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A006003 a(n) = n*(n^2 + 1)/2.
(Formerly M3849)
136
0, 1, 5, 15, 34, 65, 111, 175, 260, 369, 505, 671, 870, 1105, 1379, 1695, 2056, 2465, 2925, 3439, 4010, 4641, 5335, 6095, 6924, 7825, 8801, 9855, 10990, 12209, 13515, 14911, 16400, 17985, 19669, 21455, 23346, 25345, 27455, 29679, 32020, 34481, 37065, 39775 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,3
COMMENTS
Write the natural numbers in groups: 1; 2,3; 4,5,6; 7,8,9,10; ... and add the groups. In other words, "sum of the next n natural numbers". - Felice Russo
Number of rhombi in an n X n rhombus, if 'crossformed' rhombi are allowed. - Matti De Craene (Matti.DeCraene(AT)rug.ac.be), May 14 2000
Also the sum of the integers between T(n-1)+1 and T(n), the n-th triangular number (A000217). Sum of n-th row of A000027 regarded as a triangular array.
Unlike the cubes which have a similar definition, it is possible for 2 terms of this sequence to sum to a third. E.g., a(36) + a(37) = 23346 + 25345 = 48691 = a(46). Might be called 2nd-order triangular numbers, thus defining 3rd-order triangular numbers (A027441) as n(n^3+1)/2, etc. - Jon Perry, Jan 14 2004
Also as a(n)=(1/6)*(3*n^3+3*n), n > 0: structured trigonal diamond numbers (vertex structure 4) (cf. A000330 = alternate vertex; A000447 = structured diamonds; A100145 for more on structured numbers). - James A. Record (james.record(AT)gmail.com), Nov 07 2004
The sequence M(n) of magic constants for n X n magic squares (numbered 1 through n^2) from n=3 begins M(n) = 15, 34, 65, 111, 175, 260, ... - Lekraj Beedassy, Apr 16 2005 [comment corrected by Colin Hall, Sep 11 2009]
The sequence Q(n) of magic constants for the n-queens problem in chess begins 0, 0, 0, 0, 34, 65, 111, 175, 260, ... - Paul Muljadi, Aug 23 2005
Alternate terms of A057587. - Jeremy Gardiner, Apr 10 2005
Also partial differences of A063488(n) = (2*n-1)*(n^2-n+2)/2. a(n) = A063488(n) - A063488(n-1) for n>1. - Alexander Adamchuk, Jun 03 2006
In an n X n grid of numbers from 1 to n^2, select -- in any manner -- one number from each row and column. Sum the selected numbers. The sum is independent of the choices and is equal to the n-th term of this sequence. - F.-J. Papp (fjpapp(AT)umich.edu), Jun 06 2006
Nonnegative X values of solutions to the equation (X-Y)^3 - (X+Y) = 0. To find Y values: b(n) = (n^3-n)/2. - Mohamed Bouhamida, May 16 2006
For the equation: m*(X-Y)^k - (X+Y) = 0 with X >= Y, k >= 2 and m is an odd number the X values are given by the sequence defined by a(n) = (m*n^k+n)/2. The Y values are given by the sequence defined by b(n) = (m*n^k-n)/2. - Mohamed Bouhamida, May 16 2006
If X is an n-set and Y a fixed 3-subset of X then a(n-3) is equal to the number of 4-subsets of X intersecting Y. - Milan Janjic, Jul 30 2007
(m*(2n)^k+n, m*(2n)^k-n) solves the Diophantine equation: 2m*(X-Y)^k - (X+Y) = 0 with X >= Y, k >= 2 where m is a positive integer. - Mohamed Bouhamida, Oct 02 2007
Also c^(1/2) in a^(1/2) + b^(1/2) = c^(1/2) such that a^2 + b = c. - Cino Hilliard, Feb 09 2008
a(n) = n*A000217(n) - Sum_{i=0..n-1} A001477(i). - Bruno Berselli, Apr 25 2010
a(n) is the number of triples (w,x,y) having all terms in {0,...,n} such that at least one of these inequalities fails: x+y < w, y+w < x, w+x < y. - Clark Kimberling, Jun 14 2012
Sum of n-th row of the triangle in A209297. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Jan 19 2013
The sequence starting with "1" is the third partial sum of (1, 2, 3, 3, 3, ...). - Gary W. Adamson, Sep 11 2015
a(n) is the largest eigenvalue of the matrix returned by the MATLAB command magic(n) for n > 0. - Altug Alkan, Nov 10 2015
a(n) is the number of triples (x,y,z) having all terms in {1,...,n} such that all these triangle inequalities are satisfied: x+y > z, y+z > x, z+x > y. - Heinz Dabrock, Jun 03 2016
Shares its digital root with the stella octangula numbers (A007588). See A267017. - Peter M. Chema, Aug 28 2016
Can be proved to be the number of nonnegative solutions of a system of three linear Diophantine equations for n >= 0 even: 2*a_{11} + a_{12} + a_{13} = n, 2*a_{22} + a_{12} + a_{23} = n and 2*a_{33} + a_{13} + a_{23} = n. The number of solutions is f(n) = (1/16)*(n+2)*(n^2 + 4n + 8) and a(n) = n*(n^2 + 1)/2 is obtained by remapping n -> 2*n-2. - Kamil Bradler, Oct 11 2016
For n > 0, a(n) coincides with the trace of the matrix formed by writing the numbers 1...n^2 back and forth along the antidiagonals (proved, see A078475 for the examples of matrix). - Stefano Spezia, Aug 07 2018
The trace of an n X n square matrix where the elements are entered on the ascending antidiagonals. The determinant is A069480. - Robert G. Wilson v, Aug 07 2018
Bisections are A317297 and A005917. - Omar E. Pol, Sep 01 2018
Number of achiral colorings of the vertices (or faces) of a regular tetrahedron with n available colors. An achiral coloring is identical to its reflection. - Robert A. Russell, Jan 22 2020
a(n) is the n-th centered triangular pyramidal number. - Lechoslaw Ratajczak, Nov 02 2021
REFERENCES
J.-M. De Koninck, Ces nombres qui nous fascinent, Entry 15, p. 5, Ellipses, Paris 2008.
