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A111125 Triangle read by rows: T(k,s) = ((2*k+1)/(2*s+1))*binomial(k+s,2*s), 0 <= s <= k. 42
1, 3, 1, 5, 5, 1, 7, 14, 7, 1, 9, 30, 27, 9, 1, 11, 55, 77, 44, 11, 1, 13, 91, 182, 156, 65, 13, 1, 15, 140, 378, 450, 275, 90, 15, 1, 17, 204, 714, 1122, 935, 442, 119, 17, 1, 19, 285, 1254, 2508, 2717, 1729, 665, 152, 19, 1, 21, 385, 2079, 5148, 7007, 5733, 2940, 952 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

Riordan array ((1+x)/(1-x)^2,x/(1-x)^2). Row sums are A002878. Diagonal sums are A003945. Inverse is A113187. An interesting factorization is (1/(1-x),x/(1-x))(1+2x,x(1+x)). - Paul Barry, Oct 17 2005

Central coefficients of rows with odd numbers of term are A052227.

From Wolfdieter Lang, Jun 26 2011: (Start)

T(k,s) appears as T_s(k) in the Knuth reference, p. 285.

This triangle is related to triangle A156308(n,m), appearing in this reference as U_m(n) on p. 285, by T(k,s)-T(k-1,s) = A156308(k,s), k>=s>=1 (identity on p. 286).

  T(k,s) = A156308(k+1,s+1) - A156308(k,s+1), k>=s>=0 (identity on p. 286).

(End)

A111125 is jointly generated with A208513 as an array of coefficients of polynomials v(n,x): initially, u(1,x)=v(1,x)=1; for n>1, u(n,x)=u(n-1,x)+(x+1)*v(n-1)x and v(n,x)=u(n-1,x)+x*v(n-1,x)+1. See the Mathematica section. The columns of A111125 are identical to those of A208508. Here, however, the alternating row sums are periodic (with period 1,2,1,-1,-2,-1). - Clark Kimberling, Feb 28 2012

This triangle T(k,s) (with signs and columns scaled with powers of 5) appears in the expansion of Fibonacci numbers F=A000045 with multiples of odd numbers as indices in terms of odd powers of F-numbers. See the Jennings reference, p. 108, Theorem 1. Quoted as Lemma 3 in the Ozeki reference given in A111418. The formula is: F_{(2*k+1)*n} = sum(T(k,s)*(-1)^((k+s)*n)*5^s*F_{n}^(2*s+1),s=0..k), k >= 0, n >= 0. - Wolfdieter Lang, Aug 24 2012

From Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 18 2012: (Start)

This triangle T(k,s) appears in the formula x^(2*k+1) - x^(-(2*k+1)) = sum(T(k,s)*(x-x^(-1))^(2*s+1),s=0..k), k>=0. Prove the inverse formula (due to the Riordan property this will suffice) with the binomial theorem. Motivated to look into this by the quoted paper of Wang and Zhang, eq. (1.4).

Alternating row sums are A057079.

The Z-sequence of this Riordan array is A217477, and the A-sequence is (-1)^n*A115141(n). For the notion of A- and Z-sequences for Riordan triangles see a W. Lang link under A006232. (End)

The signed triangle ((-1)^(k-s))*T(k,s) gives the coefficients of (x^2)^s of the polynomials C(2*k+1,x)/x, with C the monic integer Chebyshev T-polynomials whose coefficients are given in A127672 (C is there called R). See the odd numbered rows there. This signed triangle is the Riordan array ((1-x)/(1+x)^2, x/(1+x)^2). Proof by comparing the o.g.f. of the row polynomials where x is replaced by x^2 with the odd part of the bisection of the o.g.f. for C(n,x)/x. - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 23 2012

From Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 04 2013: (Start)

The signed triangle S(k,s) := ((-1)^(k-s))*T(k,s) (see the preceding comment) is used to express in a (4*(k+1))-gon the length ratio s(4*(k+1)) = 2*sin(Pi/4*(k+1)) =  2*cos((2*k+1)*Pi/(4*(k+1))) of a side/radius as a polynomial in rho(4*(k+1)) = 2*cos(Pi/4*(k+1)), the length ratio (smallest diagonal)/side:

  s(4*(k+1)) = sum(S(k,s)*rho(4*(k+1))^(2*s+1), s=0..k).

This is to be computed modulo C(4*(k+1),rho(4*(k+1)) = 0, the minimal polynomial (see A187360) in order to obtain  s(4*(k+1)) as an integer in the algebraic number field Q(rho(4*(k+1))) of degree delta(4*(k+1)) (see A055034). Thanks go to Seppo Mustonen for asking me to look into the problem of the square of the total length in a regular n-gon, where this formula is used in the even n case. See A127677 for the formula in the (4*k+2)-gon. (End)

From Wolfdieter Lang, Aug 14 2014: (Start)

The row polynomials for the signed triangle (see the Oct 23 2012 comment above), call them todd(k,x) = sum(((-1)^(k-s))*T(k,s)*x^s) = S(k, x-2) - S(k-1, x-2), k >= 0, with the Chebyshev S-polynomials (see their coefficient triangle (A049310) and S(-1, x) = 0), satisfy the recurrence todd(k, x) = (-1)^(k-1)*((x-4)/2)*todd(k-1, 4-x) + ((x-2)/2)*todd(k-1, x), k >= 1, todd(0, x) = 1. From the Aug 03 2014 comment on A130777.

