

A000295


Eulerian numbers (Euler's triangle: column k=2 of A008292, column k=1 of A173018).
(Formerly M3416 N1382)


192



0, 0, 1, 4, 11, 26, 57, 120, 247, 502, 1013, 2036, 4083, 8178, 16369, 32752, 65519, 131054, 262125, 524268, 1048555, 2097130, 4194281, 8388584, 16777191, 33554406, 67108837, 134217700, 268435427, 536870882, 1073741793, 2147483616, 4294967263, 8589934558
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OFFSET

0,4


COMMENTS

There are 2 versions of Euler's triangle:
* A008292 Classic version of Euler's triangle used by Comtet (1974).
* A173018 Version of Euler's triangle used by Graham, Knuth and Patashnik in Concrete Math. (1990).
Euler's triangle rows and columns indexing conventions:
* A008292 The rows and columns of the Eulerian triangle are both indexed starting from 1. (Classic version: used in the classic books by Riordan and Comtet.)
* A173018 The rows and columns of the Eulerian triangle are both indexed starting from 0. (Graham et al.)
Number of Dyck paths of semilength n having exactly one long ascent (i.e., ascent of length at least two). Example: a(4)=11 because among the 14 Dyck paths of semilength 4, the paths that do not have exactly one long ascent are UDUDUDUD (no long ascent), UUDDUUDD and UUDUUDDD (two long ascents). Here U=(1,1) and D=(1,1). Also number of ordered trees with n edges having exactly one branch node (i.e., vertex of outdegree at least two).  Emeric Deutsch, Feb 22 2004
Number of permutations of {1,2,...,n} with exactly one descent (i.e., permutations (p(1),p(2),...,p(n)) such that #{i: p(i)>p(i+1)}=1). E.g., a(3)=4 because the permutations of {1,2,3} with one descent are 132, 213, 231 and 312.
Number of partitions of an nset having exactly one block of size > 1. Example: a(4)=11 because, if the partitioned set is {1,2,3,4}, then we have 1234, 1234, 1243, 1342, 1234, 1234, 1324, 1423, 1234, 1243 and 1234.  Emeric Deutsch, Oct 28 2006
n divides a(n+1) for n = A014741(n) = {1, 2, 6, 18, 42, 54, 126, 162, 294, 342, 378, 486, 882, 1026, ...}.  Alexander Adamchuk, Nov 03 2006
(Number of permutations avoiding patterns 321, 2413, 3412, 21534) minus one.  JeanLuc Baril, Nov 01 2007, Mar 21 2008
The chromatic invariant of the prism graph P_n for n >= 3.  Jonathan Vos Post, Aug 29 2008
Decimal integer corresponding to the result of XORing the binary representation of 2^n  1 and the binary representation of n with leading zeros. This sequence and a few others are syntactically similar. For n > 0, let D(n) denote the decimal integer corresponding to the binary number having n consecutive 1's. Then D(n).OP.n represents the nth term of a sequence when .OP. stands for a binary operator such as '+', '', '*', 'quotentof', 'mod', 'choose'. We then get the various sequences A136556, A082495, A082482, A066524, A000295, A052944. Another syntactically similar sequence results when we take the nth term as f(D(n)).OP.f(n). For example if f='factorial' and .OP.='/', we get (A136556)(A000295) ; if f='squaring' and .OP.='', we get (A000295)(A052944).  K.V.Iyer, Mar 30 2009
Chromatic invariant of the prism graph Y_n.
Number of labelings of a full binary tree of height n1, such that each path from root to any leaf contains each label from {1,2,...,n1} exactly once.  Michael Vielhaber (vielhaber(AT)gmail.com), Nov 18 2009
Also number of nontrivial equivalence classes generated by the weak associative law X((YZ)T)=(X(YZ))T on words with n open and n closed parentheses. Also the number of join (resp. meet)irreducible elements in the pruninggrafting lattice of binary trees with n leaves.  Jean Pallo, Jan 08 2010
Nonzero terms of this sequence can be found from the row sums of the third subtriangle extracted from Pascal's triangle as indicated below by braces:
1;
1, 1;
{1}, 2, 1;
{1, 3}, 3, 1;
{1, 4, 6}, 4, 1;
{1, 5, 10, 10}, 5, 1;
{1, 6, 15, 20, 15}, 6, 1;
