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A000537 Sum of first n cubes; or n-th triangular number squared.
(Formerly M4619 N1972)
183
0, 1, 9, 36, 100, 225, 441, 784, 1296, 2025, 3025, 4356, 6084, 8281, 11025, 14400, 18496, 23409, 29241, 36100, 44100, 53361, 64009, 76176, 90000, 105625, 123201, 142884, 164836, 189225, 216225, 246016, 278784, 314721, 354025, 396900, 443556, 494209, 549081 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,3
COMMENTS
Number of parallelograms in an n X n rhombus. - Matti De Craene (Matti.DeCraene(AT)rug.ac.be), May 14 2000
Or, number of orthogonal rectangles in an n X n checkerboard, or rectangles in an n X n array of squares. - Jud McCranie, Feb 28 2003. Compare A085582.
Also number of 2-dimensional cage assemblies (cf. A059827, A059860).
The n-th triangular number T(n) = Sum_{r=1..n} r = n(n+1)/2 satisfies the relations: (i) T(n) + T(n-1) = n^2 and (ii) T(n) - T(n-1) = n by definition, so that n^2*n = n^3 = {T(n)}^2 - {T(n-1)}^2 and by summing on n we have Sum_{ r = 1..n } r^3 = {T(n)}^2 = (1+2+3+...+n)^2 = (n*(n+1)/2)^2. - Lekraj Beedassy, May 14 2004
Number of 4-tuples of integers from {0,1,...,n}, without repetition, whose last component is strictly bigger than the others. Number of 4-tuples of integers from {1,...,n}, with repetition, whose last component is greater than or equal to the others.
Number of ordered pairs of two-element subsets of {0,1,...,n} without repetition.
Number of ordered pairs of 2-element multisubsets of {1,...,n} with repetition.
1^3 + 2^3 + 3^3 + ... + n^3 = (1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n)^2.
a(n) is the number of parameters needed in general to know the Riemannian metric g of an n-dimensional Riemannian manifold (M,g), by knowing all its second derivatives; even though to know the curvature tensor R requires (due to symmetries) (n^2)*(n^2-1)/12 parameters, a smaller number (and a 4-dimensional pyramidal number). - Jonathan Vos Post, May 05 2006
Also number of hexagons with vertices in an hexagonal grid with n points in each side. - Ignacio Larrosa Cañestro, Oct 15 2006
Number of permutations of n distinct letters (ABCD...) each of which appears twice with 4 and n-4 fixed points. - Zerinvary Lajos, Nov 09 2006
With offset 1 = binomial transform of [1, 8, 19, 18, 6, ...]. - Gary W. Adamson, Dec 03 2008
a(n) = Sum_{1 <= k <= m <= n} A176271(m,k). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Apr 13 2010
The sequence is related to A000330 by a(n) = n*A000330(n) - Sum_{i=0..n-1} A000330(i): this is the case d=1 in the identity n*(n*(d*n-d+2)/2) - Sum_{i=0..n-1} i*(d*i-d+2)/2 = n*(n+1)*(2*d*n-2*d+3)/6. - Bruno Berselli, Apr 26 2010, Mar 01 2012
From Wolfdieter Lang, Jan 11 2013: (Start)
For sums of powers of positive integers S(k,n) := Sum_{j=1..n}j^k one has the recurrence S(k,n) = (n+1)*S(k-1,n) - Sum_{l=1..n} S(k-1,l), n >= 1, k >= 1.
This was used for k=4 by Ibn al-Haytham in an attempt to compute the volume of the interior of a paraboloid. See the Strick reference where the trick he used is shown, and the W. Lang link.
This trick generalizes immediately to arbitrary powers k. For k=3: a(n) = (n+1)*A000330(n) - Sum_{l=1..n} A000330(l), which coincides with the formula given in the previous comment by Berselli. (End)
Regarding to the previous contribution, see also Matem@ticamente in Links field and comments on this recurrences in similar sequences (partial sums of n-th powers). - Bruno Berselli, Jun 24 2013
A rectangular prism with sides A000217(n), A000217(n+1), and A000217(n+2) has surface area 6*a(n+1). - J. M. Bergot, Aug 07 2013, edited with corrected indices by Antti Karttunen, Aug 09 2013
A formula for the r-th successive summation of k^3, for k = 1 to n, is (6*n^2+r*(6*n+r-1)*(n+r)!)/((r+3)!*(n-1)!), (H. W. Gould). - Gary Detlefs, Jan 02 2014
Note that this sequence and its formula were known to (and possibly discovered by) Nicomachus, predating Ibn al-Haytham by 800 years. - Charles R Greathouse IV, Apr 23 2014
a(n) is the number of ways to paint the sides of a nonsquare rectangle using at most n colors. Cf. A039623. - Geoffrey Critzer, Jun 18 2014
For n > 0: A256188(a(n)) = A000217(n) and A256188(m) != A000217(n) for m < a(n), i.e., positions of first occurrences of triangular numbers in A256188. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Mar 26 2015
There is no cube in this sequence except 0 and 1. - Altug Alkan, Jul 02 2016
Also the number of chordless cycles in the complete bipartite graph K_{n+1,n+1}. - Eric W. Weisstein, Jan 02 2018
a(n) is the sum of the elements in the multiplication table [0..n] X [0..n]. - Michel Marcus, May 06 2021
REFERENCES
M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards Applied Math. Series 55, 1964 (and various reprintings), p. 813.
