

A001950


Upper Wythoff sequence (a Beatty sequence): a(n) = floor(n*phi^2), where phi = (1+sqrt(5))/2.
(Formerly M1332 N0509)


209



2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, 18, 20, 23, 26, 28, 31, 34, 36, 39, 41, 44, 47, 49, 52, 54, 57, 60, 62, 65, 68, 70, 73, 75, 78, 81, 83, 86, 89, 91, 94, 96, 99, 102, 104, 107, 109, 112, 115, 117, 120, 123, 125, 128, 130, 133, 136, 138, 141, 143, 146, 149, 151, 154, 157
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OFFSET

1,1


COMMENTS

Indices at which blocks (1;0) occur in infinite Fibonacci word; i.e., n such that A005614(n2) = 0 and A005614(n1) = 1.  Benoit Cloitre, Nov 15 2003
A000201 and this sequence may be defined as follows: Consider the maps a > ab, b > a, starting from a(1) = a; then A000201 gives the indices of a, A001950 gives the indices of b. The sequence of letters in the infinite word begins a, b, a, a, b, a, b, a, a, b, a, ... Setting a = 0, b = 1 gives A003849 (offset 0); setting a = 1, b = 0 gives A005614 (offset 0).  Philippe Deléham, Feb 20 2004
a(n) = nth integer which is not equal to the floor of any multiple of phi, where phi = (1+sqrt(5))/2 = golden number.  Philippe LALLOUET (philip.lallouet(AT)wanadoo.fr), May 09 2007
Write A for A000201 and B for the present sequence (the upper Wythoff sequence, complement of A). Then the composite sequences AA, AB, BA, BB, AAA, AAB, ..., BBB, ... appear in many complementary equations having solution A000201 (or equivalently, the present sequence). Typical complementary equations: AB=A+B (=A003623), BB=A+2B (=A101864), BBB=3A+5B (=A134864).  Clark Kimberling, Nov 14 2007
Apart from the initial 0 in A090909, is this the same as that sequence?  Alec Mihailovs (alec(AT)mihailovs.com), Jul 23 2007
If we define a basephi integer as a positive number whose representation in the golden ratio base consists only of nonnegative powers of phi, and if these basephi integers are ordered in increasing order (beginning 1, phi, ...), then it appears that the difference between the nth and (n1)th basephi integer is phi1 if and only if n belongs to this sequence, and the difference is 1 otherwise. Further, if each basephi integer is written in linear form as a + b*phi (for example, phi^2 is written as 1 + phi), then it appears that there are exactly two basephi integers with b=n if and only if n belongs to this sequence, and exactly three basephi integers with b=n otherwise.  Geoffrey Caveney, Apr 17 2014
Numbers with an odd number of trailing zeros in their Zeckendorf representation (A014417).  Amiram Eldar, Feb 26 2021


REFERENCES

Claude Berge, Graphs and Hypergraphs, NorthHolland, 1973; p. 324, Problem 2.
Eric Friedman, Scott M. Garrabrant, Ilona K. PhippsMorgan, A. S. Landsberg and Urban Larsson, Geometric analysis of a generalized Wythoff game, in Games of no Chance 5, MSRI publ. Cambridge University Press, 2019.
Martin Gardner, Penrose Tiles to Trapdoor Ciphers, W. H. Freeman, 1989; see p. 107.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
I. M. Yaglom, Two games with matchsticks, pp. 17 of Qvant Selecta: Combinatorics I, Amer Math. Soc., 2001.


