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 A015518 a(n) = 2*a(n-1) + 3*a(n-2), with a(0)=0, a(1)=1. 90
 0, 1, 2, 7, 20, 61, 182, 547, 1640, 4921, 14762, 44287, 132860, 398581, 1195742, 3587227, 10761680, 32285041, 96855122, 290565367, 871696100, 2615088301, 7845264902, 23535794707, 70607384120, 211822152361, 635466457082 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 0,3 COMMENTS Number of walks of length n between any two distinct vertices of the complete graph K_4. - Paul Barry and Emeric Deutsch, Apr 01 2004 For n >= 1, a(n) is the number of integers k, 1 <= k <= 3^(n-1), whose ternary representation ends in an even number of zeros (see A007417). - Philippe Deléham, Mar 31 2004 Form the digraph with matrix A=[0,1,1,1;1,0,1,1;1,1,0,1;1,0,1,1]. A015518(n) corresponds to the (1,3) term of A^n. - Paul Barry, Oct 02 2004 The same sequence may be obtained by the following process. Starting a priori with the fraction 1/1, the denominators of fractions built according to the rule: add top and bottom to get the new bottom, add top and 4 times the bottom to get the new top. The limit of the sequence of fractions is 2. - Cino Hilliard, Sep 25 2005 (A046717(n))^2 + (2*a(n))^2 = A046717(2n). E.g., A046717(3) = 13, 2*a(3) = 14, A046717(6) = 365. 13^2 + 14^2 = 365. - Gary W. Adamson, Jun 17 2006 For n >= 2, number of ordered partitions of n-1 into parts of sizes 1 and 2 where there are two types of 1 (singletons) and three types of 2 (twins). For example, the number of possible configurations of families of n-1 male (M) and female (F) offspring considering only single births and twins, where the birth order of M/F/pair-of-twins is considered and there are three types of twins; namely, both F, both M, or one F and one M - where birth order within a pair of twins itself is disregarded. In particular, for a(3)=7, two children could be either: (1) F, then M; (2) M, then F; (3) F,F; (4) M,M; (5) F,F twins; (6) M,M twins; or (7) M,F twins (emphasizing that birth order is irrelevant here when both/all children are the same gender and when two children are within the same pair of twins). - Rick L. Shepherd, Sep 18 2004 a(n) is prime for n = {2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 23, ...}, where only a(2) = 2 corresponds to a prime of the form (3^n - 1)/4. All prime a(n), except a(2) = 2, are the primes of the form (3^n + 1)/4. Numbers n such that (3^n + 1)/4 is prime are listed in A007658(n) = {3, 5, 7, 13, 23, 43, 281, 359, 487, 577, 1579, 1663, 1741, 3191, 9209, 11257, 12743, 13093, 17027, 26633, ...}. Note that all prime a(n) have prime indices. Prime a(n) are listed in A111010(n) = {2, 7, 61, 547, 398581, 23535794707, 82064241848634269407, ...}. - Alexander Adamchuk, Nov 19 2006 General form: k=3^n-k. Also: A001045, A078008, A097073, A115341. - Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Dec 11 2008 Let A be the Hessenberg matrix of order n, defined by: A[1,j]=1, A[i,i]:=-2, A[i,i-1]=-1, and A[i,j]=0 otherwise. Then, for n>=1, a(n)=charpoly(A,1). - Milan Janjic, Jan 26 2010 Select an odd size subset S from {1,2,...,n}, then select an even size subset from S. - Geoffrey Critzer, Mar 02 2010 a(n) is the number of ternary sequences of length n where the numbers of (0's, 1's) are (even, odd) respectively, and, by symmetry, the number of such sequences where those numbers are (odd, even) respectively. A122983 covers (even, even), and