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A001263 Triangle of Narayana numbers T(n,k) = C(n-1,k-1)C(n,k-1)/k with 1<=k<=n, read by rows. Also called the Catalan triangle. 237
1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 6, 6, 1, 1, 10, 20, 10, 1, 1, 15, 50, 50, 15, 1, 1, 21, 105, 175, 105, 21, 1, 1, 28, 196, 490, 490, 196, 28, 1, 1, 36, 336, 1176, 1764, 1176, 336, 36, 1, 1, 45, 540, 2520, 5292, 5292, 2520, 540, 45, 1, 1, 55, 825, 4950, 13860, 19404, 13860, 4950, 825 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)



Antichains (or order ideals) in the poset 2*(k-1)*(n-k) or plane partitions with rows <= k-1, columns <= n-k and entries <= 2. - Mitch Harris, Jul 15 2000

a(n,k) = number of Dyck n-paths with exactly k peaks. a(n,k) = number of pairs (P,Q) of lattice paths from (0,0) to (k,n+1-k), each consisting of unit steps East or North, such that P lies strictly above Q except at the endpoints. - David Callan, Mar 23 2004

Number of permutations of [n] which avoid-132 and have k-1 descents. - Mike Zabrocki, Aug 26 2004

a(n,k) is the number of paths through n panes of glass, entering and leaving from one side, of length 2n with k reflections (where traversing one pane of glass is the unit length). - Mitch Harris, Jul 06 2006

Antidiagonal sums given by A004148 (without first term).

T(n,k) is the number of full binary trees with n internal nodes and k-1 jumps. In the preorder traversal of a full binary tree, any transition from a node at a deeper level to a node on a strictly higher level is called a jump. - Emeric Deutsch, Jan 18 2007

From Gary W. Adamson, Oct 22 2007: (Start)

The n-th row can be generated by the following operation using an ascending row of (n-1) triangular terms, (A) and a descending row, (B); e.g., row 6:

A: 1....3....6....10....15

B: 15...10....6.....3.....1

C: 1...15...50....50....15....1 = row 6.

Leftmost column of A,B -> first two terms of C; then followed by the operation B*C/A of current column = next term of row C, (e.g., 10*15/3 = 50). Continuing with the operation, we get row 6: (1, 15, 50, 50, 15, 1). (End)

The previous comment can be upgraded to: The ConvOffsStoT transform of the triangular series; and by rows, row 6 is the ConvOffs transform of (1, 3, 6, 10, 15). Refer to triangle A117401 as another example of the ConvOffsStoT transform, and OEIS under Maple Transforms. - Gary W. Adamson, Jul 09 2012

From the Kostov-Shapiro paper: "In the present paper we find a new interpretation of Narayana polynomials N_n(x) which are the generating polynomials for the Narayana numbers N_{n,k} counting Dyck paths of length n and with exactly k peaks. Strangely enough Narayana polynomials also occur as limits as n->oo of the sequences of eigenpolynomials of the Schur-Szego composition map sending (n-1)-tuples of polynomials of the form (x+1)^{n-1}(x+a) to their Schur-Szego product, see below. As a corollary we obtain that every N_n(x) has all roots real and non-positive. Additionally, we present an explicit formula for the density and the distribution function of the asymptotic root-counting measure of the polynomial sequence {N_n(x)}." - Jonathan Vos Post, Apr 08 2008

For a connection to Lagrange inversion, see A134264. - Tom Copeland, Aug 15 2008

T(n,k) is also the number of order-decreasing and order-preserving mappings (of an n-element set) of height k (height of a mapping is the cardinal of its image set). - Abdullahi Umar, Aug 21 2008

Row n of this triangle is the h-vector of the simplicial complex dual to an associahedron of type A_n [Fomin & Reading, p.60]. See A033282 for the corresponding array of f-vectors for associahedra of type A_n. See A008459 and A145903 for the h-vectors for associahedra of type B and type D respectively. The Hilbert transform of this triangle (see A145905 for the definition of this transform) is A145904. - Peter Bala, Oct 27 2008