For integers a, b, denote by a<+>b the least c >= a, such that the Hamming distance D(a,c) = b (note that, generally speaking, a<+>b differs from b<+>a). Then for n >= 3, a(n) = n<+>n. This has a simple explanation: for n >= 3 in binary we have a(n) = (2^n1)n = "anti n".  Vladimir Shevelev, Feb 14 2012
a(n) is the number of binary sequences of length n having at least one pair 01.  Branko Curgus, May 23 2012
Nonzero terms are those integers k for which there exists a perfect (Hamming) errorcorrecting code.  L. Edson Jeffery, Nov 28 2012
a(n) is the number of length n binary words constructed in the following manner: Select two positions in which to place the first two 0's of the word. Fill in all (possibly none) of the positions before the second 0 with 1's and then complete the word with an arbitrary string of 0's or 1's. So a(n) = Sum_{k=2..n} (k1)*2^(nk).  Geoffrey Critzer, Dec 12 2013
Without first 0: a(n)/2^n equals Sum_{k=0..n} k/2^k. For example: a(5)=57, 57/32 = 0/1 + 1/2 + 2/4 + 3/8 + 4/16 + 5/32.  Bob Selcoe, Feb 25 2014
The first barycentric coordinate of the centroid of the first n rows of Pascal's triangle, assuming the numbers are weights, is A000295(n+1)/A000337(n). See attached figure.  César Eliud Lozada, Nov 14 2014
Starting (0, 1, 4, 11, ...), this is the binomial transform of (0, 1, 2, 2, 2, ...).  Gary W. Adamson, Jul 27 2015
Also the number of (nonnull) connected induced subgraphs in the ntriangular honeycomb rook graph.  Eric W. Weisstein, Aug 27 2017
a(n) is the number of swaps needed in the worst case to transform a binary tree with n full levels into a heap, using (bottomup) heapify.  Rudy van Vliet, Sep 19 2017
The utility of large networks, particularly social networks, with n participants is given by the terms a(n) of this sequence. This assertion is known as Reed's Law, see the Wikipedia link.  Johannes W. Meijer, Jun 03 2019
a(n1) is the number of subsets of {1..n} in which the largest element of the set exceeds by at least 2 the next largest element. For example, for n = 5, a(4) = 11 and the 11 sets are {1,3}, {1,4}, {1,5}, {2,4}, {2,5}, {3,5}, {1,2,4}, {1,2,5}, {1,3,5}, {2,3,5}, {1,2,3,5}.  Enrique Navarrete, Apr 08 2020
a(n1) is also the number of subsets of {1..n} in which the second smallest element of the set exceeds by at least 2 the smallest element. For example, for n = 5, a(4) = 11 and the 11 sets are {1,3}, {1,4}, {1,5}, {2,4}, {2,5}, {3,5}, {1,3,4}, {1,3,5}, {1,4,5}, {2,4,5}, {1,3,4,5}.  Enrique Navarrete, Apr 09 2020
a(n+1) is the sum of the smallest elements of all subsets of {1..n}. For example, for n=3, a(4)=11; the subsets of {1,2,3} are {1}, {2}, {3}, {1,2}, {1,3}, {2,3}, {1,2,3}, and the sum of smallest elements is 11.  Enrique Navarrete, Aug 20 2020
Number of subsets of an nset that have more than one element.  Eric M. Schmidt, Mar 13 2021
Number of individual bets in a "full cover" bet on n1 horses, dogs, etc. in different races. Each horse, etc. can be bet on or not, giving 2^n bets. But, by convention, singles (a bet on only one race) are not included, reducing the total number bets by n. It is also impossible to bet on no horses at all, reducing the number of bets by another 1. A full cover on 4 horses, dogs, etc. is therefore 6 doubles, 4 trebles and 1 fourhorse etc. accumulator. In British betting, such a bet on 4 horses etc. is a Yankee; on 5, a superYankee.  Paul Duckett, Nov 17 2021
Number of binary sequences of length n with at least two 1's.
a(n1) is the number of ways to choose an odd number of elements greater than or equal to 3 out of n elements.
a(n+1) is the number of ways to split [n] = {1,2,...,n} into two (possibly empty) complementary intervals {1,2,...,i} and {i+1,i+2,...,n} and then select a subset from the first interval (2^i choices, 0 <= i <= n), and one block/cell (i.e., subinterval) from the second interval (ni choices, 0 <= i <= n).
(End)
Number of possible conjunctions in a system of n planets; for example, there can be 0 conjunctions with one planet, one with two planets, four with three planets (three pairs of planets plus one with all three) and so on.  Wendy Appleby, Jan 02 2023