F.-J. Papp, Colloquium Talk, Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan-Dearborn, March 6, 2005.
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
LINKS
J. D. Bell, A translation of Leonhard Euler's "De Quadratis Magicis", E795, arXiv:math/0408230 [math.CO], 2004-2005.
James Grime and Brady Haran, Magic Hexagon, Numberphile video (2014).
Milan Janjic and Boris Petkovic, A Counting Function, arXiv preprint arXiv:1301.4550 [math.CO], 2013. - N. J. A. Sloane, Feb 13 2013
Milan Janjic and Boris Petkovic, A Counting Function Generalizing Binomial Coefficients and Some Other Classes of Integers, Journal of Integer Sequences, 17 (2014), Article 14.3.5. - Felix Fröhlich, Oct 11 2016
S. M. Losanitsch, Die Isomerie-Arten bei den Homologen der Paraffin-Reihe, Chem. Ber. 30 (1897), 1917-1926.
S. M. Losanitsch, Die Isomerie-Arten bei den Homologen der Paraffin-Reihe, Chem. Ber. 30 (1897), 1917-1926. (Annotated scanned copy)
T. P. Martin, Shells of atoms, Phys. Reports, 273 (1996), 199-241, eq. (11).
Ashish Kumar Pandey and Brajesh Kumar Sharma, A Note On Magic Squares And Magic Constants, Appl. Math. E-Notes (2023) Vol. 23, Art. No. 53, 577-582. See p. 577.
A. J. Turner and J. F. Miller, Recurrent Cartesian Genetic Programming Applied to Famous Mathematical Sequences, preprint, Proceedings of the Companion Publication of the 2015 Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Magic Constant.
Wikipedia, Floyd's triangle. - Paul Muljadi, Jan 25 2010
FORMULA
a(n) = binomial(n+2, 3) + binomial(n+1, 3) + binomial(n, 3). [corrected by Michel Marcus, Jan 22 2020]
G.f.: x*(1+x+x^2)/(x-1)^4. - Floor van Lamoen, Feb 11 2002
Partial sums of A005448. - Jonathan Vos Post, Mar 16 2006
Binomial transform of [1, 4, 6, 3, 0, 0, 0, ...] = (1, 5, 15, 34, 65, ...). - Gary W. Adamson, Aug 10 2007
a(n) = -a(-n) for all n in Z. - Michael Somos, Dec 24 2011
a(n) = Sum_{k = 1..n} A(k-1, k-1-n) where A(i, j) = i^2 + i*j + j^2 + i + j + 1. - Michael Somos, Jan 02 2012
a(n) = 4*a(n-1) - 6*a(n-2) + 4*a(n-3) - a(n-4), with a(0)=0, a(1)=1, a(2)=5, a(3)=15. - Harvey P. Dale, May 16 2012
a(n) = 3*a(n-1) - 3*a(n-2) + a(n-3) + 3. - Ant King, Jun 13 2012
a(n) = A000217(n) + n*A000217(n-1). - Bruno Berselli, Jun 07 2013
a(n) = A057145(n+3,n). - Luciano Ancora, Apr 10 2015
E.g.f.: (1/2)*(2*x + 3*x^2 + x^3)*exp(x). - G. C. Greubel, Dec 18 2015; corrected by Ilya Gutkovskiy, Oct 12 2016
a(n) = T(n) + T(n-1) + T(n-2), where T means the tetrahedral numbers, A000292. - Heinz Dabrock, Jun 03 2016
From Ilya Gutkovskiy, Oct 11 2016: (Start)
Convolution of A001477 and A008486.
Convolution of A000217 and A158799.