LINKS

N. J. A. Sloane, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..10000, Mar 30 2016 [First 1000 terms from T. D. Noe]
JeanPaul Allouche and F. Michel Dekking, Generalized Beatty sequences and complementary triples, Moscow Journal of Combinatorics and Number Theory, Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019), pp. 325341; arXiv preprint, arXiv:1809.03424 [math.NT], 20182019.
L. Carlitz, R. Scoville and T. Vaughan, Some arithmetic functions related to Fibonacci numbers, Fib. Quart., 11 (1973), 337386.
I. G. Connell, Some properties of Beatty sequences I, Canad. Math. Bull., 2 (1959), 190197.
H. S. M. Coxeter, The Golden Section, Phyllotaxis and Wythoff's Game, Scripta Math. 19 (1953), 135143. [Annotated scanned copy]
F. Michel Dekking, Jeffrey Shallit, and N. J. A. Sloane, Queens in exile: nonattacking queens on infinite chess boards, Electronic J. Combin., 27:1 (2020), #P1.52.
Eric Duchene, Aviezri S. Fraenkel, Vladimir Gurvich, Nhan Bao Ho, Clark Kimberling, and Urban Larsson, Wythoff Wisdom, 43 pages, no date, unpublished.
Eric Duchene, Aviezri S. Fraenkel, Vladimir Gurvich, Nhan Bao Ho, Clark Kimberling, and Urban Larsson, Wythoff Wisdom, unpublished, no date [Cached copy, with permission]
Nathan Fox, On Aperiodic Subtraction Games with Bounded Nim Sequence, arXiv preprint arXiv:1407.2823, 2014
Aviezri S. Fraenkel, How to beat your Wythoff games' opponent on three fronts, Amer. Math. Monthly, Vol. 89 (1982), pp. 353361 (the case a=1).
Aviezri S. Fraenkel, The Raleigh game, INTEGERS: Electronic Journal of Combinatorial Number Theory 7.2 (2007): A13, 10 pages. See Table 1.
Aviezri S. Fraenkel, Ratwyt, December 28 2011.
Aviezri S. Fraenkel, Complementary iterated floor words and the Flora game, SIAM J. Discrete Math., Vol. 24, No. 2 (2010), pp. 570588.  N. J. A. Sloane, May 06 2011
Martin Griffiths, The Golden String, Zeckendorf Representations, and the Sum of a Series, Amer. Math. Monthly, Vol. 118 (2011), pp. 497507.
Martin Griffiths, On a Matrix Arising from a Family of Iterated SelfCompositions, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 18 (2015), Article #15.11.8.
Martin Griffiths, A difference property amongst certain pairs of Beatty sequences, The Mathematical Gazette, Vol. 102, Issue 554 (2018), Article 102.36, pp. 348350.
Tomi Kärki, Anne Lacroix and Michel Rigo, On the recognizability of selfgenerating sets, JIS, Vol. 13 (2010), Article #10.2.2.
Clark Kimberling, A SelfGenerating Set and the Golden Mean, J. Integer Sequences, Vol. 3 (2000), Article #00.2.8.
Clark Kimberling, Complementary Equations, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 10 (2007), Article 07.1.4.
Clark Kimberling, Complementary equations and Wythoff Sequences, JIS, Vol. 11 (2008), Article 08.3.3.
Clark Kimberling, Lucas Representations of Positive Integers, J. Int. Seq., Vol. 23 (2020), Article 20.9.5.
Clark Kimberling and Kenneth B. Stolarsky, Slow Beatty sequences, devious convergence, and partitional divergence, Amer. Math. Monthly, Vol. 123, No. 2 (2016), pp. 267273.
Wolfdieter Lang, The Wythoff and the Zeckendorf representations of numbers are equivalent, in G. E. Bergum et al. (eds.), Application of Fibonacci numbers vol. 6, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1996, pp. 319337. [See A317208 for a link.]
Urban Larsson and Nathan Fox, An Aperiodic Subtraction Game of NimDimension Two, Journal of Integer Sequences, 2015, Vol. 18, #15.7.4.
D. J. Newman, Problem 5252, Amer. Math. Monthly, Vol. 72, No. 10 (1965), pp. 11441145.
Gabriel Nivasch, More on the SpragueGrundy function for Wythoff’s game, pages 377410 in "Games of No Chance 3, MSRI Publications Volume 56, 2009.
R. J. Nowakowski, Generalizations of the LangfordSkolem problem, M.S. Thesis, Dept. Math., Univ. Calgary, May 1975. [Scanned copy, with permission.]
Michel Rigo, Invariant games and nonhomogeneous Beatty sequences, Slides of a talk, Journée de Mathématiques Discrètes, 2015.
Vincent Russo and Loren Schwiebert, Beatty Sequences, Fibonacci Numbers, and the Golden Ratio, The Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 2 (May 2011), pp. 151154.
Jeffrey Shallit, Sumsets of Wythoff Sequences, Fibonacci Representation, and Beyond, arXiv:2006.04177 [math.CO], 2020.
K. B. Stolarsky, Beatty sequences, continued fractions, and certain shift operators, Canadian Math. Bull., Vol. 19 (1976), pp. 473482.
X. Sun, Wythoff's sequence and NHeap Wythoff's conjectures, Discr. Math., Vol. 300 (2005), pp. 180195.
J. C. Turner, The alpha and the omega of the Wythoff pairs, Fib. Q., Vol. 27 (1989), pp. 7686.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Beatty Sequence, MathWorld.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Golden ratio, MathWorld.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Wythoff's Game, MathWorld.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Wythoff Array.
Index entries for sequences related to Beatty sequences


