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A122193 Triangle T(n,k) of number of loopless multigraphs with n labeled edges and k labeled vertices and without isolated vertices, n >= 1; 2 <= k <= 2*n. 10
1, 1, 6, 6, 1, 24, 114, 180, 90, 1, 78, 978, 4320, 8460, 7560, 2520, 1, 240, 6810, 63540, 271170, 604800, 730800, 453600, 113400, 1, 726, 43746, 774000, 6075900, 25424280, 61923960, 90720000, 78813000, 37422000, 7484400 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
1,3
COMMENTS
T(n,k) equals the number of arrangements on a line of n (nondegenerate) finite closed intervals having k distinct endpoints. See the 'IBM Ponder This' link. An example is given below. - Peter Bala, Jan 28 2018
T(n,k) equals the number of alignments of length k of n strings each of length 2. See Slowinski. Cf. A131689 (alignments of strings of length 1) and A299041 (alignments of strings of length 3). - Peter Bala, Feb 04 2018
LINKS
Michael De Vlieger, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..10000 (rows 1 <= n <= 100).
S. Eger, On the Number of Many-to-Many Alignments of N Sequences, arXiv:1511.00622 [math.CO], 2015.
M. Dukes, C. D. White, Web Matrices: Structural Properties and Generating Combinatorial Identities, arXiv:1603.01589 [math.CO], 2016.
IBM Ponder This, Jan 01 2001
J. B. Slowinski, The Number of Multiple Alignments, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 10:2 (1998), 264-266. doi:10.1006/mpev.1998.0522
FORMULA
Double e.g.f.: exp(-x)*Sum_{n>=0} exp(binomial(n,2)*y)*x^n/n!.
T(n,k) = S_{2,2}(n,k)*k!/2^n; S_{2,2} the generalized Stirling numbers A078739. - Peter Luschny, Mar 25 2011
From Peter Bala, Jan 28 2018: (Start)
T(n,k) = Sum_{i = 0..k} (-1)^(k-i)*binomial(k,i)*(i*(i-1)/2)^n.
T(n,k) = k*(k-1)/2*( T(n-1,k) + 2*T(n-1,k-1) + T(n-1,k-2) ) for 2 < k <= 2*n with boundary conditions T(n,2) = 1 for n >= 1 and T(n,k) = 0 if (k < 2) or (k > 2*n).
n-th row polynomial R(n,x) = Sum_{i >= 2} (i*(i-1)/2)^n * x^i/(1+x)^(i+1) for n >= 1.
1/(1-x)*R(n,x/(1-x)) = Sum_{i >= 2} (i*(i-1)/2)^n*x^i for n >= 1.
R(n,x) = 1/2^n*Sum_{k = 0..n} (-1)^(n-k)*binomial(n,k)*F(n+k,x), where F(n,x) = Sum_{k = 0..n} k!*Stirling2(n,k)*x^k is the n-th Fubini polynomial, the n-th row polynomial of A131689.
R(n,x) = x/(1+x)*1/2^n*Sum_{k = 0..n} binomial(n,k)*F(n+k,x) for n >= 1.
The polynomials Sum_{k = 2..2*n} T(n,k)*x^(k-2)*(1-x)^(2*n-k) are the row polynomials of A154283.
A154283 * A007318 equals the row reverse of this array.
Sum_{k = 2..2*n} T(n,k)*binomial(x,k) = ( binomial(x,2) )^n. Equivalently, Sum_{k = 2..2*n} (-1)^k*T(n,k)*binomial(x+k,k) = ( binomial(x+2,2) )^n. Cf. the Worpitzky-type identity Sum_{k = 1..n} A019538(n,k)*binomial(x,k) = x^n.
Sum_{i = 2..n-1} (i*(i-1)/2)^m = Sum_{k = 2..2*m} T(m,k) * binomial(n,k+1) for m >= 1. See Examples below.
R(n,x) = x^2 o x^2 o ... o x^2 (n factors), where o is the black diamond product of power series defined in Dukes and White. Note the polynomial x o x o ... o x (n factors) is the n-th row polynomial of A019538.
x^2*R(n,-1-x) = (1+x)^2*R(n,x) for n >= 1.
R(n+1,x) = 1/2*x^2*(d/dx)^2 ((1+x)^2*R(n,x)).
The zeros of R(n,x) belong to the interval [-1, 0].
Alternating row sums equal 1, that is R(n,-1) = 1.
R(n,-2) = 4*R(n,1) = 4*A055203(n).
4^n*Sum_{k = 2..2*n} T(n,k)*(-1/2)^k appears to equal (-1)^(n+1)*A005799(n) for n >= 1.
For k a nonzero integer, the power series A(k,x) := exp( Sum_{n >= 1} 1/k^2*R(n,k)*x^n/n ) appear to have integer coefficients. See the Example section.