REFERENCES

O. Bottema, Problem #562, Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde, 28 (1980) 115.
L. Comtet, "Permutations by Number of Rises; Eulerian Numbers." Section 6.5 in Advanced Combinatorics: The Art of Finite and Infinite Expansions, rev. enl. ed. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel, pp. 51 and 240246, 1974.
F. N. David and D. E. Barton, Combinatorial Chance. Hafner, NY, 1962, p. 151.
R. L. Graham, D. E. Knuth and O. Patashnik, Concrete Mathematics. AddisonWesley, Reading, MA, 1990.
D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming. AddisonWesley, Reading, MA, Vol. 3, p. 34.
J. Riordan, An Introduction to Combinatorial Analysis, Wiley, 1958, p. 215.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).


LINKS

P. J. Cameron, M. Gadouleau, J. D. Mitchell, and Y. Peresse, Chains of subsemigroups, arXiv preprint arXiv:1501.06394 [math.GR], 2015. See Table 4.
P. A. Piza, Kummer numbers, Mathematics Magazine, 21 (1947/1948), 257260.
P. A. Piza, Kummer numbers, Mathematics Magazine, 21 (1947/1948), 257260. [Annotated scanned copy]


FORMULA

a(n) = 2^n  n  1.
G.f.: x^2/((12*x)*(1x)^2).
a(0)=0, a(1)=0, a(n) = 3*a(n1)  2*a(n2) + 1.  Miklos Kristof, Mar 09 2005
a(0)=0, a(n) = 2*a(n1) + n  1 for all n in Z.
a(n) = Sum_{k=2..n} binomial(n, k).  Paul Barry, Jun 05 2003
a(n+1) = Sum_{i=1..n} Sum_{j=1..i} C(i, j).  Benoit Cloitre, Sep 07 2003
a(0)=0, a(1)=0, a(n) = Sum_{i=0..n1} i+a(i) for i > 1.  Gerald McGarvey, Jun 12 2004
a(n+1) = Sum_{k=0..n} (nk)*2^k.  Paul Barry, Jul 29 2004
a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} binomial(n, k+2); a(n+2) = Sum_{k=0..n} binomial(n+2, k+2).  Paul Barry, Aug 23 2004
a(n) = Sum_{k=0..floor((n1)/2)} binomial(nk1, k+1)*2^(nk2)*(1/2)^k.  Paul Barry, Oct 25 2004
a(0) = 0, a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n1} 2^k  1.  Doug Bell, Jan 19 2009
Column k=1 of A173018 starts a'(n) = 0, 1, 4, 11, ... and has the hypergeometric representation n*hypergeom([1, n+1], [n], 2). This can be seen as a formal argument to prefer Euler's A173018 over A008292.  Peter Luschny, Sep 19 2014
E.g.f.: exp(x)*(exp(x)1x); this is U(0) where U(k) = 1  x/(2^k  2^k/(x + 1  x^2*2^(k+1)/(x*2^(k+1)  (k+1)/U(k+1)))); (continued fraction, 3rd kind, 4step).  Sergei N. Gladkovskii, Dec 01 2012


EXAMPLE

G.f. = x^2 + 4*x^3 + 11*x^4 + 26*x^5 + 57*x^6 + 120*x^7 + 247*x^8 + 502*x^9 + ...


MAPLE

[ seq(2^nn1, n=1..50) ];
# Grammar specification:
spec := [S, { B = Set(Z, 1 <= card), C = Sequence(B, 2 <= card), S = Prod(B, C) }, unlabeled]:
struct := n > combstruct[count](spec, size = n+1);


MATHEMATICA

a[n_] = n*(HypergeometricPFQ[{1, 1  n}, {2}, 1]  1); Table[a[n], {n, 1, 30}] (* Olivier Gérard, Mar 29 2011 *)


PROG



CROSSREFS

Cf. A008292 (classic version of Euler's triangle used by Comtet (1974)).
Cf. A173018 (version of Euler's triangle used by Graham, Knuth and Patashnik in Concrete Math. (1990)).
Cf. A008949, A000079, A002662 (partial sums), A002663, A002664, A035039A035042, A000108, A014741, A130128, A130330, A131768, A130321, A131816, A000975, A016031.


KEYWORD

nonn,easy,nice


AUTHOR



STATUS

approved