T(n,k) is also the number of noncrossing set partitions of [n] into k blocks. Given a partition P of the set {1,2,...,n}, a crossing in P are four integers [a, b, c, d] with 1 <= a < b < c < d <= n for which a, c are together in a block, and b, d are together in a different block. A noncrossing partition is a partition with no crossings. - Peter Luschny, Apr 29 2011

Diagonals of A089732 are rows of A001263.- Tom Copeland, May 14 2012

From Peter Bala, Aug 07 2013: (Start)

Let E(y) = sum {n >= 0} y^n/(n!*(n+1)!) = 1/sqrt(y)*BesselI(1,2*sqrt(y)). Then this triangle is the generalized Riordan array (E(y), y) with respect to the sequence n!*(n+1)! as defined in Wang and Wang.

Generating function E(y)*E(x*y) = 1 + (1 + x)*y/(1!*2!) + (1 + 3*x + x^2)*y^2/(2!*3!) + (1 + 6*x + 6*x^2 + x^3)*y^3/(3!*4!) + .... Cf. A105278 with a generating function exp(y)*E(x*y).

The n-th power of this array has a generating function E(y)^n*E(x*y). In particular, the matrix inverse A103364 has a generating function E(x*y)/E(y). (End)

A166360(n-k) = T(n,k) mod 2. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Oct 10 2013

T(n,k) is the number of nonintersecting n arches above the x axis, starting and ending on vertices 1 to 2n, with k being the number of arches starting on an odd vertice and ending on a higher even vertice. Example: T(3,2)=3  [16,25,34] [14,23,56] [12,36,45]. - Roger Ford, Jun 14 2014


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a(n, k) = C(n-1, k-1)C(n, k-1)/k for k!=0; a(n, 0)=0.

Triangle equals [0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, ...] DELTA [1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, ...] where DELTA is Deléham's operator defined in A084938.

0<n, 1<=k<=n a(n, 1) = a(n, n) = 1 a(n, k) = sum(i=1..n-1, sum(r=1..k-1, a(n-1-i, k-r) a(i, r))) + a(n-1, k) a(n, k) = sum(i=1..k-1, binomial(n+i-1, 2k-2)*a(k-1, i)) - Mike Zabrocki, Aug 26 2004

T(n, k) = C(n, k)*C(n-1, k-1) - C(n, k-1)*C(n-1, k) (determinant of a 2 X 2 subarray of Pascal's triangle A007318). - Gerald McGarvey, Feb 24 2005

T(n, k) = binomial(n-1, k-1)^2 - binomial(n-1, k)binomial(n-1, k-2). - David Callan, Nov 02 2005

a(n,k) = C(n,2) (a(n-1,k)/((n-k)(n-k+1)) + a(n-1,k-1)/(k(k-1))) a(n,k) = C(n,k) C(n,k-1)/n. - Mitch Harris, Jul 06 2006

Central column = A000891, (2n)!(2n+1)! / (n! (n+1)!)^2. - Zerinvary Lajos, Oct 29 2006

G.f.: (1-x*(1+y)-sqrt((1-x*(1+y))^2-4*y*x^2))/(2*x) = Sum_{n>0, k>0} a(n, k)*x^n*y^k.

From Peter Bala, Oct 22 2008: (Start)

Relation with Jacobi polynomials of parameter (1,1):

Row n+1 generating polynomial equals 1/(n+1)*x*(1-x)^n*Jacobi_P(n,1,1,(1+x)/(1-x)). It follows that the zeros of the Narayana polynomials are all real and nonpositive, as noted above. O.g.f for column k+2: 1/(k+1) * y^(k+2)/(1-y)^(k+3) * Jacobi_P(k,1,1,(1+y)/(1-y)). Cf. A008459.

T(n+1,k) is the number of walks of n unit steps on the square lattice (i.e., each step in the direction either up (U), down (D), right (R) or left (L)) starting from the origin and finishing at lattice points on the x axis and which remain in the upper half-plane y >= 0 [Guy]. For example, T(4,3) = 6 counts the six walks RRL, LRR, RLR, UDL, URD and RUD, from the origin to the lattice point (1,0), each of 3 steps. Compare with tables A145596 - A145599.

