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A132710 Infinitesimal generator for a diagonally-shifted Lah matrix, unsigned A105278, related to n! Laguerre(n,-x,1). 4
0, 2, 0, 0, 6, 0, 0, 0, 12, 0, 0, 0, 0, 20, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 30, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 42, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 56, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 72, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 90, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 110, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 132, 0 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

Analogous to the infinitesimal generators of A132681 and A132792.

The matrix T begins

0;

2, 0;

0, 6, 0;

0, 0, 12 0;

0, 0, 0, 20, 0;

Along the nonvanishing diagonal the n-th term is (n+2)*(n+1).

Let LM(t) = exp(t*T) = limit [1 + t*T/n]^n as n tends to infinity.

Shifted Lah matrix = [bin(n+1,k+1)*(n)!/(k)! ] = LM(1) = exp(T). Truncating the series gives the n X n submatrices. In fact, the submatrices of T are nilpotent with [Tsub_n]^(n+1) = 0 for n=0,1,2,....

Inverse shifted Lah matrix = LM(-1) = exp(-T)

Umbrally shifted Lah[b(.)] = exp(b(.)*T) = [ binomial(n+1,k+1)*(n)!/(k)! * b(n-k) ]

A(j) = T^j / j! equals the matrix [binomial(n+1,k+1)*(n)!/(k)! * delta(n-k-j)] where delta(n) = 1 if n=0 and vanishes otherwise (Kronecker delta); i.e. A(j) is a matrix with all the terms 0 except for the j-th lower (or main for j=0) diagonal which equals that of the Lah matrix. Hence the A(j)'s form a linearly independent basis for all matrices of the form [binomial(n+1,k+1) * (n)! / (k)! * d(n-k)].

For sequences with b(0) = 1, umbrally,

LM[b(.)] = exp(b(.)*T) = [ bin(n+1,k+1)*(n)!/(k)! * b(n-k) ] .

[LM[b(.)]]^(-1) = exp(c(.)*T) = [ bin(n+1,k+1)*(n)!/(k)! * c(n-k) ] where c = LPT(b) with LPT the list partition transform of A133314. Or,

[LM[b(.)]]^(-1) = exp[LPT(b(.))*T] = LPT[LM(b(.))] = LM[LPT(b(.))] = LM[c(.)] .

The matrix operation b = T*a can be characterized in several ways in terms of the coefficients a(n) and b(n), their o.g.f.'s A(x) and B(x), or e.g.f.'s EA(x) and EB(x).

1) b(0) = 0, b(n) = (n+1)*(n) * a(n-1),

2) B(x) = x * D^2 * x^2 A(x)

3) B(x) = x * 2 *Lag(2,-:xD:,0) A(x)

4) EB(x) = D * x^2 EA(x)

where D is the derivative w.r.t. x, (:xD:)^j = x^j*D^j and Lag(n,x,m) is the associated Laguerre polynomial of order m.

The exponentiated operator can be characterized (with loose notation) as

5) exp(t*T) * a = LM(t) * a = [sum(k=0,...,n) bin(n+1,k+1) * n!/k! t^(n-k) * a(k)] = [ t^n * n! * Lag(n,-a(.)/t,1) ], a vector array.

With t=1 and a(k) = (-x)^k, then LM(1) * a = [ n! * Laguerre(n,x,1) ], a vector array with index n .

6) exp(t*T) EA(x) = EB(x) = EA[ x / (1-x*t) ] / (1-x*t)^2

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..77.

G. Hetyei, Meixner polynomials of the second kind and quantum algebras representing su(1,1), arXiv preprint arXiv:0909.4352 [math.QA], 2009, p. 4

M. Janjic, Some classes of numbers and derivatives, JIS 12 (2009) 09.8.3

FORMULA

Given a polynomial sequence p_n(x) with p_0(x)=1 and the lowering and raising operators L and R defined by L P_n(x) = n * P_(n-1)(x) and

  R P_n(x) = P_(n+1)(x), the matrix T represents the action of R*L^2*R^2

  in the p_n(x) basis. For p_n(x) = x^n, L = D = d/dx and R = x.

  For p_n(x)  = x^n/n!, L = DxD and R = D^(-1). - Tom Copeland, Oct 25 2012

MATHEMATICA

Table[PadLeft[{n*(n-1), 0}, n], {n, 0, 12}] // Flatten (* Jean-Fran├žois Alcover, Apr 30 2014 *)

CROSSREFS

Sequence in context: A249132 A128711 A259857 * A106512 A181229 A094785

Adjacent sequences:  A132707 A132708 A132709 * A132711 A132712 A132713

KEYWORD

easy,nonn,tabl

AUTHOR

Tom Copeland, Nov 15 2007, Nov 16 2007, Nov 27 2007

STATUS

approved

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Last modified October 23 03:37 EDT 2018. Contains 316519 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)