This leads to a recurrence for the signed triangle, call it S(k,s) as in the Oct 04 2013 comment: S(k,s) = (1/2)*(1 + (-1)^(k-s))*S(k-1,s-1) + (2*(s+1)*(-1)^(k-s) - 1)*S(k-1,s) + (1/2)*(-1)^(k-s)*sum(binomial(j+s+2,s)*4^(j+2)* S(k-1,s+1+j), j=0..k-s-2) for k >= s >= 1, and S(k,s) = 0 if k < s and S(k,0) = (-1)^k*(2*k+1). Note that the recurrence derived from the Riordan A-sequence A115141 is similar but has simpler coefficients: S(k,s) = sum(A115141(j)*S(k-1,s-1+j), j=0..k-s), k >= s >=1.

(End)

From Tom Copeland, Nov 07 2015: (Start)

Rephrasing notes here: Append an initial column of zeros, except for a 1 at the top, to A111125 here. Then the partial sums of the columns of this modified entry are contained in A208513. Append an initial row of zeros to A208513. Then the difference of consecutive pairs of rows of the modified A208513 generates the modified A111125. Cf. A034807 and A127677.

For relations among the characteristic polynomials of Cartan matrices of the Coxeter root groups, Chebyshev polynomials, cyclotomic polynomials, and the polynomials of this entry, see Damianou (p. 20 and 21) and Damianou and Evripidou (p. 7).

As suggested by the equations on p. 7 of Damainou and Evripidou, the signed row polynomials of this entry are given by (p(n,x))^2 = [A(2n+1,x)+2]/x = [F(2n+1,(2-x),1,0,0,..)+2]/x = F(2n+1,-x,2x,-3x,..,(-1)^n n*x)/x=  -F(2n+1,x,2x,3x,..,n*x)/x, where A(n,x) are the polynomials of A127677 and F(n,..) are the Faber polynomials of A263196. Cf. A127672 and A127677.

(End)

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..62.

R. Andre-Jeannin, A generalization of Morgan-Voyce polynomials, The Fibonacci Quarterly 32.3 (1994): 228-31.

K. Dilcher and K. B. Stolarsky, A Pascal-type triangle characterizing twin primes, Amer. Math. Monthly, 112 (2005), 673-681.

P. Damianou , On the characteristic polynomials of Cartan matrices and Chebyshev polynomials, arXiv preprint arXiv:1110.6620 [math.RT], 2014.

P. Damianou and C. Evripidou, Characteristic and Coxeter polynomials for affine Lie algebras, arXiv preprint arXiv:1409.3956 [math.RT], 2014.

D. Jennings, Some Polynomial Identities for the Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers, Fib. Quart., 31(2) (1993), 134-137.

D. E. Knuth, Johann Faulhaber and sums of powers, Math. Comp. 61 (1993), no. 203, 277-294.

Yidong Sun, Numerical triangles and several classical sequences, Fib. Quart., Nov. 2005, pp. 359-370.

T. Wang and W. Zhang, Some identities involving Fibonacci, Lucas polynomials and their applications, Bull. Math. Soc. Sci. Math. Roumanie, Tome 55(103), No.1, (2012) 95-103.

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Morgan-Voyce polynomials

FORMULA

T(k,s) = ((2*k+1)/(2*s+1))*binomial(k+s,2*s), 0 <= s <= k.

From Peter Bala, Apr 30 2012: (Start)

T(n,k) = binomial(n+k,2*k) + 2*binomial(n+k,2*k+1).

The row generating polynomials P(n,x) are a generalization of the Morgan-Voyce polynomials b(n,x) and B(n,x). They satisfy the recurrence equation P(n,x) = (x+2)*P(n-1,x) - P(n-2,x) for n >= 2, with initial conditions P(0,x) = 1, P(1,x) = x+r+1 and with r = 2. The cases r = 0 and r = 1 give the Morgan-Voyce polynomials A085478 and A078812 respectively. Andre-Jeannin has considered the case of general r.

P(n,x) = U(n+1,1+x/2) + U(n,1+x/2), where U(n,x) denotes the Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind - see A053117. P(n,x) = 2/x*{T(2*n+2,u)-T(2*n,u)), where u = sqrt((x+4)/4) and T(n,x) denotes the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind - see A053120. P(n,x) = product {k = 1..n} ( x + 4*(sin(k*Pi/(2*n+1)))^2 ). P(n,x) = 1/x*(b(n+1,x) - b(n-1,x)) and P(n,x) = 1/x*{(b(2*n+2,x)+1)/b(n+1,x) - (b(2*n,x)+1)/b(n,x)}, where b(n,x) := sum {k = 0..n} binomial(n+k,2*k)*x^k are the Morgan-Voyce polynomials of A085478. Cf. A211957.

