

A001358


Semiprimes (or biprimes): products of two primes.
(Formerly M3274 N1323)


1687



4, 6, 9, 10, 14, 15, 21, 22, 25, 26, 33, 34, 35, 38, 39, 46, 49, 51, 55, 57, 58, 62, 65, 69, 74, 77, 82, 85, 86, 87, 91, 93, 94, 95, 106, 111, 115, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 129, 133, 134, 141, 142, 143, 145, 146, 155, 158, 159, 161, 166, 169, 177, 178, 183, 185, 187
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OFFSET

1,1


COMMENTS

Numbers of the form p*q where p and q are primes, not necessarily distinct.
These numbers are sometimes called semiprimes or 2almost primes. In this database the official spelling is "semiprime", not "semiprime".
Numbers n such that Omega(n) = 2 where Omega(n) = A001222(n) is the sum of the exponents in the prime decomposition of n.
The graph of this sequence appears to be a straight line with slope 4. However, the asymptotic formula shows that the linearity is an illusion and in fact a(n)/n ~ log(n)/log(log(n)) goes to infinity. See also the graph of A066265 = number of semiprimes < 10^n.
For numbers between 33 and 15495, semiprimes are more plentiful than any other kalmost prime. See A125149.
Numbers that are divisible by exactly 2 prime powers (not including 1).  Jason Kimberley, Oct 02 2011
An equivalent definition of this sequence is a'(n) = smallest composite number which is not divided by any smaller composite number a'(1),...,a'(n1).  MeirSimchah Panzer, Jun 22 2016
The above characterization can be simplified to "Composite numbers not divisible by a smaller term." This shows that this is the equivalent of primes computed via Eratosthenes's sieve, but starting with the set of composite numbers (i.e., complement of 1 union primes) instead of all positive integers > 1. It's easy to see that iterating the method (using Eratosthenes's sieve each time on the remaining numbers, complement of the previously computed set) yields numbers with bigomega = k for k = 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., i.e., {1}, A000040, this, A014612, etc.  M. F. Hasler, Apr 24 2019


REFERENCES

Archimedeans Problems Drive, Eureka, 17 (1954), 8.
Raymond Ayoub, An Introduction to the Analytic Theory of Numbers, Amer. Math. Soc., 1963; Chapter II, Problem 60.
Edmund Landau, Handbuch der Lehre von der Verteilung der Primzahlen, Vol. 1, Teubner, Leipzig; third edition: Chelsea, New York (1974). See p. 211.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).


LINKS

Daniel A. Goldston, Sidney W. Graham, János Pintz and Cem Y. Yildirim, Small gaps between primes or almost primes, Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 361, No. 10 (2009), pp. 52855330, arXiv preprint, arXiv:math/0506067 [math.NT], 2005.
Sh. T. Ishmukhametov and F. F. Sharifullina, On distribution of semiprime numbers, Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Matematika, 2014, No. 8, pp. 5359. English translation, Russian Mathematics, Vol. 58, No. 8 (2014), pp. 4348, alternative link.
Dixon Jones, Quickie 593, Mathematics Magazine, Vol. 47, No. 3, May 1974, p. 167.
Edmund Landau, Handbuch der Lehre von der Verteilung der Primzahlen, vol. 1 and vol. 2, Leipzig, Berlin, B. G. Teubner, 1909. See Vol. 1, p. 211.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Semiprime.


FORMULA

a(n) ~ n*log(n)/log(log(n)) as n > infinity [Landau, p. 211], [Ayoub].
Recurrence: a(1) = 4; for n > 1, a(n) = smallest composite number which is not a multiple of any of the previous terms.  Amarnath Murthy, Nov 10 2002
Sum_{n>=1} 1/a(n)^s = (1/2)*(P(s)^2 + P(2*s)), where P is the prime zeta function.  Enrique Pérez Herrero, Jun 24 2012
sigma(a(n)) + phi(a(n))  mu(a(n)) = 2*a(n) + 1. mu(a(n)) = ceiling(sqrt(a(n)))  floor(sqrt(a(n))).  Wesley Ivan Hurt, May 21 2013
mu(a(n)) = Omega(a(n)) + omega(a(n)) + 1, where mu is the Moebius function (A008683), Omega is the count of prime factors with repetition, and omega is the count of distinct prime factors.  Alonso del Arte, May 09 2014


