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A001076 Denominators of continued fraction convergents to sqrt(5).
(Formerly M3538 N1434)
116
0, 1, 4, 17, 72, 305, 1292, 5473, 23184, 98209, 416020, 1762289, 7465176, 31622993, 133957148, 567451585, 2403763488, 10182505537, 43133785636, 182717648081, 774004377960, 3278735159921, 13888945017644, 58834515230497, 249227005939632, 1055742538989025 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,3
COMMENTS
a(2*n+1) with b(2*n+1) := A001077(2*n+1), n >= 0, give all (positive integer) solutions to Pell equation b^2 - 5*a^2 = -1, a(2*n) with b(2*n) := A001077(2*n), n >= 1, give all (positive integer) solutions to Pell equation b^2 - 5*a^2 = +1 (cf. Emerson reference).
Bisection: a(2*n+1) = T(2*n+1, sqrt(5))/sqrt(5) = A007805(n), n >= 0 and a(2*n) = 4*S(n-1,18), n >= 0, with T(n,x), resp. S(n,x), Chebyshev's polynomials of the first, resp. second kind. S(-1,x)=0. See A053120, resp. A049310. S(n,18)=A049660(n+1). - Wolfdieter Lang, Jan 10 2003
Apart from initial terms, this is the Pisot sequence E(4,17), a(n) = floor(a(n-1)^2/a(n-2) + 1/2).
This is also the Horadam sequence (0,1,1,4), having the recurrence relation a(n) = s*a(n-1) + r*a(n-2); for n > 1, where a(0) = 0, a(1) = 1, s = 4, r = 1. a(n) / a(n-1) converges to 5^1/2 + 2 as n approaches infinity. 5^(1/2) + 2 can also be written as (2 * Phi) + 1 and Phi^2 + Phi. - Ross La Haye, Aug 18 2003
Numerators of continued fraction [4, 4, 4, ...], where the convergents to [4, 4, 4, ...] = (4/1, 17/4, 72/17, ...). Let X = the 2 X 2 matrix [0, 1; 1, 4]; then X^n = [a(n-1), a(n); a(n), a(n+1)]; e.g., X^3 = [4, 17; 17, 72]. Let C = the limit of a(n)/a(n-1) = 2 + sqrt(5) = 4.236067977...; then C^n = a(n+1) + (1/C)*a(n), where (1/C) = 0.236067977... . Example: C^3 = 76.01315556..., = 72 + 17*(0.2360679...). - Gary W. Adamson, Dec 15 2007, corrected by Greg Dresden, Sep 16 2019, corrected by _Alex Mark_, Jul 21 2020
Sqrt(5) = 4/2 + 4/17 + 4/(17*305) + 4/(305*5473) + 4/(5473*98209) + ... . - Gary W. Adamson, Dec 15 2007
a(p) == 20^((p-1)/2)) mod p, for odd primes p. - Gary W. Adamson, Feb 22 2009
A001076 == One half of even Fibonacci numbers. - Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Oct 25 2009
a(n) = A167808(3*n). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 12 2009
For n >= 2, a(n) equals the permanent of the (n-1) X (n-1) tridiagonal matrix with 4's along the main diagonal and 1's along the superdiagonal and the subdiagonal. - John M. Campbell, Jul 08 2011
Moreover, a(n) is the second binomial transform of (0,1,0,5,0,25,...) (see also A033887). This fact can be proved similarly like the proof of Paul Barry's remark in A033887 by using the following scaling identity for delta-Fibonacci numbers: y^n b(n;x/y) = Sum_{k=0..n} binomial(n,k) (y-1)^(n-k) b(k;x) and the fact that b(n;2) = (1-(-1)^n) 5^floor(n/2). - Roman Witula, Jul 12 2012
Binomial transform of 0, 1, 2, 8, 24, 80, 256, ... (A063727 with offset 1). - R. J. Mathar, Feb 05 2014
For n >= 1, a(n) equals the number of words of length n-1 on alphabet {0,1,...,4} avoiding runs of zeros of odd lengths. - Milan Janjic, Jan 28 2015
With offset 1 is the INVERT transform of A006190: (1, 3, 10, 33, 109, 360, ...). - Gary W. Adamson, Jul 24 2015
a(n) = A000045(3*n)/2 = (A000045(n)*A047946(n))/2, so a(n) is either divisible by A000045(n)/2 or by A047946(n)/2. When n > 3, A000045(n) > 2 and A047946(n) > 2. Therefore a(3) = 17 is the only prime number in this sequence. - Bobby Jacobs, Sep 17 2017
From Rogério Serôdio, Mar 30 2018: (Start)
This is a divisibility sequence (i.e., if n|m then a(n)|a(m)).