(End)

From Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 18, 2012 (Start)

O.g.f. column No. s: ((1+x)/(1-x)^2)*(x/(1-x)^2)^s, s >= 0. (from the Riordan data given in a comment above).

O.g.f. of the row polynomials R(k,x):=sum(T(k,s)*x^s,s=0..k), k>=0: (1+z)/(1-(2+x)*z+z^2) (from the Riordan property).

(End)

T(n,k) = 2*T(n-1,k) + T(n-1,k-1) - T(n-2,k), T(0,0) = 1, T(1,0) = 3, T(1,1) = 1, T(n,k) = 0 if k<0 or if k>n. - Philippe Deléham, Nov 12 2013

EXAMPLE

Triangle T(k,s) begins:

k\s  0    1     2     3     4     5     6    7    8   9 10

0:   1

1:   3    1

2:   5    5     1

3:   7   14     7     1

4:   9   30    27     9     1

5:  11   55    77    44    11     1

6:  13   91   182   156    65    13     1

7:  15  140   378   450   275    90    15    1

8:  17  204   714  1122   935   442   119   17    1

9:  19  285  1254  2508  2717  1729   665  152   19   1

10: 21  385  2079  5148  7007  5733  2940  952  189  21  1

... Extended and reformatted by Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 18 2012

Application for Fibonacci numbers F_{(2*k+1)*n}, row k=3:

F_{7*n} = 7*(-1)^(3*n)*F_n + 14*(-1)^(4*n)*5*F_n^3 + 7*(-1)^(5*n)*5^2*F_n^5 + 1*(-1)^(6*n)*5^3*F_n^7, n>=0. - Wolfdieter Lang, Aug 24 2012

Example for the  Z- and A-sequence recurrences  of this Riordan triangle: Z = A217477 = [3,-4,12,-40,...]; T(4,0) = 3*7 -4*14 +12*7 -40*1 = 9. A =  [1, 2, -1, 2, -5, 14, ..]; T(5,2) = 1*30 + 2*27 - 1*9 + 2*1= 77. Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 18 2012

Example for the (4*(k+1))-gon length ratio s(4*(k+1))(side/radius) as polynomial in the ratio rho(4*(k+1)) ((smallest diagonal)/side): k=0, s(4) = 1*rho(4) = sqrt(2); k=1, s(8) = -3*rho(8) + rho(8)^3 = sqrt(2-sqrt(2)); k=2, s(12) = 5*rho(12) - 5*rho(12)^3 + rho(12)^5, and C(12,x) = x^4 - 4*x^2 + 1, hence rho(12)^5 = 4*rho(12)^3 - rho(12), and s(12) = 4*rho(12) - rho(12)^3 = sqrt(2 - sqrt(3)). - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 04 2013

Example for the recurrence for the signed triangle S(k,s)= ((-1)^(k-s))*T(k,s) (see the Aug 14 2014 comment above):

S(4,1) = 0 + (-2*2 - 1)*S(3,1) - (1/2)*(3*4^2*S(3,2) + 4*4^3*S(3,3)) = - 5*14 - 3*8*(-7) - 128*1 = -30. The recurrence from the Riordan A-sequence A115141 is S(4,1) = -7 -2*14 -(-7) -2*1 = -30. - Wolfdieter Lang, Aug 14 2014

MATHEMATICA

u[1, x_] := 1; v[1, x_] := 1; z = 16;

u[n_, x_] := u[n - 1, x] + x*v[n - 1, x];

v[n_, x_] := u[n - 1, x] + (x + 1)*v[n - 1, x] + 1;

Table[Expand[u[n, x]], {n, 1, z/2}]

Table[Expand[v[n, x]], {n, 1, z/2}]

cu = Table[CoefficientList[u[n, x], x], {n, 1, z}];

TableForm[cu]

Flatten[%]  (* A208513 *)

Table[Expand[v[n, x]], {n, 1, z}]

cv = Table[CoefficientList[v[n, x], x], {n, 1, z}];

TableForm[cv]

Flatten[%]  (* A111125 *)

(* Clark Kimberling, Feb 28 2012 *)

PROG

(Sage)

@CachedFunction

def T(n, k):

    if n< 0: return 0

    if n==0: return 1 if k == 0 else 0

    h = 3*T(n-1, k) if n==1 else 2*T(n-1, k)

    return T(n-1, k-1) - T(n-2, k) - h

A111125 = lambda n, k: (-1)^(n-k)*T(n, k)

for n in (0..9): [A111125(n, k) for k in (0..n)] # Peter Luschny, Nov 20 2012

CROSSREFS

Mirror image of A082985, which see for further references, etc.

Also closely related to triangles in A098599 and A100218.

A052227, A208513, A208508. A085478, A211957

Cf. A034807, A127672, A127677, A263196.

Sequence in context: A232632 A084533 A082985 * A209159 A182397 A209560

Adjacent sequences:  A111122 A111123 A111124 * A111126 A111127 A111128

KEYWORD

nonn,tabl,easy

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane, Oct 16 2005

EXTENSIONS

More terms from Paul Barry, Oct 17 2005

STATUS

approved

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Last modified August 21 10:36 EDT 2018. Contains 313937 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)