A081251 covers (odd, odd). - Toby Gottfried, Apr 18 2010 An elephant sequence, see A175654. For the corner squares just one A vector, with decimal value 341, leads to this sequence (without the leading 0). For the central square this vector leads to the companion sequence A046717 (without the first leading 1). - Johannes W. Meijer, Aug 15 2010 Let R be the commutative algebra resulting from adjoining the elements of the Klein four-group to the integers (equivalently, K = Z[x,y,z]/{x*y - z, y*z - x, x*z - y, x^2 - 1, y^2 - 1, z^2 - 1}). Then a(n) is equal to the coefficients of x, y, and z in the expansion of (x + y + z)^n. - Joseph E. Cooper III (easonrevant(AT)gmail.com), Nov 06 2010 Pisano period lengths:  1, 2, 2, 4, 4, 2, 6, 8, 2, 4, 10, 4, 6, 6, 4, 16, 16, 2, 18, 4, ... - R. J. Mathar, Aug 10 2012 The ratio a(n+1)/a(n) converges to 3 as n approaches infinity. - Felix P. Muga II, Mar 09 2014 This is a divisibility sequence, also the values of Chebyshev polynomials, and also the number of ways of packing a 2 X n-1 rectangle with dominoes and unit squares. - R. K. Guy, Dec 16 2016 For n>0, gcd(a(n),a(n+1))=1. - Kengbo Lu, Jul 02 2020 REFERENCES John Derbyshire, Prime Obsession, Joseph Henry Press, April 2004, see p. 16. LINKS Vincenzo Librandi, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..1000 A. Abdurrahman, CM Method and Expansion of Numbers, arXiv:1909.10889 [math.NT], 2019. Jean-Paul Allouche, Jeffrey Shallit, Zhixiong Wen, Wen Wu, Jiemeng Zhang, Sum-free sets generated by the period-k-folding sequences and some Sturmian sequences, arXiv:1911.01687 [math.CO], 2019. K. Böhmová, C. Dalfó, C. Huemer, On cyclic Kautz digraphs, Preprint 2016. G. Bowlin and M. G. Brin, Coloring Planar Graphs via Colored Paths in the Associahedra, arXiv preprint arXiv:1301.3984 [math.CO], 2013. - From N. J. A. Sloane, Feb 12 2013 Ji Young Choi, A Generalization of Collatz Functions and Jacobsthal Numbers, J. Int. Seq., Vol. 21 (2018), Article 18.5.4. Sergio Falcón, Binomial Transform of the Generalized k-Fibonacci Numbers, Communications in Mathematics and Applications (2019) Vol. 10, No. 3, 643-651. Dale Gerdemann, Fractal generated from (2,3) recursion, YouTube Video, Dec 05 2014. R. J. Mathar, Counting Walks on Finite Graphs, Nov 2020, Section 2. F. P. Muga II, Extending the Golden Ratio and the Binet-de Moivre Formula, March 2014. Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (2,3). FORMULA G.f.: x/((1+x)*(1-3*x)). a(n) = (3^n - (-1)^n)/4 = floor(3^n/4 + 1/2). a(n) = 3^(n-1) - a(n-1). - Emeric Deutsch, Apr 01 2004 E.g.f.: (exp(3*x) - exp(-x))/4. Second inverse binomial transform of (5^n-1)/4, A003463. Inverse binomial transform for powers of 4, A000302 (when preceded by 0). - Paul Barry, Mar 28 2003 a(n) = Sum_{k=0..floor(n/2)} C(n, 2k+1)*2^(2k). - Paul Barry, May 14 2003 a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n} binomial(n, k)*(-1)^(n+k)*4^(k-1). - Paul Barry, Apr 02 2003 a(n+1) = Sum_{k=0..floor(n/2)} binomial(n-k, k)*2^(n-2*k)*3^k. - Paul Barry, Jul 13 2004 a(n) = U(n-1, i/sqrt(3))(-i*sqrt(3))^(n-1), i^2=-1. - Paul Barry, Nov 17 2003 G.f.: x*(1+x)^2/(1 - 6*x^2 - 8*x^3 - 3*x^4) = x(1+x)^2/characteristic polynomial(x^4*adj(K_4)(1/x)). - Paul Barry, Feb 03 2004 a(n) = sum_{k=0..3^(n-1)} A014578(k) = -(-1)^n*A014983(n) = A051068(3^(n-1)), for n > 0. - Philippe Deléham, Mar 31 2004 E.g.f.: exp(x)*sinh(2*x)/2. - Paul Barry, Oct 02 2004 a(2*n+1) = A054880(n) + 1. - M. F. Hasler, Mar 20 2008 2*a(n) + (-1)^n = A046717(n). - M. F. Hasler, Mar 20 2008 ((1+sqrt(4))^n - (1-sqrt(4))^n)/4 = (3^n - (-1)^n)/4. Offset =1. a(3)=7. - Al Hakanson (hawkuu(AT)gmail.com), Dec 31 2008 a(n) = abs(A014983(n)). - Zerinvary Lajos, May 28 2009 a(n) = round(3^n/4). - Mircea Merca, Dec 28 2010 a(n) = Sum_{k=1,3,5,...