gcd(a(n),a(n+k)) = a(gcd(n, k)) for all positive integers n and k. (End)
The initial 0 of this sequence is in contradiction with the fact that 0 is no valid denominator and according to all standard references, the first convergent of a continued fraction is p(0)/q(0) = b(0)/1 where b(0) is the first term of the continued fraction, given by the integer part of the number. One may artificially define q(-1) = 0 to have a recurrent relation q(n) = b(n)*q(n-1) + q(n-2), n >= 1, but then its index should be -1. - M. F. Hasler, Nov 01 2019
Number of 4-compositions of n restricted to odd parts (and allowed zeros); see Hopkins & Ouvry reference. - Brian Hopkins, Aug 17 2020
From Michael A. Allen, Feb 15 2023: (Start)
Also called the 4-metallonacci sequence; the g.f. 1/(1-k*x-x^2) gives the k-metallonacci sequence.
a(n+1) is the number of tilings of an n-board (a board with dimensions n X 1) using unit squares and dominoes (with dimensions 2 X 1) if there are 4 kinds of squares available. (End)
a(n) is the smallest nonnegative integer that is the sum of n, but no fewer, Fibonacci numbers including negative-index Fibonacci numbers (A039834), with that sum being a(n) = Sum_{i=0..n-1} A000045(3*i+1). a(n) is also the smallest nonnegative integer that is the sum of n, but no fewer, terms each of which is either a Fibonacci number or the negative of a Fibonacci number. (See A027941 for negatives disallowed.) - Mike Speciner, Oct 08 2023
From Enrique Navarrete, Dec 16 2023: (Start)
a(n) is the number of compositions of n when there are P(k) sorts of parts k, with k,n > = 1, where P(k) = A006190(k) is the k-th 3-metallonacci number (see example below).
In general, the number of compositions with k-metallonacci number of parts is counted by the (k+1)-st metallonacci sequence (note k=1 and k=2 are the Fibonacci and the Pell numbers, respectively). (End).
REFERENCES
A. T. Benjamin and J. J. Quinn, Proofs that really count: the art of combinatorial proof, M.A.A. 2003, id. 23.
S. Koshkin, Non-classical linear divisibility sequences ..., Fib. Q., 57 (No. 1, 2019), 68-80. See Table 1.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
V. Thébault, Les Récréations Mathématiques. Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1952, p. 282.
LINKS
G. C. Greubel, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..1000 (terms 0..200 from T. D. Noe)
Michael A. Allen and Kenneth Edwards, Fence tiling derived identities involving the metallonacci numbers squared or cubed, Fib. Q. 60:5 (2022) 5-17.
Paraskevas K. Alvanos and Konstantinos A. Draziotis, Integer Solutions of the Equation y^2 = Ax^4 + B, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 18 (2015), Article 15.4.4.
Elwyn Berlekamp and Richard K. Guy, Fibonacci Plays Billiards (2003), arXiv:2002.03705 [math.HO], 2020. See p. 5.
D. Birmajer, J. B. Gil, and M. D. Weiner, On the Enumeration of Restricted Words over a Finite Alphabet, J. Int. Seq. 19 (2016) # 16.1.3, Example 8.
D. W. Boyd, Some integer sequences related to the Pisot sequences, Acta Arithmetica, 34 (1979), 295-305.
D. W. Boyd, Linear recurrence relations for some generalized Pisot sequences, Advances in Number Theory ( Kingston ON, 1991) 333-340, Oxford Sci. Publ., Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1993.
Latham Boyle and Paul J. Steinhardt, Self-Similar One-Dimensional Quasilattices, arXiv preprint arXiv:1608.08220 [math-ph], 2016.
E. I. Emerson, Recurrent Sequences in the Equation DQ^2=R^2+N, Fib. Quart., 7 (1969), pp. 231-242, Thm. 1, p. 233.
M. C. Firengiz and A. Dil, Generalized Euler-Seidel method for second order recurrence relations, Notes on Number Theory and Discrete Mathematics, Vol. 20, 2014, No. 4, 21-32.
Yixing Fu, E. J. König, J. H. Wilson, Yang-Zhi Chou, and J. H. Pixley, Magic-angle semimetals, arXiv:1809.04604 [cond-mat.str-el], 2018.
Juan B. Gil and Aaron Worley, Generalized metallic means, arXiv:1901.02619 [math.NT], 2019.
Brian Hopkins and Stéphane Ouvry, Combinatorics of Multicompositions, arXiv:2008.04937 [math.CO], 2020.
Milan Janjic, On Linear Recurrence Equations Arising from Compositions of Positive Integers, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 18 (2015), Article 15.4.7.
