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A001622 Decimal expansion of golden ratio phi (or tau) = (1 + sqrt(5))/2.
(Formerly M4046 N1679)
1388
1, 6, 1, 8, 0, 3, 3, 9, 8, 8, 7, 4, 9, 8, 9, 4, 8, 4, 8, 2, 0, 4, 5, 8, 6, 8, 3, 4, 3, 6, 5, 6, 3, 8, 1, 1, 7, 7, 2, 0, 3, 0, 9, 1, 7, 9, 8, 0, 5, 7, 6, 2, 8, 6, 2, 1, 3, 5, 4, 4, 8, 6, 2, 2, 7, 0, 5, 2, 6, 0, 4, 6, 2, 8, 1, 8, 9, 0, 2, 4, 4, 9, 7, 0, 7, 2, 0, 7, 2, 0, 4, 1, 8, 9, 3, 9, 1, 1, 3, 7, 4, 8, 4, 7, 5 (list; constant; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,2

COMMENTS

Also decimal expansion of the positive root of (x+1)^n - x^(2n). (x+1)^n - x^(2n) = 0 has only two real roots x1 = -(sqrt(5)-1)/2 and x2 = (sqrt(5)+1)/2 for all n > 0. - Cino Hilliard, May 27 2004

The golden ratio phi is the most irrational among irrational numbers; its successive continued fraction convergents F(n+1)/F(n) are the slowest to approximate to its actual value (I. Stewart, in "Nature's Numbers", Basic Books, 1997). - Lekraj Beedassy, Jan 21 2005

Let t=golden ratio. The lesser sqrt(5)-contraction rectangle has shape t-1, and the greater sqrt(5)-contraction rectangle has shape t. For definitions of shape and contraction rectangles, see A188739. - Clark Kimberling, Apr 16 2011

The golden ratio (often denoted by phi or tau) is the shape (i.e., length/width) of the golden rectangle, which has the special property that removal of a square from one end leaves a rectangle of the same shape as the original rectangle. Analogously, removals of certain isosceles triangles characterize side-golden and angle-golden triangles. Repeated removals in these configurations result in infinite partitions of golden rectangles and triangles into squares or isosceles triangles so as to match the continued fraction, [1,1,1,1,1,...] of tau. For the special shape of rectangle which partitions into golden rectangles so as to match the continued fraction [tau, tau, tau, ...], see A188635. For other rectangular shapes which depend on tau, see A189970, A190177, A190179, A180182. For triangular shapes which depend on tau, see A152149 and A188594; for tetrahedral, see A178988. - Clark Kimberling, May 06 2011

Given a pentagon ABCDE, 1/(phi)^2 <= (A*C^2 + C*E^2 + E*B^2 + B*D^2 + D*A^2) / (A*B^2 + B*C^2 + C*D^2 + D*E^2 + E*A^2) <= (phi)^2. - Seiichi Kirikami, Aug 18 2011

If a triangle has sides whose lengths form a geometric progression in the ratio of 1:r:r^2 then the triangle inequality condition requires that r be in the range 1/phi < r < phi. - Frank M Jackson, Oct 12 2011

The graphs of x-y=1 and x*y=1 meet at (tau,1/tau). - Clark Kimberling, Oct 19 2011

Also decimal expansion of the first root of x^sqrt(x+1) = sqrt(x+1)^x. - Michel Lagneau, Dec 02 2011

Also decimal expansion of the root of (1/x)^(1/sqrt(x+1)) = (1/sqrt(x+1))^(1/x). - Michel Lagneau, Apr 17 2012

This is the case n=5 of (Gamma(1/n)/Gamma(3/n))*(Gamma((n-1)/n)/Gamma((n-3)/n)): (1+sqrt(5))/2 = (Gamma(1/5)/Gamma(3/5))*(Gamma(4/5)/Gamma(2/5)). - Bruno Berselli, Dec 14 2012