} binomial(n,k)*2^(k-1). - Geoffrey Critzer, Mar 02 2010 Starting with "1" = triangle A059260 * the powers of 2: [1, 2, 4, 8, ...] as a vector. - Gary W. Adamson, Mar 06 2012 From Sergei N. Gladkovskii, Jul 19 2012: (Start) G.f.: G(0)/4 where G(k)= 1 - 1/(9^k - 3*x*81^k/(3*x*9^k - 1/(1 + 1/(3*9^k - 27*x*81^k/(9*x*9^k + 1/G(k+1)))))); (continued fraction, 3rd kind, 6-step). E.g.f.: G(0)/4 where G(k)= 1 - 1/(9^k - 3*x*81^k/(3*x*9^k - (2*k+1)/(1 + 1/(3*9^k - 27*x*81^k/(9*x*9^k + (2*k+2)/G(k+1)))))); (continued fraction, 3rd kind, 6-step).  (End) G.f.: G(0)*x/(2*(1-x)), where G(k) = 1 + 1/(1 - x*(4*k-1)/(x*(4*k+3) - 1/G(k+1))); (continued fraction). - Sergei N. Gladkovskii, May 26 2013 a(n+1) = Sum_{k = 0..n} A238801(n,k)*2^k. - Philippe Deléham, Mar 07 2014 a(n) = (-1)^(n-1)*Sum_{k=0..n-1} A135278(n-1,k)*(-4)^k = (3^n - (-1)^n)/4 = (-1)^(n-1)*Sum_{k=0..n-1} (-3)^k. Equals (-1)^(n-1)*Phi(n,-3), where Phi is the cyclotomic polynomial when n is an odd prime. (For n > 0.) - Tom Copeland, Apr 14 2014 a(n) = 2*A006342(n-1) - n mod 2 if n > 0, a(0)=0. - Yuchun Ji, Nov 30 2018 a(n) = 2*A033113(n-2) + n mod 2 if n > 0, a(0)=0. - Yuchun Ji, Aug 16 2019 a(2*k) = 2*A002452(k), a(2*k+1) = A066443(k). - Yuchun Ji, Aug 14 2019 a(n+1) = 2*Sum_{k=0..n} a(k) if n odd, and 1 + 2*Sum_{k=0..n} a(k) if n even. - Kengbo Lu, May 30 2020 a(n) = F(n) + Sum_{k=1..(n-1)} a(k)*L(n-k), for F(n) and L(n) the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. - Kengbo Lu and Greg Dresden, Jun 05 2020 From Kengbo Lu, Jun 11 2020: (Start) a(n) = A002605(n) + Sum_{k = 1..n-2} a(k)*A002605(n-k-1). a(n) = A006130(n-1) + Sum_{k = 1..n-1} a(k)*A006130(n-k-1). (End) a(2n) = Sum_{i>=0, j>=0} binomial(n-j-1,i)*binomial(n-i-1,j)*2^(2n-2i-2j-1)*3^(i+j). - Kengbo Lu, Jul 02 2020 MATHEMATICA Table[(3^n-(-1)^n)/4, {n, 0, 30}] (* Alexander Adamchuk, Nov 19 2006 *) PROG (PARI) a(n)=round(3^n/4) (Sage) [round(3^n/4) for n in range(0, 27)] (Magma) [Round(3^n/4): n in [0..30]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Jun 24 2011 (Python) for n in range(0, 20): print(int((3**n-(-1)**n)/4), end=', ') # Stefano Spezia, Nov 30 2018 CROSSREFS a(n) = A080926(n-1) + 1 = (1/3)*A054878(n+1) = (1/3)*abs(A084567(n+1)). First differences of A033113 and A039300. Partial sums of A046717. The following sequences (and others) belong to the same family: A000129, A001333, A002532, A002533, A002605, A015518, A015519, A026150, A046717, A063727, A083098, A083099, A083100, A084057. Cf. A046717. Cf. A007658, A111010. Cf. A001045, A078008, A097073, A115341. - Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Dec 11 2008 Cf. A059260. Sequence in context: A116950 A111017 A116408 * A014983 A083379 A216246 Adjacent sequences:  A015515 A015516 A015517 * A015519 A015520 A015521 KEYWORD nonn,walk,easy AUTHOR EXTENSIONS More terms from Emeric Deutsch, Apr 01 2004 Edited by Ralf Stephan, Aug 30 2004 STATUS approved

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Last modified October 1 16:19 EDT 2022. Contains 357149 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)