Tanya Khovanova, Recursive Sequences
C. Pita, On s-Fibonomials, J. Int. Seq. 14 (2011) # 11.3.7.
Simon Plouffe, Approximations de séries génératrices et quelques conjectures, Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992; arXiv:0911.4975 [math.NT], 2009.
Simon Plouffe, 1031 Generating Functions, Appendix to Thesis, Montreal, 1992
Shaoxiong (Steven) Yuan, Generalized Identities of Certain Continued Fractions, arXiv:1907.12459 [math.NT], 2019.
FORMULA
a(n) = 4*a(n-1) + a(n-2), n > 1. a(0)=0, a(1)=1.
G.f.: x/(1 - 4*x - x^2).
a(n) = ((2+sqrt(5))^n - (2-sqrt(5))^n)/(2*sqrt(5)).
a(n) = A014445(n)/2 = F(3n)/2.
a(n) = ((-i)^(n-1))*S(n-1, 4*i), with i^2 = -1 and S(n, x) := U(n, x/2) Chebyshev's polynomials of the second kind. See A049310. S(-1, x) = 0.
a(n) = Sum_{i=0..n} Sum_{j=0..n} Fibonacci(i+j)*n!/(i!j!(n-i-j)!)/2. - Paul Barry, Feb 06 2004
E.g.f.: exp(2*x)*sinh(sqrt(5)*x)/sqrt(5). - Vladeta Jovovic, Sep 01 2004
a(n) = F(1) + F(4) + F(7) + ... + F(3n-2), for n > 0.
Conjecture: 2a(n+1) = a(n+2) - A001077(n+1). - Creighton Dement, Nov 28 2004
a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} Sum_{j=0..n} C(n, j)*C(j, k)*F(j)/2. - Paul Barry, Feb 14 2005
a(n) = A048876(n) - A048875(n). - Creighton Dement, Mar 19 2005
Let M = {{0, 1}, {1, 4}}, v[1] = {0, 1}, v[n] = M.v[n - 1]; then a(n) = v[n][[1]]. - Roger L. Bagula, May 29 2005
a(n) = F(n, 4), the n-th Fibonacci polynomial evaluated at x=4. - T. D. Noe, Jan 19 2006
[A015448(n), a(n)] = [1,4; 1,3]^n * [1,0]. - Gary W. Adamson, Mar 21 2008
a(n) = (Sum_{k=0..n} Fibonacci(3*k-2)) + 1. - Gary Detlefs, Dec 26 2010
a(n) = (3*(-1)^n*F(n) + 5*F(n)^3)/2, n >= 0. See the general D. Jennings formula given in a comment on triangle A111125, where also the reference is given. Here the second (k=1) row [3,1] applies. - Wolfdieter Lang, Sep 01 2012
Sum_{k>=1} (-1)^(k-1)/(a(k)*a(k+1)) = (Sum_{k>=1} (-1)^(k-1)/(F_k*F_(k+1)))^3 = phi^(-3), where F_n is the n-th Fibonacci numbers (A000045) and phi is golden ratio (A001622). - Vladimir Shevelev, Feb 23 2013
G.f.: Q(0)*x/(2-4*x), where Q(k) = 1 + 1/(1 - x*(5*k-4)/(x*(5*k+1) - 2/Q(k+1) )); (continued fraction). - Sergei N. Gladkovskii, Oct 11 2013
a(-n) = -(-1)^n * a(n). - Michael Somos, Feb 23 2014
The o.g.f. A(x) = x/(1 - 4*x - x^2) satisfies A(x) + A(-x) + 8*A(x)*A(-x) = 0 or equivalently (1 + 8*A(x))*(1 + 8*A(-x)) = 1. The o.g.f. for A049660 equals -A(sqrt(x))*A(-sqrt(x)). - Peter Bala, Apr 02 2015
From Rogério Serôdio, Mar 30 2018: (Start)
Some properties:
(1) a(n)*a(n+1) = 4*Sum_{k=1..n} a(k)^2;
(2) a(n)^2 + a(n+1)^2 = a(2*n+1);
(3) a(n)^2 - a(n-2)^2 = 4*a(n-1)*(a(n) + a(n-2));
(4) a(m*(p+1)) = a(m*p)*a(m+1) + a(m*p-1)*a(m);
(5) a(n-k)*a(n+k) = a(n)^2 + (-1)^(n+k+1)*a(k)^2;
(6) a(n-1)*a(n+1) = a(n)^2 + (-1)^n (particular case of (5)!);
(7) a(2*n) = 2*a(n)*(2*a(n) + a(n-1));
(8) 3*Sum_{k=2..n+1} a(k)*a(k-1) is equal to a(n+1)^2 if n odd, and is equal to a(n+1)^2 - 1 if n is even;
(9) a(n) - a(n-2*k+1) = alpha(k)*a(n-2*k+1) + a(n-4*k+2), where alpha(k) = (2+sqrt(5))^(2*k-1) + (2-sqrt(5))^(2*k-1);
(10) 31|Sum_{k=n..n+9} a(k), for all positive n. (End)
O.g.f.: x*exp(Sum_{n >= 1} Lucas(3*n)*x^n/n) = x + 4*x^2 + 17*x^3 + .... - Peter Bala, Oct 11 2019
a(n) = Sum_{k=0..floor(n/2)} 4^(n-2*k-1)*C(n-k-1,n-2*k-1). - Vladimir Kruchinin, Oct 02 2022
a(n) = i^(n-1)*S(n-1, -4*i), with i = sqrt(-1), and the Chebyshev S-polynomials (see A049310) with S(n, -1) = 0. - Gary Detlefs and Wolfdieter Lang, Mar 06 2023
EXAMPLE
1 2 9 38 161 (A001077)
-,-,-,--,---, ...