Also decimal expansion of the only number x>1 such that (x^x)^(x^x) = (x^(x^x))^x = x^((x^x)^x). - Jaroslav Krizek, Feb 01 2014

For n >= 1, round(phi^prime(n)) == 1 (mod prime(n)) and, for n >= 3, round(phi^prime(n)) == 1 (mod 2*prime(n)). - Vladimir Shevelev, Mar 21 2014

The continuous radical sqrt(1+sqrt(1+sqrt(1+...))) tends to phi. - Giovanni Zedda, Jun 22 2019

Equals sqrt(2+sqrt(2-sqrt(2+sqrt(2-...)))). - Diego Rattaggi, Apr 17 2021

Given any complex p such that real(p) > -1, phi is the only real solution of the equation z^p+z^(p+1)=z^(p+2), and the only attractor of the complex mapping z->M(z,p), where M(z,p)=(z^p+z^(p+1))^(1/(p+2)), convergent from any complex plane point. - Stanislav Sykora, Oct 14 2021

The only positive number such that its decimal part, its integral part and the number itself (x-[x], [x] and x) form a geometric progression is phi, with respectively (phi -1, 1, phi) and a ratio = phi. This is the answer to the 4th problem of the 7th Canadian Mathematical Olympiad in 1975 (see IMO link and Doob reference). - Bernard Schott, Dec 08 2021

The golden ratio is the unique number x such that f(n*x)*c(n/x) - f(n/x)*c(n*x) = n for all n >= 1, where f = floor and c = ceiling. - Clark Kimberling, Jan 04 2022

In The Second Scientific American Book Of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions, Martin Gardner wrote that, by 1910, Mark Barr (1871-1950) gave phi as a symbol for the golden ratio. - Bernard Schott, May 01 2022

REFERENCES

Michael Doob, The Canadian Mathematical Olympiad & L'Olympiade Mathématique du Canada 1969-1993 - Canadian Mathematical Society & Société Mathématique du Canada, Problem 4, 1975, pages 76-77, 1993.

Richard A. Dunlap, The Golden Ratio and Fibonacci Numbers, World Scientific, River Edge, NJ, 1997.

Steven R. Finch, Mathematical Constants, Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its Applications, Vol. 94, Cambridge University Press, 2003, Section 1.2.

Martin Gardner, The Second Scientific American Book Of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions, "Phi: The Golden Ratio", Chapter 8, Simon & Schuster, NY, 1961.

Martin Gardner, Weird Water and Fuzzy Logic: More Notes of a Fringe Watcher, "The Cult of the Golden Ratio", Chapter 9, Prometheus Books, 1996, pages 90-97.

H. E. Huntley, The Divine Proportion, Dover, NY, 1970.

L. B. W. Jolley, The Summation of Series, Dover, 1961.

Mario Livio, The Golden Ratio, Broadway Books, NY, 2002. [see the review by G. Markowsky in the links field]

Scott Olsen, The Golden Section, Walker & Co., NY, 2006.

N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

Hans Walser, The Golden Section, Math. Assoc. of Amer. Washington DC 2001.

Claude-Jacques Willard, Le nombre d'or, Magnard, Paris, 1987.

LINKS

Robert G. Wilson v, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..100000

Mohammad K. Azarian, Problem 123, Missouri Journal of Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 3 (Fall 1998), p. 176; Solution, ibid., Vol. 12, No. 1 (Winter 2000), pp. 61-62.

John Baez, This week's finds in mathematical physics, Week 203.

John Baez, The Rankin Lectures 2008, My Favorite Numbers: 5. [video]

Murray Berg, Phi, the golden ratio (to 4599 decimal places) and Fibonacci numbers, Fib. Quart., Vol. 4, No. 2 (1961), pp. 157-162.

Ömür Deveci, Zafer Adıgüzel and Taha Doğan, On the Generalized Fibonacci-circulant-Hurwitz numbers, Notes on Number Theory and Discrete Mathematics (2020) Vol. 26, No. 1, 179-190.