EXAMPLE

The sequence of terms together with their prime factors begins:
4 = 2*2 46 = 2*23 91 = 7*13 141 = 3*47
6 = 2*3 49 = 7*7 93 = 3*31 142 = 2*71
9 = 3*3 51 = 3*17 94 = 2*47 143 = 11*13
10 = 2*5 55 = 5*11 95 = 5*19 145 = 5*29
14 = 2*7 57 = 3*19 106 = 2*53 146 = 2*73
15 = 3*5 58 = 2*29 111 = 3*37 155 = 5*31
21 = 3*7 62 = 2*31 115 = 5*23 158 = 2*79
22 = 2*11 65 = 5*13 118 = 2*59 159 = 3*53
25 = 5*5 69 = 3*23 119 = 7*17 161 = 7*23
26 = 2*13 74 = 2*37 121 = 11*11 166 = 2*83
33 = 3*11 77 = 7*11 122 = 2*61 169 = 13*13
34 = 2*17 82 = 2*41 123 = 3*41 177 = 3*59
35 = 5*7 85 = 5*17 129 = 3*43 178 = 2*89
38 = 2*19 86 = 2*43 133 = 7*19 183 = 3*61
39 = 3*13 87 = 3*29 134 = 2*67 185 = 5*37
(End)


MAPLE

A001358 := proc(n) option remember; local a; if n = 1 then 4; else for a from procname(n1)+1 do if numtheory[bigomega](a) = 2 then return a; end if; end do: end if; end proc:


MATHEMATICA

Select[Range[200], Plus@@Last/@FactorInteger[#] == 2 &] (* Zak Seidov, Jun 14 2005 *)
Select[Range[200], PrimeOmega[#]==2&] (* Harvey P. Dale, Jul 17 2011 *)


PROG

(PARI) select( isA001358(n)={bigomega(n)==2}, [1..199]) \\ M. F. Hasler, Apr 09 2008; added select() Apr 24 2019
(PARI) list(lim)=my(v=List(), t); forprime(p=2, sqrt(lim), t=p; forprime(q=p, lim\t, listput(v, t*q))); vecsort(Vec(v)) \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Sep 11 2011
(PARI) A1358=List(4); A001358(n)={while(#A1358<n, my(t=A1358[#A1358]); until(bigomega(t++)==2, ); listput(A1358, t)); A1358[n]} \\ M. F. Hasler, Apr 24 2019
(Haskell)
a001358 n = a001358_list !! (n1)
a001358_list = filter ((== 2) . a001222) [1..]
(Magma) [n: n in [2..200]  &+[d[2]: d in Factorization(n)] eq 2]; // Bruno Berselli, Sep 09 2015
(Python)
from sympy import factorint
def ok(n): return sum(factorint(n).values()) == 2


CROSSREFS

Cf. A064911 (characteristic function).
Cf. A077554, A077555, A002024, A072966, A100592, A014673, A068318, A061299, A087718, A089994, A089995, A096916, A096932, A106550, A106554, A108541, A108542, A126663, A131284, A138510, A138511, A072931, A088183, A171963, A237040 (semiprimes of form n^3 + 1).
Sequences listing ralmost primes, that is, the n such that A001222(n) = r: A000040 (r=1), this sequence (r=2), A014612 (r=3), A014613 (r=4), A014614 (r=5), A046306 (r=6), A046308 (r=7), A046310 (r=8), A046312 (r=9), A046314 (r=10), A069272 (r=11), A069273 (r=12), A069274 (r=13), A069275 (r=14), A069276 (r=15), A069277 (r=16), A069278 (r=17), A069279 (r=18), A069280 (r=19), A069281 (r=20).
These are the Heinz numbers of length2 partitions, counted by A004526.
Grouping by greater factor gives A087112.
The terms with relatively prime/divisible prime indices are A300912/A318990.
Factorizations using these terms are counted by A320655.
Grouping by weight (sum of prime indices) gives A338904, with row sums A024697.


KEYWORD

nonn,easy,nice,core


AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS



STATUS

approved



