

A008949


Triangle read by rows of partial sums of binomial coefficients: T(n,k) = Sum_{i=0..k} binomial(n,i) (0 <= k <= n); also dimensions of ReedMuller codes.


39



1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 4, 1, 4, 7, 8, 1, 5, 11, 15, 16, 1, 6, 16, 26, 31, 32, 1, 7, 22, 42, 57, 63, 64, 1, 8, 29, 64, 99, 120, 127, 128, 1, 9, 37, 93, 163, 219, 247, 255, 256, 1, 10, 46, 130, 256, 382, 466, 502, 511, 512, 1, 11, 56, 176, 386, 638, 848, 968, 1013, 1023, 1024, 1, 12, 67, 232, 562, 1024, 1486, 1816, 1981, 2036, 2047, 2048
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OFFSET

0,3


COMMENTS

The secondleftfrommiddle column is A000346: T(2n+2, n) = A000346(n).  Ed Catmur (ed(AT)catmur.co.uk), Dec 09 2006
T(n,k) is the maximal number of regions into which n hyperplanes of codimension 1 divide R^k (the CakeWithoutIcing numbers).  Rob Johnson, Jul 27 2008
T(n,k) gives the number of vertices within distance k (measured along the edges) of an ndimensional unit cube, (i.e., the number of vertices on the hypercube graph Q_n whose distance from a reference vertex is <= k).  Robert Munafo, Oct 26 2010
A triangle formed like Pascal's triangle, but with 2^n for n >= 0 on the right border instead of 1.  Boris Putievskiy, Aug 18 2013
Consider each "1" as an apex of two sequences: the first is the set of terms in the same row as the "1", but the rightmost term in the row repeats infinitely. Example: the row (1, 4, 7, 8) becomes (1, 4, 7, 8, 8, 8, ...). The second sequence begins with the same "1" but is the diagonal going down and to the right, thus: (1, 5, 16, 42, 99, 219, 466, ...). It appears that for all such sequence pairs, the binomial transform of the first, (1, 4, 7, 8, 8, 8, ...) in this case; is equal to the second: (1, 5, 16, 42, 99, ...).  Gary W. Adamson, Aug 19 2015
Let T* be the infinite tree with root 0 generated by these rules: if p is in T*, then p+1 is in T* and x*p is in T*. Let q(n) be the sum of polynomials in the nth generation of T*. For n >= 0, row n of A008949 gives the coefficients of q(n+1); e.g., (row 3) = (1, 4, 7, 8) matches x^3 + 4*x^2 + 7*x + 9, which is the sum of the 8 polynomials in the 4th generation of T*.  Clark Kimberling, Jun 16 2016
T(n,k) is the number of subsets of [n]={1,...,n} of at most size k. Equivalently, T(n,k) is the number of subsets of [n] of at least size nk. Counting the subsets of at least size (nk) by conditioning on the largest element m of the smallest (nk) elements of such a subset provides the formula T(n,k) = Sum_{m=nk..n} C(m1,nk1)*2^(nm), and, by letting j=mn+k, we obtain T(n,k) = Sum_{j=0..k} C(n+jk1,j)*2^(kj).  Dennis P. Walsh, Sep 25 2017
If the interval of integers 1..n is shifted up or down by k, making the new interval 1+k..n+k or 1k..nk, then T(n1,n1k) (= 2^(n1)T(n1,k1)) is the number of subsets of the new interval that contain their own cardinal number as an element.  David Pasino, Nov 01 2018
This triangle is also called Bernoulli's triangle.  Robert FERREOL, Oct 11 2022


REFERENCES

F. J. MacWilliams and N. J. A. Sloane, The Theory of ErrorCorrecting Codes, ElsevierNorth Holland, 1978, p. 376.


LINKS

Norman Lindquist and Gerard Sierksma, Extensions of set partitions, Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series A 31.2 (1981): 190198. See Table I.