T. Eveilleau, Le nombre d'or (in French).

Abdul Gaffar, Anand B. Joshi, Sonali Singh, and Keerti Srivastava, A high capacity multi-image steganography technique based on golden ratio and non-subsampled contourlet transform, Multimedia Tools and Applications (2022).

Gutenberg Project, The golden ratio to 20000 places.

ICON Project, The golden ratio to 50000 places.

The IMO Compendium, Problem 4, 7th Canadian Mathematical Olympiad 1975.

Franklin H. J. Kenter, It's good to be phi: a solution to a problem of Gosper and Knuth, arXiv:1712.04856 [math.HO], 2017.

Clark Kimberling, Two kinds of golden triangles, generalized to match continued fractions, Journal for Geometry and Graphics, Vol. 11 (2007), pp. 165-171.

Clark Kimberling, Lucas Representations of Positive Integers, J. Int. Seq., Vol. 23 (2020), Article 20.9.5.

Ron Knott, Fibonacci numbers and the golden section.

Wolfdieter Lang, A list of representative simple difference sets of the Singer type for small orders m, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Karlsruhe, Germany 2020).

Simon Litsyn and Vladimir Shevelev, Irrational Factors Satisfying the Little Fermat Theorem, International Journal of Number Theory, Vol. 1, No. 4 (2005), pp. 499-512.

George Markowsky, Misconceptions About the Golden Ratio, College Mathematics Journal, 23:1 (January 1992), 2-19.

George Markowsky, Book review: The Golden Ratio, Notices of the AMS, 52:3 (March 2005), 344-347.

R. S. Melham and A. G. Shannon, Inverse Trigonometric Hyperbolic Summation Formulas Involving Generalized Fibonacci Numbers, The Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 1 (1995), pp. 32-40.

Jean-Christophe Michel, Le nombre d'or.

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson, The Golden ratio.

Hugo Pfoertner, 1 million digits of phi, Computed using A. J. Yee's y-cruncher.

Simon Plouffe, Plouffe's Inverter, The golden ratio to 10 million digits. [Only announcement, file truncated]

Simon Plouffe, The golden ratio:(1+sqrt(5))/2 to 20000 places.

Fred Richman, Fibonacci sequence with multiprecision Java, Successive approximations to phi from ratios of consecutive Fibonacci numbers.

Herman P. Robinson, The CSR Function, Popular Computing (Calabasas, CA), Vol. 4, No. 35 (Feb 1976), pages PC35-3 to PC35-4. Annotated and scanned copy.

E. F. Schubert, The Fibonacci series.

Vladimir Shevelev, A property of n-bonacci constant, Seqfan (Mar 23 2014).

Jonathan Sondow, Evaluation of Tachiya's algebraic infinite products involving Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, Diophantine Analysis and Related Fields 2011 - AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1385, pp. 97-100; arXiv:1106.4246 [math.NT], 2011.

Matthew R. Watkins, The "Golden Mean" in number theory.

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Golden Ratio.

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Silver Ratio.

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Fibonacci n-Step Number.

Wikipedia, Mark Barr.

Wikipedia, Golden ratio.

Wikipedia, Kronecker Weber theorem.

Wikipedia, Metallic mean.

Alexander J. Yee, y-cruncher - A Multi-Threaded Pi-Program.

Index to sequences related to Olympiads.

FORMULA

Equals Sum_{n>=2} 1/A064170(n) = 1/1 +1/2 +1/(2*5) +1/(5*13) +1/(13*34)+... - Gary W. Adamson, Dec 15 2007

Equals Hypergeometric2F1([1/5, 4/5], [1/2], 3/4) = 2*cos((3/5)*arcsin(sqrt(3/4))). - Artur Jasinski, Oct 26 2008

From Hieronymus Fischer, Jan 02 2009: (Start)

The fractional part of phi^n equals phi^(-n), if n odd. For even n, the fractional part of phi^n is equal to 1-phi^(-n).