Avner Ash and Robert Gross, Summing it up, Princeton University Press, 2016, p. 62, eq. (6.3) for k=3.
A. T. Benjamin and J. J. Quinn, Proofs that really count: the art of combinatorial proof, M.A.A. 2003, p. 110ff.
L. Comtet, Advanced Combinatorics, Reidel, 1974, p. 155.
John H. Conway and R. K. Guy, The Book of Numbers, Copernicus Press, pp. 36, 58.
Clifford Pickover, "Wonders of Numbers, Adventures in Mathematics, Mind and Meaning," Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 325.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
H. K. Strick, Geschichten aus der Mathematik II, Spektrum Spezial 3/11, p. 13.
D. Wells, You Are A Mathematician, "Counting rectangles in a rectangle", Problem 8H, pp. 240; 254, Penguin Books 1995.
LINKS
M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards, Applied Math. Series 55, Tenth Printing, 1972 [alternative scanned copy].
M. Azaola and F. Santos, The number of triangulations of the cyclic polytope C(n,n-4), Discrete Comput. Geom., 27 (2002), 29-48 (see Prop. 4.2(b)).
Marcel Berger, Encounter with a Geometer, Part II, Notices of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 47, No. 3, (March 2000), pp. 326-340. [About the work of Mikhael Gromov.]
B. Berselli, A description of the recursive method in Comments lines: website Matem@ticamente (in Italian).
blackpenredpen, Math for fun, how many rectangles?, Youtube video (2018).
Bikash Chakraborty, Proof Without Words: Sums of Powers of Natural numbers, arXiv:2012.11539 [math.HO], 2020.
Robert Dawson, On Some Sequences Related to Sums of Powers, J. Int. Seq., Vol. 21 (2018), Article 18.7.6.
Sameen Ahmed Khan, Sums of the powers of reciprocals of polygonal numbers, Int'l J. of Appl. Math. (2020) Vol. 33, No. 2, 265-282.
Wolfdieter Lang, Ibn al-Haytham's trick.
Henri Picciotto, Sum of Cubes, Proof without words.
C. A. Pickover, "Wonders of Numbers, Adventures in Mathematics, Mind and Meaning," Zentralblatt review
C. J. Pita Ruiz V., Some Number Arrays Related to Pascal and Lucas Triangles, J. Int. Seq. 16 (2013) #13.5.7.
Simon Plouffe, Approximations de séries génératrices et quelques conjectures, Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992.
Simon Plouffe, 1031 Generating Functions, Appendix to Thesis, Montreal, 1992
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Chordless Cycle
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Complete Bipartite Graph
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Faulhaber's Formula
G. Xiao, Sigma Server, Operate on "n^3"
FORMULA
a(n) = (n*(n+1)/2)^2 = A000217(n)^2 = Sum_{k=1..n} A000578(k), that is, 1^3 + 2^3 + 3^3 + ... + n^3 = (1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n)^2.
G.f.: (x+4*x^2+x^3)/(1-x)^5. - Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation
a(n) = Sum ( Sum ( 1 + Sum (6*n) ) ), rephrasing the formula in A000578. - Xavier Acloque, Jan 21 2003
a(n) = Sum_{i=1..n} Sum_{j=1..n} i*j, row sums of A127777. - Alexander Adamchuk, Oct 24 2004
a(n) = A035287(n)/4. - Zerinvary Lajos, May 09 2007
This sequence could be obtained from the general formula n*(n+1)*(n+2)*(n+3)*...*(n+k)*(n*(n+k) + (k-1)*k/6)/((k+3)!/6) at k=1. - Alexander R. Povolotsky, May 17 2008
G.f.: x*F(3,3;1;x). - Paul Barry, Sep 18 2008
Sum_{k > 0} 1/a(k) = (4/3)*(Pi^2-9). - Jaume Oliver Lafont, Sep 20 2009
a(n) = Sum_{i=1..n} J_3(i)*floor(n/i), where J_ 3 is A059376. - Enrique Pérez Herrero, Feb 26 2012
a(n) = Sum_{i=1..n} Sum_{j=1..n} Sum_{k=1..n} max(i,j,k). - Enrique Pérez Herrero, Feb 26 2013
a(n) = 6*C(n+2,4) + C(n+1,2) = 6*A000332(n+2) + A000217(n), (Knuth). - Gary Detlefs, Jan 02 2014
a(n) = -Sum_{j=1..3} j*s(n+1,n+1-j)*S(n+3-j,n), where s(n,k) and S(n,k) are the Stirling numbers of the first kind and the second kind, respectively. - Mircea Merca, Jan 25 2014
Sum_{n>=1} (-1)^(n+1)/a(n) = 4*(3-4*log(2)). - Vaclav Kotesovec, Feb 13 2015
a(n)*((s-2)*(s-3)/2) = P(3, P(s, n+1)) - P(s, P(3, n+1)), where P(s, m) = ((s-2)*m^2-(s-4)*m)/2 is the m-th s-gonal number. For s=7, 10*a(n) = A000217(A000566(n+1)) - A000566(A000217(n+1)). - Bruno Berselli, Aug 04 2015
From Ilya Gutkovskiy, Jul 03 2016: (Start)
E.g.f.: x*(4 + 14*x + 8*x^2 + x^3)*exp(x)/4.
