

A001622


Decimal expansion of golden ratio phi (or tau) = (1 + sqrt(5))/2.
(Formerly M4046 N1679)


1597



1, 6, 1, 8, 0, 3, 3, 9, 8, 8, 7, 4, 9, 8, 9, 4, 8, 4, 8, 2, 0, 4, 5, 8, 6, 8, 3, 4, 3, 6, 5, 6, 3, 8, 1, 1, 7, 7, 2, 0, 3, 0, 9, 1, 7, 9, 8, 0, 5, 7, 6, 2, 8, 6, 2, 1, 3, 5, 4, 4, 8, 6, 2, 2, 7, 0, 5, 2, 6, 0, 4, 6, 2, 8, 1, 8, 9, 0, 2, 4, 4, 9, 7, 0, 7, 2, 0, 7, 2, 0, 4, 1, 8, 9, 3, 9, 1, 1, 3, 7, 4, 8, 4, 7, 5
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OFFSET

1,2


COMMENTS

Also decimal expansion of the positive root of (x+1)^n  x^(2n). (x+1)^n  x^(2n) = 0 has only two real roots x1 = (sqrt(5)1)/2 and x2 = (sqrt(5)+1)/2 for all n > 0.  Cino Hilliard, May 27 2004
The golden ratio phi is the most irrational among irrational numbers; its successive continued fraction convergents F(n+1)/F(n) are the slowest to approximate to its actual value (I. Stewart, in "Nature's Numbers", Basic Books, 1997).  Lekraj Beedassy, Jan 21 2005
Let t=golden ratio. The lesser sqrt(5)contraction rectangle has shape t1, and the greater sqrt(5)contraction rectangle has shape t. For definitions of shape and contraction rectangles, see A188739.  Clark Kimberling, Apr 16 2011
The golden ratio (often denoted by phi or tau) is the shape (i.e., length/width) of the golden rectangle, which has the special property that removal of a square from one end leaves a rectangle of the same shape as the original rectangle. Analogously, removals of certain isosceles triangles characterize sidegolden and anglegolden triangles. Repeated removals in these configurations result in infinite partitions of golden rectangles and triangles into squares or isosceles triangles so as to match the continued fraction, [1,1,1,1,1,...] of tau. For the special shape of rectangle which partitions into golden rectangles so as to match the continued fraction [tau, tau, tau, ...], see A188635. For other rectangular shapes which depend on tau, see A189970, A190177, A190179, A180182. For triangular shapes which depend on tau, see A152149 and A188594; for tetrahedral, see A178988.  Clark Kimberling, May 06 2011
Given a pentagon ABCDE, 1/(phi)^2 <= (A*C^2 + C*E^2 + E*B^2 + B*D^2 + D*A^2) / (A*B^2 + B*C^2 + C*D^2 + D*E^2 + E*A^2) <= (phi)^2.  Seiichi Kirikami, Aug 18 2011
If a triangle has sides whose lengths form a geometric progression in the ratio of 1:r:r^2 then the triangle inequality condition requires that r be in the range 1/phi < r < phi.  Frank M Jackson, Oct 12 2011
The graphs of xy=1 and x*y=1 meet at (tau,1/tau).  Clark Kimberling, Oct 19 2011
Also decimal expansion of the first root of x^sqrt(x+1) = sqrt(x+1)^x.  Michel Lagneau, Dec 02 2011
Also decimal expansion of the root of (1/x)^(1/sqrt(x+1)) = (1/sqrt(x+1))^(1/x).  Michel Lagneau, Apr 17 2012
This is the case n=5 of (Gamma(1/n)/Gamma(3/n))*(Gamma((n1)/n)/Gamma((n3)/n)): (1+sqrt(5))/2 = (Gamma(1/5)/Gamma(3/5))*(Gamma(4/5)/Gamma(2/5)).  Bruno Berselli, Dec 14 2012
Also decimal expansion of the only number x>1 such that (x^x)^(x^x) = (x^(x^x))^x = x^((x^x)^x).  Jaroslav Krizek, Feb 01 2014
For n >= 1, round(phi^prime(n)) == 1 (mod prime(n)) and, for n >= 3, round(phi^prime(n)) == 1 (mod 2*prime(n)).  Vladimir Shevelev, Mar 21 2014
The continuous radical sqrt(1+sqrt(1+sqrt(1+...))) tends to phi.  Giovanni Zedda, Jun 22 2019
Equals sqrt(2+sqrt(2sqrt(2+sqrt(2...)))).  Diego Rattaggi, Apr 17 2021
Given any complex p such that real(p) > 1, phi is the only real solution of the equation z^p+z^(p+1)=z^(p+2), and the only attractor of the complex mapping z>M(z,p), where M(z,p)=(z^p+z^(p+1))^(1/(p+2)), convergent from any complex plane point.  Stanislav Sykora, Oct 14 2021
The only positive number such that its decimal part, its integral part and the number itself (x[x], [x] and x) form a geometric progression is phi, with respectively (phi 1, 1, phi) and a ratio = phi. This is the answer to the 4th problem of the 7th Canadian Mathematical Olympiad in 1975 (see IMO link and Doob reference).  Bernard Schott, Dec 08 2021
The golden ratio is the unique number x such that f(n*x)*c(n/x)  f(n/x)*c(n*x) = n for all n >= 1, where f = floor and c = ceiling.  Clark Kimberling, Jan 04 2022
In The Second Scientific American Book Of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions, Martin Gardner wrote that, by 1910, Mark Barr (18711950) gave phi as a symbol for the golden ratio.  Bernard Schott, May 01 2022
Phi is the length of the equal legs of an isosceles triangle with side c = phi^2, and internal angles (A,B) = 36 degrees, C = 108 degrees.  Gary W. Adamson, Jun 20 2022