General formula: Provided x>1 satisfies x-x^(-1)=floor(x), where x=phi for this sequence, then:

for odd n: x^n - x^(-n) = floor(x^n), hence fract(x^n) = x^(-n),

for even n: x^n + x^(-n) = ceiling(x^n), hence fract(x^n) = 1 - x^(-n),

for all n>0: x^n + (-x)^(-n) = round(x^n).

x=phi is the minimal solution to x - x^(-1) = floor(x) (where floor(x)=1 in this case).

Other examples of constants x satisfying the relation x - x^(-1) = floor(x) include A014176 (the silver ratio: where floor(x)=2) and A098316 (the "bronze" ratio: where floor(x)=3). (End)

Equals 2*cos(Pi*1/5) = e^(i*Pi*1/5) + e^(-i*Pi*1/5). - Eric Desbiaux, Mar 19 2010

The solutions to x-x^(-1)=floor(x) are determined by x=(1/2)*(m+sqrt(m^2+4)), m>=1; x=phi for m=1. In terms of continued fractions the solutions can be described by x=[m;m,m,m,...], where m=1 for x=phi, and m=2 for the silver ratio A014176, and m=3 for the bronze ratio A098316. - Hieronymus Fischer, Oct 20 2010

Sum_{n>=1} x^n/n^2 = Pi^2/10 - (log(2)*sin(Pi/10))^2 where x = 2*sin(Pi/10) = this constant here. [Jolley, eq 360d]

phi = 1 + Sum_{k>=1} (-1)^(k-1)/(F(k)*F(k+1)), where F(n) is the n-th Fibonacci number (A000045). Proof. By Catalan's identity, F^2(n) - F(n-1)*F(n+1) = (-1)^(n-1). Therefore,(-1)^(n-1)/(F(n)*F(n+1)) = F(n)/F(n+1) - F(n-1)/F(n). Thus Sum_{k=1..n} (-1)^(k-1)/(F(k)*F(k+1)) = F(n)/F(n+1). If n goes to infinity, this tends to 1/phi = phi - 1. - Vladimir Shevelev, Feb 22 2013

phi^n = (A000032(n) + A000045(n)*sqrt(5)) / 2. - Thomas Ordowski, Jun 09 2013

Let P(q) = Product_{k>=1} (1 + q^(2*k-1)) (the g.f. of A000700), then A001622 = exp(Pi/6) * P(exp(-5*Pi)) / P(exp(-Pi)). - Stephen Beathard, Oct 06 2013

phi = i^(2/5) + i^(-2/5) = ((i^(4/5))+1) / (i^(2/5)) = 2*(i^(2/5) - (sin(Pi/5))i) = 2*(i^(-2/5) + (sin(Pi/5))i). - Jaroslav Krizek, Feb 03 2014

phi = sqrt(2/(3 - sqrt(5))). This follows from the fact that ((1 + sqrt(5))^2)*(3 - sqrt(5)) = 8, so that ((1 + sqrt(5))/2)^2 = 2/(3 - sqrt(5)). - Geoffrey Caveney, Apr 19 2014

exp(arcsinh(cos(Pi/2-log(phi)*i))) = exp(arcsinh(sin(log(phi)*i))) = (sqrt(3) + i) / 2. - Geoffrey Caveney, Apr 23 2014

exp(arcsinh(cos(Pi/3))) = phi. - Geoffrey Caveney, Apr 23 2014

cos(Pi/3) + sqrt(1 + cos(Pi/3)^2). - Geoffrey Caveney, Apr 23 2014

2*phi = z^0 + z^1 - z^2 - z^3 + z^4, where z = exp(2*Pi*i/5). See the Wikipedia Kronecker-Weber theorem link. - Jonathan Sondow, Apr 24 2014

phi = 1/2 + sqrt(1 + (1/2)^2). - Geoffrey Caveney, Apr 25 2014

Phi is the limiting value of the iteration of x -> sqrt(1+x) on initial value a >= -1. - Chayim Lowen, Aug 30 2015

a(n) = -10*floor((sqrt(5) + 1)/2*10^(-2 + n)) + floor((sqrt(5) + 1)/2*10^(-1 + n)) for n > 0. - Mariusz Iwaniuk, Apr 28 2017

From Isaac Saffold, Feb 28 2018: (Start)

1 = Sum_{k=0..n} binomial(n, k) / phi^(n+k) for all nonnegative integers n.