Sum_{n>=1} 1/a(n) = H(-i) + H(i) = 1.343731971048019675756781..., where H(k) is the harmonic number, i is the imaginary unit. (End)
a(n) = A000578(n) - A135503(n). - Miquel Cerda, Dec 25 2016
Euler transform of length 3 sequence [5, 0, -1]. - Michael Somos, Dec 25 2016
a(n) = A037270(n)/n for n > 0. - Kritsada Moomuang, Dec 15 2018
a(n) = 3*A000292(n-1) + n. - Bruce J. Nicholson, Nov 23 2019
a(n) = A011863(n) - A011863(n-2). - Bruce J. Nicholson, Dec 22 2019
From Robert A. Russell, Jan 22 2020: (Start)
a(n) = C(n,1) + 3*C(n,2) + 3*C(n,3), where the coefficient of C(n,k) is the number of tetrahedron colorings using exactly k colors.
a(n) = C(n+3,4) - C(n,4).
a(n) = 2*A000332(n+3) - A006008(n) = A006008(n) - 2*A000332(n) = A000332(n+3) - A000332(n).
a(n) = A325001(3,n). (End)
From Amiram Eldar, Aug 21 2023: (Start)
Sum_{n>=1} 1/a(n) = 2 * (A248177 + A001620).
Product_{n>=2} (1 - 1/a(n)) = cosh(sqrt(7)*Pi/2)*cosech(Pi)/4.
Product_{n>=1} (1 + 1/a(n)) = cosh(sqrt(7)*Pi/2)*cosech(Pi). (End)
EXAMPLE
G.f. = x + 5*x^2 + 15*x^3 + 34*x^4 + 65*x^5 + 111*x^6 + 175*x^7 + 260*x^8 + ...
For a(2)=5, the five tetrahedra have faces AAAA, AAAB, AABB, ABBB, and BBBB with colors A and B. - Robert A. Russell, Jan 31 2020
MATHEMATICA
Table[ n(n^2 + 1)/2, {n, 0, 45}]
LinearRecurrence[{4, -6, 4, -1}, {0, 1, 5, 15}, 50] (* Harvey P. Dale, May 16 2012 *)
CoefficientList[Series[x (1 + x + x^2)/(x - 1)^4, {x, 0, 45}], x] (* Vincenzo Librandi, Sep 12 2015 *)
With[{n=50}, Total/@TakeList[Range[(n(n^2+1))/2], Range[0, n]]] (* Requires Mathematica version 11 or later *) (* Harvey P. Dale, Nov 28 2017 *)
PROG
(PARI) {a(n) = n * (n^2 + 1) / 2}; /* Michael Somos, Dec 24 2011 */
(PARI) concat(0, Vec(x*(1+x+x^2)/(x-1)^4 + O(x^20))) \\ Felix Fröhlich, Oct 11 2016
(Haskell)
a006003 n = n * (n ^ 2 + 1) `div` 2
a006003_list = scanl (+) 0 a005448_list
-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Jun 20 2013
(Magma) [n*(n^2 + 1)/2 : n in [0..50]]; // Wesley Ivan Hurt, Sep 11 2015
(Magma) [Binomial(n, 3)+Binomial(n-1, 3)+Binomial(n-2, 3): n in [2..60]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Sep 12 2015
(MATLAB)
% Also works with FreeMat.
for(n=0:nmax); tm=n*(n^2 + 1)/2; fprintf('%d\t%0.f\n', n, tm); end
% Stefano Spezia, Aug 12 2018
(GAP)
a_n:=List([0..nmax], n->n*(n^2 + 1)/2); # Stefano Spezia, Aug 12 2018
(Maxima)
a(n):=n*(n^2 + 1)/2$ makelist(a(n), n, 0, nmax); /* Stefano Spezia, Aug 12 2018 */
(Python)
def A006003(n): return n*(n**2+1)>>1 # Chai Wah Wu, Mar 25 2024
CROSSREFS
Cf. A000330, A000537, A066886, A057587, A027480, A002817 (partial sums).
Cf. A000578 (cubes).
(1/12)*t*(n^3-n)+n for t = 2, 4, 6, ... gives A004006, A006527, this sequence, A005900, A004068, A000578, A004126, A000447, A004188, A004466, A004467, A007588, A062025, A063521, A063522, A063523.
Antidiagonal sums of array in A000027. Row sums of the triangular view of A000027.
Cf. A063488 (sum of two consecutive terms), A005917 (bisection), A317297 (bisection).
Cf. A105374 / 8.
Tetrahedron colorings: A006008 (oriented), A000332(n+3) (unoriented), A000332 (chiral), A037270 (edges).
Other polyhedron colorings: A337898 (cube faces, octahedron vertices), A337897 (octahedron faces, cube vertices), A337962 (dodecahedron faces, icosahedron vertices), A337960 (icosahedron faces, dodecahedron vertices).
Row 3 of A325001 (simplex vertices and facets) and A337886 (simplex faces and peaks).
Sequence in context: A279231 A238340 A162513 * A026101 A111385 A084288
KEYWORD
nonn,easy,nice
AUTHOR
EXTENSIONS
Better description from Albert Rich (Albert_Rich(AT)msn.com), March 1997
STATUS
approved

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Last modified May 22 21:38 EDT 2024. Contains 372758 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)