REFERENCES

Michael Doob, The Canadian Mathematical Olympiad & L'Olympiade Mathématique du Canada 19691993  Canadian Mathematical Society & Société Mathématique du Canada, Problem 4, 1975, pages 7677, 1993.
Richard A. Dunlap, The Golden Ratio and Fibonacci Numbers, World Scientific, River Edge, NJ, 1997.
Steven R. Finch, Mathematical Constants, Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its Applications, Vol. 94, Cambridge University Press, 2003, Section 1.2.
Martin Gardner, The Second Scientific American Book Of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions, "Phi: The Golden Ratio", Chapter 8, Simon & Schuster, NY, 1961.
Martin Gardner, Weird Water and Fuzzy Logic: More Notes of a Fringe Watcher, "The Cult of the Golden Ratio", Chapter 9, Prometheus Books, 1996, pages 9097.
H. E. Huntley, The Divine Proportion, Dover, NY, 1970.
L. B. W. Jolley, The Summation of Series, Dover, 1961.
Mario Livio, The Golden Ratio, Broadway Books, NY, 2002. [see the review by G. Markowsky in the links field]
Gary B. Meisner, The Golden Ratio: The Divine Beauty of Mathematics, Race Point Publishing (The Quarto Group), 2018. German translation: Der Goldene Schnitt, Librero, 2023.
Scott Olsen, The Golden Section, Walker & Co., NY, 2006.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
Hans Walser, The Golden Section, Math. Assoc. of Amer. Washington DC 2001.
ClaudeJacques Willard, Le nombre d'or, Magnard, Paris, 1987.


LINKS

Mohammad K. Azarian, Problem 123, Missouri Journal of Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 3 (Fall 1998), p. 176; Solution, ibid., Vol. 12, No. 1 (Winter 2000), pp. 6162.
The IMO Compendium, Problem 4, 7th Canadian Mathematical Olympiad 1975.
Herman P. Robinson, The CSR Function, Popular Computing (Calabasas, CA), Vol. 4, No. 35 (Feb 1976), pages PC353 to PC354. Annotated and scanned copy.


