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A087127 This table shows the coefficients of combinatorial formulas needed for generating the sequential sums of p-th powers of triangular numbers. The p-th row (p>=1) contains a(i,p) for i=1 to 2*p-1, where a(i,p) satisfies Sum_{i=1..n} C(i+1,2)^p = 3 * C(n+2,3) * Sum_{i=1..2*p-1} a(i,p) * C(n-1,i-1)/(i+2). 38
1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 8, 19, 18, 6, 1, 26, 163, 432, 564, 360, 90, 1, 80, 1135, 6354, 18078, 28800, 26100, 12600, 2520, 1, 242, 7291, 77400, 405060, 1210680, 2211570, 2520000, 1751400, 680400, 113400, 1, 728, 45199, 862218, 7667646, 38350080, 118848420 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
1,3
COMMENTS
From Peter Bala, Mar 08 2018: (Start)
The table entries T(n,k) are the coefficients when expressing the polynomial C(x+2,2)^p of degree 2*p in terms of falling factorials: C(x+2,2)^p = Sum_{k = 0..2*p} T(p,k)*C(x,k). It follows that Sum_{i = 0..n-1} C(i+2,2)^p = Sum_{k = 0..2*p} T(p,k)*C(n,k+1).
The sum of the p-th powers of the triangular numbers is also given by Sum_{i = 0..n-1} C(i+2,2)^p = Sum_{k = 2..2*p} A122193(p,k)*C(n+2,k+1) for p >= 1. (End)
LINKS
M. Dukes, C. D. White, Web Matrices: Structural Properties and Generating Combinatorial Identities, arXiv:1603.01589 [math.CO], 2016.
FORMULA
a(1, p) = 1, a(2, p) = 3^(p-1)-1, a(3, p) = 3^(p-1)*[2^(p-1)-2]+1, ..., a(2*p-3, p) = [ (6*p^4-20*p^3+21*p^2-7*p)*(2*p-4)! ]/[3*2^(p-1)], a(2*p-2, p) = [ (p^2-p)*(2*p-3)! ]/2^(p-2), a(2*p-1, p) = [ (p-1)*(2*p-3)! ]/2^(p-2).
a(i, p) = Sum_{k=1..[2*i+1+(-1)^(i-1)]/4} [ C(i-1, 2*k-2)*C(i-2*k+3, i-2*k+1)^(p-1) -C(i-1, 2*k-1)*C(i-2*k+2, i-2*k)^(p-1) ]
From Peter Bala, Mar 08 2018: (Start)
The following remarks assume row and column indices start at 0.
T(n,k) = Sum_{i = 0..k} (-1)^(k-i)*C(k,i)*C(i+2,2)^n. Equivalently, let v_n denote the sequence (1, 3^n, 6^n, 10^n, ...) regarded as an infinite column vector, where 1, 3, 6, 10, ... is the sequence of triangular numbers A000217. Then the n-th row of this table is determined by the matrix product P^(-1)*v_n, where P denotes Pascal's triangle A007318. Cf. A122193.
T(n+1,k) = C(k+2,2)*T(n,k) + 2*C(k+1,2)*T(n,k-1) + C(k,2)*T(n,k-2), with boundary conditions T(n,0) = 1 for all n and T(n,k) = 0 for k > 2*n.
Let R(n,x) denote the n-th row polynomial.
R(n+1,x) = 1/2!*(1 + x)^2*(d/dx)^2 (x^2*R(n,x)).
R(n,x) = Sum_{i >= 0} binomial(i+2,2)^n*x^i/(1 + x)^(i+1).
R(n,x) = (1 + x)^2 o (1 + x)^2 o ... o (1 + x)^2 (n factors), where o denotes the black diamond product of power series defined in Dukes and White. Note the polynomial x^2 o ... o x^2 (n factors) is the n-th row polynomial of A122193.
x^2*R(n,x) = (1 + x)^2 * the n-th row polynomial of A122193 (End)
EXAMPLE
Row 3 contains 1,8,19,18,6, so Sum_{i=1..n} C(i+1,2)^3 = (n+2) * C(n+1,2) * [ a(1,3)/3 + a(2,3)*C(n-1,1)/4 + a(3,3)*C(n-1,2)/5 + a(4,3)*C(n-1,3)/6 + a(5,3)*C(n-1,4)/7 ] = [ (n+2)*(n+1)*n/2 ] * [ 1/3 + (8/4)*C(n-1,1) + (19/5)*C(n-1,2) + (18/6)*C(n-1,3) + (6/7)*C(n-1,4). Cf. A085438 for more details.
From Peter Bala, Mar 08 2018: (Start)
Table begins
n=0 |1
n=1 |1 2 1
n=2 |1 8 19 18 6
n=3 |1 26 163 432 564 360 90
n=4 |1 80 1135 6354 18078 28800 26100 12600 2520
...
Row 2: C(i+2,2)^2 = C(i,0) + 8*C(i,1) + 19*C(i,2) + 18*C(i,3) + 6*C(i,4). Hence, Sum_{i = 0..n-1} C(i+2,2)^2 = C(n,1) + 8*C(n,2) + 19*C(n,3) + 18*C(n,4) + 6*C(n,5). (End)
MAPLE
seq(seq(add( (-1)^(k-i)*binomial(k, i)*binomial(i+2, 2)^n, i = 0..k), k = 0..2*n), n = 0..8); # Peter Bala, Mar 08 2018
MATHEMATICA
a[i_, p_] := Sum[Binomial[i - 1, 2*k - 2]*Binomial[i - 2*k + 3, i - 2*k + 1]^(p - 1) - Binomial[i - 1, 2*k - 1]*Binomial[i - 2*k + 2, i - 2*k]^(p - 1), {k, 1, (2*i + 1 + (-1)^(i - 1))/4}]; Table[If[p == 1, 1, a[i, p]], {p, 1, 10}, {i, 1, 2*p - 1}]//Flatten (* G. C. Greubel, Nov 23 2017 *)
a[i_, p_]:=(-1)^i HypergeometricPFQ[ConstantArray[3, p]~Join~{2-i}, ConstantArray[1, p], 1]; Table[a[i, p], {p, 0, 10}, {i, 2, 2 p+2}]//Flatten (* Jonathan Burns, Mar 20 2018 *)
PROG
(PARI) {a(i, p) = sum(k=1, (2*i + 1 + (-1)^(i - 1))/4, binomial(i - 1, 2*k - 2)*binomial(i - 2*k + 3, i - 2*k + 1)^(p - 1) - binomial(i - 1, 2*k - 1)*binomial(i - 2*k + 2, i - 2*k)^(p - 1))}; for(p=1, 8, for(i=1, 2*p-1, print1(if(p==1, 1, a(i, p)), ", "))) \\ G. C. Greubel, Nov 23 2017
(GAP) Flat(List([0..6], n->List([0..2*n], k->Sum([0..k], i->(-1)^(k-i)*Binomial(k, i)*Binomial(i+2, 2)^n)))); # Muniru A Asiru, Mar 22 2018
CROSSREFS
Sequence in context: A167400 A225848 A165889 * A144946 A332717 A260374
KEYWORD
easy,nonn,tabf
AUTHOR
EXTENSIONS
Edited by Dean Hickerson, Aug 16 2003
STATUS
approved

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Last modified April 13 17:11 EDT 2024. Contains 371644 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)