1 = Sum_{n>=1} 1 / phi^(2n-1).

1 = Sum_{n>=2} 1 / phi^n.

phi = Sum_{n>=1} 1/phi^n. (End)

From Christian Katzmann, Mar 19 2018: (Start)

phi = Sum_{n>=0} (15*(2*n)! + 8*n!^2)/(2*n!^2*3^(2*n+2)).

phi = 1/2 + Sum_{n>=0} 5*(2*n)!/(2*n!^2*3^(2*n+1)). (End)

phi = Product_{n>0} (1+2/(-1 + 2^n*(sqrt(4+(1-2/2^n)^2) + sqrt(4+(1-1/2^n)^2)))). - Gleb Koloskov, Jul 14 2021

Equals Product_{k>=1} (Fibonacci(3*k)^2 + (-1)^(k+1))/(Fibonacci(3*k)^2 + (-1)^k) (Melham and Shannon, 1995). - Amiram Eldar, Jan 15 2022

EXAMPLE

1.6180339887498948482045868343656381177203091798057628621...

MAPLE

Digits:=1000; evalf((1+sqrt(5))/2); # Wesley Ivan Hurt, Nov 01 2013

MATHEMATICA

RealDigits[(1 + Sqrt[5])/2, 10, 130] (* Stefan Steinerberger, Apr 02 2006 *)

RealDigits[ Exp[ ArcSinh[1/2]], 10, 111][[1]] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Mar 01 2008 *)

RealDigits[GoldenRatio, 10, 120][[1]] (* Harvey P. Dale, Oct 28 2015 *)

PROG

(PARI) { default(realprecision, 20080); x=(1+sqrt(5))/2; for (n=1, 20000, d=floor(x); x=(x-d)*10; write("b001622.txt", n, " ", d)); } \\ Harry J. Smith, Apr 19 2009

(PARI)

/* Digit-by-digit method: write it as 0.5+sqrt(1.25) and start at hundredths digit */

r=11; x=400; print(1); print(6);

for(dig=1, 110, {d=0; while((20*r+d)*d <= x, d++);

d--; /* while loop overshoots correct digit */

print(d); x=100*(x-(20*r+d)*d); r=10*r+d})

\\ Michael B. Porter, Oct 24 2009

(Python)

from sympy import S

def alst(n): # truncate extra last digit to avoid rounding

  return list(map(int, str(S.GoldenRatio.n(n+1)).replace(".", "")))[:-1]

print(alst(105)) # Michael S. Branicky, Jan 06 2021

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000012, A000032, A000045, A006497, A080039, A104457, A188635, A192222, A192223, A145996, A139339, A197762, A002163, A094874, A134973.

Cf. A102208, A102769, A131595.

Cf. A302973, A303069, A304022.

Sequence in context: A337369 A156921 A094214 * A186099 A021622 A073228

Adjacent sequences:  A001619 A001620 A001621 * A001623 A001624 A001625

KEYWORD

nonn,cons,nice,easy

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane

EXTENSIONS

Additional links contributed by Lekraj Beedassy, Dec 23 2003

More terms from Gabriel Cunningham (gcasey(AT)mit.edu), Oct 24 2004

More terms from Stefan Steinerberger, Apr 02 2006

Broken URL to Project Gutenberg replaced by Georg Fischer, Jan 03 2009

Edited by M. F. Hasler, Feb 24 2014

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 23 23:07 EDT 2022. Contains 353993 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)