FORMULA

Equals Sum_{n>=2} 1/A064170(n) = 1/1 + 1/2 + 1/(2*5) + 1/(5*13) + 1/(13*34) + ...  Gary W. Adamson, Dec 15 2007
Equals Hypergeometric2F1([1/5, 4/5], [1/2], 3/4) = 2*cos((3/5)*arcsin(sqrt(3/4))).  Artur Jasinski, Oct 26 2008
The fractional part of phi^n equals phi^(n), if n is odd. For even n, the fractional part of phi^n is equal to 1phi^(n).
General formula: Provided x>1 satisfies xx^(1)=floor(x), where x=phi for this sequence, then:
for odd n: x^n  x^(n) = floor(x^n), hence fract(x^n) = x^(n),
for even n: x^n + x^(n) = ceiling(x^n), hence fract(x^n) = 1  x^(n),
for all n>0: x^n + (x)^(n) = round(x^n).
x=phi is the minimal solution to x  x^(1) = floor(x) (where floor(x)=1 in this case).
Other examples of constants x satisfying the relation x  x^(1) = floor(x) include A014176 (the silver ratio: where floor(x)=2) and A098316 (the "bronze" ratio: where floor(x)=3). (End)
Equals 2*cos(Pi/5) = e^(i*Pi/5) + e^(i*Pi/5).  Eric Desbiaux, Mar 19 2010
The solutions to xx^(1)=floor(x) are determined by x=(1/2)*(m+sqrt(m^2+4)), m>=1; x=phi for m=1. In terms of continued fractions the solutions can be described by x=[m;m,m,m,...], where m=1 for x=phi, and m=2 for the silver ratio A014176, and m=3 for the bronze ratio A098316.  Hieronymus Fischer, Oct 20 2010
Sum_{n>=1} x^n/n^2 = Pi^2/10  (log(2)*sin(Pi/10))^2 where x = 2*sin(Pi/10) = this constant here. [Jolley, eq 360d]
phi = 1 + Sum_{k>=1} (1)^(k1)/(F(k)*F(k+1)), where F(n) is the nth Fibonacci number (A000045). Proof. By Catalan's identity, F^2(n)  F(n1)*F(n+1) = (1)^(n1). Therefore,(1)^(n1)/(F(n)*F(n+1)) = F(n)/F(n+1)  F(n1)/F(n). Thus Sum_{k=1..n} (1)^(k1)/(F(k)*F(k+1)) = F(n)/F(n+1). If n goes to infinity, this tends to 1/phi = phi  1.  Vladimir Shevelev, Feb 22 2013
Let P(q) = Product_{k>=1} (1 + q^(2*k1)) (the g.f. of A000700), then A001622 = exp(Pi/6) * P(exp(5*Pi)) / P(exp(Pi)).  Stephen Beathard, Oct 06 2013
phi = i^(2/5) + i^(2/5) = ((i^(4/5))+1) / (i^(2/5)) = 2*(i^(2/5)  (sin(Pi/5))i) = 2*(i^(2/5) + (sin(Pi/5))i).  Jaroslav Krizek, Feb 03 2014
phi = sqrt(2/(3  sqrt(5))) = sqrt(2)/A094883. This follows from the fact that ((1 + sqrt(5))^2)*(3  sqrt(5)) = 8, so that ((1 + sqrt(5))/2)^2 = 2/(3  sqrt(5)).  Geoffrey Caveney, Apr 19 2014
exp(arcsinh(cos(Pi/2log(phi)*i))) = exp(arcsinh(sin(log(phi)*i))) = (sqrt(3) + i) / 2.  Geoffrey Caveney, Apr 23 2014
2*phi = z^0 + z^1  z^2  z^3 + z^4, where z = exp(2*Pi*i/5). See the Wikipedia KroneckerWeber theorem link.  Jonathan Sondow, Apr 24 2014
Phi is the limiting value of the iteration of x > sqrt(1+x) on initial value a >= 1.  Chayim Lowen, Aug 30 2015
1 = Sum_{k=0..n} binomial(n, k) / phi^(n+k) for all nonnegative integers n.
1 = Sum_{n>=1} 1 / phi^(2n1).
1 = Sum_{n>=2} 1 / phi^n.
phi = Sum_{n>=1} 1/phi^n. (End)
phi = Sum_{n>=0} (15*(2*n)! + 8*n!^2)/(2*n!^2*3^(2*n+2)).
phi = 1/2 + Sum_{n>=0} 5*(2*n)!/(2*n!^2*3^(2*n+1)). (End)
phi = Product_{k>=1} (1 + 2/(1 + 2^k*(sqrt(4+(12/2^k)^2) + sqrt(4+(11/2^k)^2)))).  Gleb Koloskov, Jul 14 2021
Equals Product_{k>=1} (Fibonacci(3*k)^2 + (1)^(k+1))/(Fibonacci(3*k)^2 + (1)^k) (Melham and Shannon, 1995).  Amiram Eldar, Jan 15 2022
Equals the real part of 2 * e^(i * Pi / 5).
Equals 2 * sin(3 * Pi / 10) = 2*A019863.
Equals 2 * sin(37 * Pi / 10).
Equals 1 + 1 / (1 + 1 / (1 + 1 / (1 + 1 / (1 + 1 / ...)))).
Equals (2 + 3 * (2 + 3 * (2 + 3 * ...)^(1/4))^(1/4))^(1/4).
Equals (1 + 2 * (1 + 2 * (1 + 2 * ...)^(1/3))^(1/3))^(1/3).
Equals (1 + phi + (1 + phi + (1 + phi + ...)^(1/3))^(1/3))^(1/3).
Equals 13/8 + Sum_{k=0..oo} (1)^(k+1)*(2*k+1)!/((k+2)!*k!*4^(2*k+3)).
(End)
The previous formula holds for integer n, with F(n) = (1)^(n+1)*F(n), for n >= 0, with F(n) = A000045(n), for n >= 0. phi^n are integers in the quadratic number field Q(sqrt(5)).  Wolfdieter Lang, Sep 16 2023