Define a functional I on formal power series of the form f(x) = 1 + ax + bx^2 + ... by the following iterative process. Define inductively f^(1)(x) = f(x) and f^(n+1)(x) = f(x*f^(n)(x)) for n >= 1. Then set I(f(x)) = lim n -> infinity f^(n)(x) in the x-adic topology on the ring of formal power series; the operator I may also be defined by I(f(x)) := 1/x*series reversion of x/f(x).

The o.g.f. for this array is I(1 + t*x + t*x^2 + t*x^3 + ...) = 1 + t*x + (t + t^2)*x^2 + (t + 3*t^2 + t^3)*x^3 + ... = 1/(1 - x*t/(1 - x/(1 - x*t/(1 - x/(1 - ...))))) (as a continued fraction). Cf. A108767, A132081 and A141618. (End)

G.f.: 1/(1-x-xy-x^2y/(1-x-xy-x^2y/(1-... (continued fraction). - Paul Barry, Sep 28 2010

E.g.f.: exp((1+y)x)Bessel_I(1,2*sqrt(y)x)/(sqrt(y)*x). - Paul Barry, Sep 28 2010

G.f.: A(x,y) = exp( Sum_{n>=1} [Sum_{k=0..n} C(n,k)^2*y^k] * x^n/n ). - Paul D. Hanna, Oct 13 2010

With F(x,t) = (1-(1+t)*x-sqrt(1-2*(1+t)*x+((t-1)*x)^2))/(2*x) an o.g.f. in x for the Narayana polynomials in t, G(x,t) = x/(t+(1+t)*x+x^2) is the compositional inverse in x. Consequently, with H(x,t) = 1/ (dG(x,t)/dx) = (t+(1+t)*x+x^2)^2 / (t-x^2), the n-th Narayana polynomial in t is given by (1/n!)*((H(x,t)*D_x)^n)x evaluated at x=0, i.e., F(x,t) = exp(x*H(u,t)*D_u)u, evaluated at u = 0. Also, dF(x,t)/dx = H(F(x,t),t). - Tom Copeland, Sep 04 2011

With offset 0, A001263 = sum(j=0,1,...,infinity) A132710^j / A010790(j), a normalized Bessel fct. May be represented as the Pascal matrix A007318, n!/[(n-k)!*k!], umbralized with b(n)=A002378(n) for n>0 and b(0)=1: A001263(n,k)= b.(n!)/{b.[(n-k)!]*b.(k!)} where b.(n!) = b(n)*b(n-1)...*b(0), a generalized factorial (see example). - Tom Copeland, Sep 21 2011

With F(x,t) = {1-(1-t)*x-sqrt[1-2*(1+t)*x+[(t-1)*x]^2]}/2 a shifted o.g.f. in x for the Narayana polynomials in t, G(x,t)= x/[t-1+1/(1-x)] is the compositional inverse in x. Therefore, with H(x,t)=1/(dG(x,t)/dx)=[t-1+1/(1-x)]^2/{t-[x/(1-x)]^2}, (see A119900), the (n-1)-th Narayana polynomial in t is given by (1/n!)*((H(x,t)*d/dx)^n)x evaluated at x=0, i.e., F(x,t) = exp(x*H(u,t)*d/du) u, evaluated at u = 0. Also, dF(x,t)/dx = H(F(x,t),t). - Tom Copeland, Sep 30 2011

T(n,k) = binomial(n-1,k-1)*binomial(n+1,k)-binomial(n,k-1)*binomial(n,k). - Philippe Deléham, Nov 05 2011

Damped sum of a column, in leading order: Lim_{d->0} d^(2k-1) Sum_{N>=k} T(N,k)(1-d)^N=Catalan(n). - Joachim Wuttke, Sep 11 2014

Multiplying the n-th column by n! generates the revert of the unsigned Lah numbers, A089231. - Tom Copeland, Jan 07 2016

Row polynomials: (x - 1)^(n+1)*(P(n+1,(1 + x)/(x - 1)) - P(n-1,(1 + x)/(x - 1)))/((4*n + 2)), n = 1,2,... and where P(n,x) denotes the n-th Legendre polynomial. - Peter Bala, Mar 03 2017


For all n, 12...n (1 block) and 1|2|3|...|n (n blocks) are noncrossing set partitions.