Sum_{k = 2..2*n} T(n,k)*binomial(x,k-2) = binomial(x,2)^n - 2*binomial(x+1,2)^n + binomial(x+2,2)^n. These polynomials have their zeros on the vertical line Re x = -1/2 in the complex plane (the corresponding property also holds for the row polynomials of A019538 with a factor of x removed). (End)
From Peter Bala, Mar 08 2018: (Start)
n-th row polynomial R(n,x) = coefficient of (z_1)^2 * ... * (z_n)^2 in the expansion of the rational function 1/(1 + x - x*(1 + z_1)*...*(1 + z_n)).
The n-th row of the table is given by the matrix product P^(-1)*v_n, where P denotes Pascal's triangle A007318 and v_n is the sequence (0, 0, 1, 3^n, 6^n, 10^n, ...) regarded as an infinite column vector, where 1, 3, 6, 10, ... is the sequence of triangular numbers A000217. Cf. A087127. (End)
EXAMPLE
Triangle begins:
1;
1, 6, 6;
1, 24, 114, 180, 90;
1, 78, 978, 4320, 8460, 7560, 2520;
...
From Francisco Santos, Nov 17 2017: (Start)
For n=3 edges and k=4 vertices there are three loopless multigraphs without isolated vertices: a path, a Y-graph, and the multigraph {12, 34, 34}. The number of labelings in each is 3!4!/a, where a is the number of automorphisms. This gives respectively 3!4!/2 = 72, 3!4!/6 = 24 and 3!4!/8 = 18, adding up to 72 + 24 + 18 = 114. (End)
From Peter Bala, Jan 28 2018: (Start)
T(2,3) = 6: Consider 2 (nondegenerate) finite closed intervals [a, b] and [c, d]. There are 6 arrangements of these two intervals with 3 distinct endpoints:
...a--b--d.... a < b = c < d
...a...c--b... a < c < b = d
...a--d...b... a = c < d < b
...a--b...d... a = c < b < d
...c...a--d... c < a < b = d
...c--a--b.... c < a = d < b
T(2,4) = 6: There are 6 arrangements of the two intervals with 4 distinct endpoints:
...a--b...c--d..... no intersection a < b < c < d
...a...c...b...d... a < c < b < d
...a...c--d...b.... [c,d] is a proper subset of [a,b]
...c...a...d...b... c < a < d < b
...c...a--b...d... [a,b] is a proper subset of [c,d]
...c--d...a--b..... no intersection c < d < a < b.
Sums of powers of triangular numbers:
Row 2: Sum_{i = 2..n-1} C(i,2)^2 = C(n,3) + 6*C(n,4) + 6*C(n,5);
Row 3: Sum_{i = 2..n-1} C(i,2)^3 = C(n,3) + 24*C(n,4) + 114*C(n,5) + 180*C(n,6) + 90*C(n,7). See A024166 and A085438.
exp( Sum_{n >= 1} R(n,2)*x^n/n ) = (1 + x + 19*x^2 + 1147*x^3 + 145606*x^4 + 31784062*x^5 + ... )^4
exp( Sum_{n >= 1} R(n,3)*x^n/n ) = (1 + x + 37*x^2 + 4453*x^3 + 1126375*x^4 + 489185863*x^5 + ... )^9
exp( Sum_{n >= 1} R(n,4)*x^n/n ) = (1 + x + 61*x^2 + 12221*x^3 + 5144411*x^4 + 3715840571*x^5 + ... )^16 (End)
From Peter Bala, Feb 04 2018: (Start)
T(3,3) = 24 alignments of length 3 of 3 strings each of length 2. Examples include
(i) A B - (ii) A - B
- C D - C D
- E F E F -
There are 18 alignments of type (i) with two gap characters in one of the columns (3 ways of putting 2 gap characters in a column x 2 ways to place the other letter in the row which doesn't yet have a gap character x 3 columns: there are 6 alignments of type (ii) with a single gap character in each column (3 ways to put a single gap character in the first column x 2 ways to then place a single gap character in the second column). (End)
MAPLE
# Note that the function implements the full triangle because it can be
# much better reused and referenced in this form.
A122193 := (n, k) -> A078739(n, k)*k!/2^n:
# Displays the truncated triangle from the definition:
seq(print(seq(A122193(n, k), k=2..2*n)), n=1..6); # Peter Luschny, Mar 25 2011
MATHEMATICA
t[n_, k_] := Sum[(-1)^(n - r) Binomial[n, r] StirlingS2[n + r, k], {r, 0, n}]; Table[t[n, k] k!/2^n, {n, 6}, {k, 2, 2 n}] // Flatten (* Michael De Vlieger, Nov 18 2017, after Jean-François Alcover at A078739 *)
CROSSREFS
Row sums give A055203.
For Sum_{i = 2..n} C(i,2)^k see A024166 (k = 2), A085438 - A085442 ( k = 3 thru 7).
Sequence in context: A093313 A098267 A366138 * A348622 A098369 A078740
KEYWORD
easy,nonn,tabf
AUTHOR
Vladeta Jovovic, Aug 24 2006
EXTENSIONS
Definition corrected by Francisco Santos, Nov 17 2017
STATUS
approved

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Last modified June 13 09:43 EDT 2024. Contains 373383 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)