Dirichlet g.f.: (zeta(s-4) + 2*zeta(s-3) + zeta(s-2))/4. (End)
a(n) = (Bernoulli(4, n+1) - Bernoulli(4, 1))/4, n >= 0, with the Bernoulli polynomial B(4, x) from row n=4 of A053382/A053383. See, e.g., the Ash-Gross reference, p. 62, eq. (6.3) for k=3. - Wolfdieter Lang, Mar 12 2017
a(n) = A000217((n+1)^2) - A000217(n+1)^2. - Bruno Berselli, Aug 31 2017
a(n) = n*binomial(n+2, 3) + binomial(n+2, 4) + binomial(n+1, 4). - Tony Foster III, Nov 14 2017
Another identity: ..., a(3) = (1/2)*(1*(2+4+6)+3*(4+6)+5*6) = 36, a(4) = (1/2)*(1*(2+4+6+8)+3*(4+6+8)+5*(6+8)+7*(8)) = 100, a(5) = (1/2)*(1*(2+4+6+8+10)+3*(4+6+8+10)+5*(6+8+10)+7*(8+10)+9*(10)) = 225, ... - J. M. Bergot, Aug 27 2022
Comment from Michael Somos, Aug 28 2022: (Start)
The previous comment expresses a(n) as the sum of all of the n X n multiplication table array entries.
For example, for n = 4:
1 2 3 4
2 4 6 8
3 6 9 12
4 8 12 16
This array sum can be split up as follows:
+---+---------------+
| 0 | 1 2 3 4 | (0+1)*(1+2+3+4)
| +---+-----------+
| 0 | 2 | 4 6 8 | (1+2)*(2+3+4)
| | +---+-------+
| 0 | 3 | 6 | 9 12 | (2+3)*(3+4)
| | | +---+---+
| 0 | 4 | 8 |12 |16 | (3+4)*(4)
+---+---+---+---+---+
This kind of row+column sums was used by Ramanujan and others for summing Lambert series. (End)
EXAMPLE
G.f. = x + 9*x^2 + 36*x^3 + 100*x^4 + 225*x^5 + 441*x^6 + ... - Michael Somos, Aug 29 2022
MAPLE
a:= n-> (n*(n+1)/2)^2:
seq(a(n), n=0..40);
MATHEMATICA
Accumulate[Range[0, 50]^3] (* Harvey P. Dale, Mar 01 2011 *)
f[n_] := n^2 (n + 1)^2/4; Array[f, 39, 0] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Nov 16 2012 *)
Table[CycleIndex[{{1, 2, 3, 4}, {3, 2, 1, 4}, {1, 4, 3, 2}, {3, 4, 1, 2}}, s] /. Table[s[i] -> n, {i, 1, 2}], {n, 0, 30}] (* Geoffrey Critzer, Jun 18 2014 *)
Accumulate @ Range[0, 50]^2 (* Waldemar Puszkarz, Jan 24 2015 *)
Binomial[Range[20], 2]^2 (* Eric W. Weisstein, Jan 02 2018 *)
LinearRecurrence[{5, -10, 10, -5, 1}, {0, 1, 9, 36, 100}, 20] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Jan 02 2018 *)
CoefficientList[Series[-((x (1 + 4 x + x^2))/(-1 + x)^5), {x, 0, 20}], x] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Jan 02 2018 *)
PROG
(PARI) a(n)=(n*(n+1)/2)^2
(Magma) [(n*(n+1)/2)^2: n in [0..50]]; // Wesley Ivan Hurt, Jun 06 2014
(Haskell) a000537 = a000290 . a000217 -- Reinhard Zumkeller, Mar 26 2015
(GAP) List([0..40], n->(n*(n+1)/2)^2); # Muniru A Asiru, Dec 05 2018
(Python)
def A000537(n): return (n*(n+1)>>1)**2 # Chai Wah Wu, Oct 20 2023
CROSSREFS
Convolution of A000217 and A008458.
Row sums of triangles A094414 and A094415.
Second column of triangle A008459.
Row 3 of array A103438.
Cf. A236770 (see crossrefs).
Sequence in context: A169835 A231686 A231688 * A114286 A098928 A139469
KEYWORD
nonn,easy,nice
AUTHOR
EXTENSIONS
Edited by M. F. Hasler, May 02 2015
STATUS
approved

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Last modified May 23 00:00 EDT 2024. Contains 372758 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)