[1] 1

[2] 1,  1

[3] 1,  3,   1

[4] 1,  6,   6,    1

[5] 1, 10,  20,   10,    1

[6] 1, 15,  50,   50,   15,    1

[7] 1, 21, 105,  175,  105,   21,   1

[8] 1, 28, 196,  490,  490,  196,  28,  1

[9] 1, 36, 336, 1176, 1764, 1176, 336, 36, 1; etc.

Example of umbral representation:


  so A001263(5,k)={1,b(5)/b(1),b(5)*b(4)/[b(2)*b(1)],...,1}

  = [1,30/2,30*20/(6*2),...,1]=(1,15,50,50,15,1).

  First = last term = b.(5!)/[b.(0!)*b.(5!)]= 1. - Tom Copeland, Sep 21 2011


A001263 := (n, k)->binomial(n-1, k-1)*binomial(n, k-1)/k;

a:=proc(n, k) option remember; local i; if k=1 or k=n then 1 else add(binomial(n+i-1, 2*k-2)*a(k-1, i), i=1..k-1); fi; end:


T[n_, k_] := If[k==0, 0, Binomial[n-1, k-1] Binomial[n, k-1] / k];

Flatten[Table[Binomial[n-1, k-1] Binomial[n, k-1]/k, {n, 15}, {k, n}]] (* Harvey P. Dale, Feb 29 2012 *)


(PARI) {a(n, k) = if(k==0, 0, binomial(n-1, k-1) * binomial(n, k-1) / k)};

(PARI) {T(n, k)=polcoeff(polcoeff(exp(sum(m=1, n, sum(j=0, m, binomial(m, j)^2*y^j)*x^m/m) +O(x^(n+1))), n, x), k, y)} \\ Paul D. Hanna, Oct 13 2010


a001263 n k = a001263_tabl !! (n-1) !! (k-1)

a001263_row n = a001263_tabl !! (n-1)

a001263_tabl = zipWith dt a007318_tabl (tail a007318_tabl) where

   dt us vs = zipWith (-) (zipWith (*) us (tail vs))

                          (zipWith (*) (tail us ++ [0]) (init vs))

-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Oct 10 2013

(MAGMA) /* triangle */ [[Binomial(n-1, k-1)*Binomial(n, k-1)/k : k in [1..n]]: n in [1.. 15]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Oct 19 2014



def T(n, k):

    if k==n or k==1: return 1

    if k<=0 or k >n: return 0

    return binomial(n, 2)*(T(n-1, k)/((n-k)*(n-k+1)) + T(n-1, k-1)/(k*(k-1)))

for n in (1..9): print [T(n, k) for k in (1..n)] # Peter Luschny, Oct 28 2014


Other versions are in A090181 and A131198. - Philippe Deléham, Nov 18 2007

Cf. variants: A181143, A181144. - Paul D. Hanna, Oct 13 2010

Row sums give A000108 (Catalan numbers), n>0.

Columns give A000217, A002415, A006542, A006857, A084938.

A108679 (6th column). - Zerinvary Lajos, Jun 18 2007

Cf. A000372, A002083, A056932, A056939, A056940, A056941, A065329, A073345.

A145596, A145597, A145598, A145599. - Peter Bala, Oct 22 2008

A008459 (h-vectors type B associahedra), A033282 (f-vectors type A associahedra), A145903 (h-vectors type D associahedra), A145904 (Hilbert transform). - Peter Bala, Oct 27 2008

Cf. A016098 and A189232 for numbers of crossing set partitions.

Cf. A243752.

Cf. A089231.

Sequence in context: A114176 A056241 A162745 * A162747 A107105 A088925

Adjacent sequences:  A001260 A001261 A001262 * A001264 A001265 A001266




N. J. A. Sloane



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Last modified March 25 09:50 EDT 2017. Contains 284060 sequences.