ithprime(i)) ; end if; end proc:


MATHEMATICA

f[n_] := Block[{p = Partition[ Split[ Join[ IntegerDigits[n  1, 2], {2}]], 2]}, Times @@ Flatten[ Table[q = Take[p, i]; Prime[ Count[ Flatten[q], 0] + 1]^q[[1, 1]], {i, Length[p]}] ]]; Table[ f[n], {n, 67}] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Feb 22 2005 *)
Table[Times@@Prime/@(Join@@Position[Reverse[IntegerDigits[n, 2]], 1]Range[DigitCount[n, 2, 1]]+1), {n, 0, 100}] (* Gus Wiseman, Dec 28 2022 *)


PROG

(PARI) A005940(n) = { my(p=2, t=1); n; until(!n\=2, n%2 && (t*=p)  p=nextprime(p+1)); t } \\ M. F. Hasler, Mar 07 2010; update Aug 29 2014
(PARI) a(n)=my(p=2, t=1); for(i=0, exponent(n), if(bittest(n, i), t*=p, p=nextprime(p+1))); t \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Nov 11 2021
(Haskell)
a005940 n = f (n  1) 1 1 where
f 0 y _ = y
f x y i  m == 0 = f x' y (i + 1)
 m == 1 = f x' (y * a000040 i) i
where (x', m) = divMod x 2
(Scheme, with memoizationmacro definec from Antti Karttunen's IntSeqlibrary)
(define (A005940 n) (A005940off0 ( n 1))) ;; The off=1 version, utilizing any one of three different offset0 implementations:
(definec (A005940off0 n) (cond ((<= n 2) (+ 1 n)) ((even? n) (A003961 (A005940off0 (/ n 2)))) (else (* 2 (A005940off0 (/ ( n 1) 2))))))
(define (A005940off0 n) (let loop ((n n) (i 1) (x 1)) (cond ((zero? n) x) ((even? n) (loop (/ n 2) (+ i 1) x)) (else (loop (/ ( n 1) 2) i (* x (A000040 i)))))))
(Python)
from sympy import prime
import math
def A(n): return n  2**int(math.floor(math.log(n, 2)))
def b(n): return n + 1 if n<2 else prime(1 + (len(bin(n)[2:])  bin(n)[2:].count("1"))) * b(A(n))
print([b(n  1) for n in range(1, 101)]) # Indranil Ghosh, Apr 10 2017
(Python)
from math import prod
from itertools import accumulate
from collections import Counter
from sympy import prime
def A005940(n): return prod(prime(len(a)+1)**b for a, b in Counter(accumulate(bin(n1)[2:].split('1')[:0:1])).items()) # Chai Wah Wu, Mar 10 2023


CROSSREFS

Cf. also A000142, A001511, A002450, A112798, A252463, A252464, A252745, A252750, A324054, A324106, A323505, A323508.
Cf. A106737, A290077, A323915, A324052, A324054, A324055, A324056, A324057, A324058, A324114, A324335, A324340, A324348, A324349 for various numbertheoretical sequences applied to (i.e., permuted by) this sequence.
Positions of multiples of 3: A091067.


KEYWORD



AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS

Sign in a formula switched and Maple program added by R. J. Mathar, Mar 06 2010
Binary tree illustration and keyword tabf added by Antti Karttunen, Dec 21 2014


STATUS

approved