FORMULA

From partial sums across rows of Pascal triangle A007318.
T(n, 0) = 1, T(n, n) = 2^n, T(n, k) = T(n1, k1) + T(n1, k), 0 < k < n.
G.f.: (1  x*y)/((1  y  x*y)*(1  2*x*y)).  Antonio Gonzalez (gonfer00(AT)gmail.com), Sep 08 2009
T(n,k) = 2 T(n1,k1) + binomial(n1,k) = 2 T(n1,k)  binomial(n1,k).  M. F. Hasler, May 30 2010
T(n,k) = binomial(n,nk)* 2F1(1, k; n+1k; 1).  Olivier Gérard, Aug 02 2012
For a closedform formula for arbitrary left and right borders of Pascal like triangle see A228196.  Boris Putievskiy, Aug 18 2013
T(n,n) = 2^n, otherwise for 0 <= k <= n1, T(n,k) = 2^n  T(n,nk1).  Bob Selcoe, Mar 30 2017
For fixed j >= 0, lim_{n > oo} T(n+1,nj+1)/T(n,nj) = 2.  Bob Selcoe, Apr 03 2017


EXAMPLE

Triangle begins:
1;
1, 2;
1, 3, 4;
1, 4, 7, 8;
1, 5, 11, 15, 16;
1, 6, 16, 26, 31, 32;
1, 7, 22, 42, 57, 63, 64;
1, 8, 29, 64, 99, 120, 127, 128;
1, 9, 37, 93, 163, 219, 247, 255, 256;
1, 10, 46, 130, 256, 382, 466, 502, 511, 512;
1, 11, 56, 176, 386, 638, 848, 968, 1013, 1023, 1024;
...


MAPLE

A008949 := proc(n, k) local i; add(binomial(n, i), i=0..k) end; # Typo corrected by R. J. Mathar, Oct 26 2010


MATHEMATICA

Table[Length[Select[Subsets[n], (Length[ # ] <= k) &]], {n, 0, 12}, {k, 0, n}] // Grid (* Geoffrey Critzer, May 13 2009 *)
Flatten[Accumulate/@Table[Binomial[n, i], {n, 0, 20}, {i, 0, n}]] (* Harvey P. Dale, Aug 08 2015 *)
T[ n_, k_] := If[ n < 0  k > n, 0, Binomial[n, k] Hypergeometric2F1[1, k, n + 1  k, 1]; (* Michael Somos, Aug 05 2017 *)


PROG

(PARI) A008949(n)=T8949(t=sqrtint(2*nsqrtint(2*n)), nt*(t+1)/2)
T8949(r, c)={ 2*c > r  return(sum(i=0, c, binomial(r, i))); 1<<r  sum( i=c+1, r, binomial(r, i))} \\ M. F. Hasler, May 30 2010
(PARI) {T(n, k) = if(k>n, 0, sum(i=0, k, binomial(n, i)))}; /* Michael Somos, Aug 05 2017 */
(Haskell)
a008949 n k = a008949_tabl !! n !! k
a008949_row n = a008949_tabl !! n
a008949_tabl = map (scanl1 (+)) a007318_tabl
(GAP) T:=Flat(List([0..11], n>List([0..n], k>Sum([0..k], j>Binomial(n+jk1, j)*2^(kj))))); # Muniru A Asiru, Nov 25 2018
(Magma) [[(&+[Binomial(n, j): j in [0..k]]): k in [0..n]]: n in [0..12]]; // G. C. Greubel, Nov 25 2018
(Sage) [[sum(binomial(n, j) for j in range(k+1)) for k in range(n+1)] for n in range(12)] # G. C. Greubel, Nov 25 2018


CROSSREFS

Columns are given by A000012, A000027, A000124, A000125, A000127, A006261, A008859, A008860, A008861, A008862, A008863.  Ken Shirriff, Jun 28 2011


KEYWORD



AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS

More terms from Larry Reeves (larryr(AT)acm.org), Mar 23 2000


STATUS

approved