0 1 4 17 72 (A001076)
G.f. = x + 4*x^2 + 17*x^3 + 72*x^4 + 305*x^5 + 1292*x^6 + 5473*x^7 + 23184*x^8 + ...
From Enrique Navarrete, Dec 16 2023: (Start)
From the comment on compositions with 3-metallonacci sorts of parts, A006190(k), there are A006190(1)=1 type of 1, A006190(2)=3 types of 2, A006190(3)=10 types of 3, A006190(4)=33 types of 4, A006190(5)=109 types of 5 and A006190(6)=360 types of 6. The following table gives the number of compositions of n=6:
Composition, number of such compositions, number of compositions of this type:
6, 1, 360;
5+1, 2, 218;
4+2, 2, 198;
3+3, 1, 100;
4+1+1, 3, 99;
3+2+1, 6, 180;
2+2+2, 1, 27;
3+1+1+1, 4, 40;
2+2+1+1, 6, 54;
2+1+1+1+1, 5, 15;
1+1+1+1+1+1, 1, 1;
for a total of a(6)=1292 compositions of n=6. (End)
MAPLE
A001076:=-1/(-1+4*z+z**2); # conjectured by Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation
MATHEMATICA
Join[{0}, Denominator[Convergents[Sqrt[5], 30]]] (* Harvey P. Dale, Dec 10 2011 *)
a[ n_] := Fibonacci[3*n] / 2; (* Michael Somos, Feb 23 2014 *)
a[ n_] := ((2 + Sqrt[5])^n - (2 - Sqrt[5])^n) /(2 Sqrt[5]) // Simplify; (* Michael Somos, Feb 23 2014 *)
LinearRecurrence[{4, 1}, {0, 1}, 26] (* Jean-François Alcover, Sep 23 2017 *)
a[ n_] := Fibonacci[n, 4]; (* Michael Somos, Nov 02 2021 *)
PROG
(MuPAD) numlib::fibonacci(3*n)/2 $ n = 0..30; // Zerinvary Lajos, May 09 2008
(Sage) [lucas_number1(n, 4, -1) for n in range(23)] # Zerinvary Lajos, Apr 23 2009
(Sage) [fibonacci(3*n)/2 for n in range(23)] # Zerinvary Lajos, May 15 2009
(PARI) {a(n) = fibonacci(3*n) / 2}; /* Michael Somos, Aug 11 2009 */
(PARI) {a(n) = imag( (2 + quadgen(20))^n )}; /* Michael Somos, Feb 23 2014 */
(PARI) {a(n) = polchebyshev(n-1, 2, 2*I)/I^(n-1)}; /* Michael Somos, Nov 02 2021 */
(Magma) I:=[0, 1]; [n le 2 select I[n] else 4*Self(n-1) + Self(n-2): n in [1..30]]; // G. C. Greubel, Jan 24 2018
(GAP) a:=[0, 1];; for n in [3..30] do a[n]:=4*a[n-1]+a[n-2]; od; a; # Muniru A Asiru, Mar 31 2018
(Maxima) a(n):=sum(4^(n-1-2*k)*binomial(n-k-1, n-2*k-1), k, 0, floor((n)/2)); /* Vladimir Kruchinin, Oct 02 2022 */
CROSSREFS
Row n=4 of A073133, A172236 and A352361.
Cf. A000045, A001077, A015448, A175183 (Pisano periods).
Partial sums of A033887. First differences of A049652. Bisection of A059973.
Third column of array A028412.
Sequence in context: A297578 A022031 A255117 * A122451 A257388 A113442
KEYWORD
nonn,easy,cofr,nice
AUTHOR
STATUS
approved

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Last modified February 27 21:03 EST 2024. Contains 370378 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)