EXAMPLE

1.6180339887498948482045868343656381177203091798057628621...


MAPLE



MATHEMATICA

RealDigits[GoldenRatio, 10, 120][[1]] (* Harvey P. Dale, Oct 28 2015 *)


PROG

(PARI) default(realprecision, 20080); x=(1+sqrt(5))/2; for (n=1, 20000, d=floor(x); x=(xd)*10; write("b001622.txt", n, " ", d)); \\ Harry J. Smith, Apr 19 2009
(PARI)
/* Digitbydigit method: write it as 0.5+sqrt(1.25) and start at hundredths digit */
r=11; x=400; print(1); print(6);
for(dig=1, 110, {d=0; while((20*r+d)*d <= x, d++);
d; /* while loop overshoots correct digit */
print(d); x=100*(x(20*r+d)*d); r=10*r+d})
(PARI)
a(n) = floor(10^(n1)*(quadgen(5))%10);
(Python)
from sympy import S
def alst(n): # truncate extra last digit to avoid rounding
return list(map(int, str(S.GoldenRatio.n(n+1)).replace(".", "")))[:1]


CROSSREFS

Cf. A000012 (continued fraction coefficients), A000032, A000045, A006497, A080039, A104457, A188635, A192222, A192223, A145996, A139339, A197762, A002163, A094874, A134973.


KEYWORD



AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS

More terms from Gabriel Cunningham (gcasey(AT)mit.edu), Oct 24 2004
Broken URL to Project Gutenberg replaced by Georg Fischer, Jan 03 2009


STATUS

approved