FORMULA

a(n) = n + floor(n*phi). In general, floor(n*phi^m) = Fibonacci(m1)*n + floor(Fibonacci(m)*n*phi).  Benoit Cloitre, Mar 18 2003
a(n) = n + floor(n*phi) = n + A000201(n).  Paul Weisenhorn and Philippe Deléham
Append a 0 to the Zeckendorf expansion (cf. A035517) of nth term of A000201.
a(n) = A003622(n) + 1.  Philippe Deléham, Apr 30 2004
a(n) = Min(m: A134409(m) = A006336(n)).  Reinhard Zumkeller, Oct 24 2007
If a'=A000201 is the ordered complement (in N) of {a(n)}, then a(Fib(r2)+j) = Fib(r)+a(j) for 0<j<=Fib(r2), 3<r; and a'(Fib(r1)+j) = Fib(r)+a'(j) for 0<j<=Fib(r2), 2<r.  Paul Weisenhorn, Aug 18 2012
with a(1)=2, a(2)=5, a'(1)=1, a'(2)=3 and 1<k and a(k1)<n<=a(k) one gets a(n)=3*nk, a'(n)=2*nk.  Paul Weisenhorn, Aug 21 2012


EXAMPLE

From Paul Weisenhorn, Aug 18 2012 and Aug 21 2012: (Start)
a(14)=floor(14*phi^2)=36; a'(14)=floor(14*phi)=22;
with r=9 and j=1: a(13+1)=34+2=36;
with r=8 and j=1: a'(13+1)=21+1=22.
k=6 and a(5)=13 < n <= a(6)=15
a(14)=3*146=36; a'(14)=2*146=22;
a(15)=3*156=39; a'(15)=2*156=24. (End)


MATHEMATICA

Table[Floor[N[n*(1+Sqrt[5])^2/4]], {n, 1, 75}]
Array[ Floor[ #*GoldenRatio^2] &, 60] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Apr 17 2010 *)


PROG

(PARI) a(n)=floor(n*(sqrt(5)+3)/2)
(PARI) A001950(n)=(sqrtint(n^2*5)+n*3)\2 \\ M. F. Hasler, Sep 17 2014
(Haskell)
a001950 n = a000201 n + n  Reinhard Zumkeller, Mar 10 2013
(MAGMA) [Floor(n*((1+Sqrt(5))/2)^2): n in [1..80]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Nov 19 2016


CROSSREFS

a(n) = greatest k such that s(k) = n, where s = A026242. Complement of A000201.
A002251 maps between A000201 and A001950, in that A002251(A000201(n)) = A001950(n), A002251(A001950(n)) = A000201(n).
Cf. A001622, A026352, A004976, A004919.
Let A = A000201, B = A001950. Then AA = A003622, AB = A003623, BA = A035336, BB = A101864.
First differences give (essentially) A076662.
Cf. A014417, A329825.
Sequence in context: A018717 A188036 A292645 * A090909 A330064 A022841
Adjacent sequences: A001947 A001948 A001949 * A001951 A001952 A001953


KEYWORD

nonn,easy,nice,changed


AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane


EXTENSIONS

Corrected by Michael Somos, Jun 07 2000


STATUS

approved



