

A002293


Number of dissections of a polygon: binomial(4*n, n)/(3*n + 1).
(Formerly M3587 N1454)


205



1, 1, 4, 22, 140, 969, 7084, 53820, 420732, 3362260, 27343888, 225568798, 1882933364, 15875338990, 134993766600, 1156393243320, 9969937491420, 86445222719724, 753310723010608, 6594154339031800, 57956002331347120, 511238042454541545
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OFFSET

0,3


COMMENTS

The number of rooted loopless nedge maps in the plane (planar with a distinguished outside face).  Valery A. Liskovets, Mar 17 2005
Number of lattice paths from (1,0) to (3*n+1,n) which, starting from (1,0), only utilize the steps +(1,0) and +(0,1) and additionally, the paths lie completely below the line y = (1/3)*x (i.e., if (a,b) is in the path, then b < a/3).  Joseph Cooper (jecooper(AT)mit.edu), Feb 07 2006
Number of lengthn restricted growth strings (RGS) [s(0), s(1), ..., s(n1)] where s(0) = 0 and s(k) <= s(k1) + 3, see fxtbook link below.  Joerg Arndt, Apr 08 2011
a(n), n >= 1, enumerates quartic trees (rooted, ordered, incomplete) with n vertices (including the root).
PfaffFussCatalan sequence C^{m}_n for m = 4. See the Graham et al. reference, p. 347. eq. 7.66. (Second edition, p. 361, eq. 7.67.) See also the PólyaSzegő reference.
Also 4Raney sequence. See the Graham et al. reference, pp. 346347.
(End)
Bacher: "We describe the statistics of checkerboard triangulations obtained by coloring black every other triangle in triangulations of convex polygons." The current sequence (A002293) occurs on p. 12 as one of two "extremal sequences" of an array of coefficients of polynomials, whose generating functions are given in terms of hypergeometric functions.  Jonathan Vos Post, Oct 05 2007
A generating function in terms of a (labyrinthine) solution to a depressed quartic equation is given in the Copeland link for signed A005810. With D(z,t) that g.f., a g.f. for signed A002293 is {[1+1/D(z,t)]/(4t)}^(1/3).  Tom Copeland, Oct 10 2012
For relations to compositional inversion, the Legendre transform, and convex geometry, see the Copeland, the Schuetz and Whieldon, and the Gross (p. 58) links.  Tom Copeland, Feb 21 2017 (See also Gross et al. in A062994.  Tom Copeland, Dec 24 2019)
This is the number of A'Campo bicolored forests of degree n and codimension 0. This can be shown using generating functions or a combinatorial approach. See Combe and Jugé link below.  Noemie Combe, Feb 28 2017
Conjecturally, a(n) is the number of 3uniform words over the alphabet [n] that avoid the patterns 231 and 221 (see the Defant and Kravitz link).  Colin Defant, Sep 26 2018
The compositional inverse o.g.f. pair in Copeland's comment above are related to a pair of quantum fields in Balduf's thesis by Theorem 4.2 on p. 92. Cf. A001764.  Tom Copeland, Dec 13 2019
a(n) is the total number of down steps before the first up step in all 3_1Dyck paths of length 4*n. A 3_1Dyck path is a lattice path with steps (1, 3), (1, 1) that starts and ends at y = 0 and stays above the line y = 1.  Sarah Selkirk, May 10 2020
a(n) is the number of pairs (A<=B) of noncrossing partitions of [2n] such that every block of A has exactly two elements. In fact, it is proved that a(n) is the number of planar tied arc diagrams with n arcs (see Aicardi link below). A planar diagram with n arcs represents a noncrossing partition A of [2n] with n blocks, each block containing the endpoints of one arc; each tie connects two arcs, so that the ties define a partition B >= A: the endpoints of two arcs connected by a tie belong to the same block of B. Ties do not cross arcs nor other ties iff B has a planar diagram, i.e., B is a noncrossing partition.  Francesca Aicardi, Nov 07 2022
Dropping the initial 1 (starting 1, 4, 22 with offset 1) yields the REVERT transformation 1, 4 ,10, 20, 35.. essentially A000292 without leading 0.  R. J. Mathar, Aug 17 2023
Number of rooted polyominoes composed of n pentagonal cells of the hyperbolic regular tiling with Schläfli symbol {5,oo}. A rooted polyomino has one external edge identified, and chiral pairs are counted as two. A stereographic projection of the {5,oo} tiling on the Poincaré disk can be obtained via the Christensson link.  Robert A. Russell, Jan 27 2024
This is instance k = 4 of the generalized Catalan family {C(k, n)}_{n>=0} given in a comment of A130564.  Wolfdieter Lang, Feb 05 2024


REFERENCES

Miklos Bona, editor, Handbook of Enumerative Combinatorics, CRC Press, 2015, page 23.
R. L. Graham, D. E. Knuth and O. Patashnik, Concrete Mathematics. AddisonWesley, Reading, MA, 1990, pp. 200, 347.
Peter Hilton and Jean Pedersen, Catalan numbers, their generalization, and their uses, Math. Intelligencer 13 (1991), no. 2, 6475.
V. A. Liskovets and T. R. Walsh, Enumeration of unrooted maps on the plane, Rapport technique, UQAM, No. 200501, Montreal, Canada, 2005.
G. Pólya and G. Szegő, Problems and Theorems in Analysis, SpringerVerlag, Heidelberg, New York, 2 vols., 1972, Vol. 1, problem 211, p. 146 with solution on p. 348.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).


LINKS

M. Bernstein and N. J. A. Sloane, Some canonical sequences of integers, arXiv:math/0205301 [math.CO], 2002; Linear Alg. Applications, 226228 (1995), 5772; erratum 320 (2000), 210.
M. Bernstein and N. J. A. Sloane, Some canonical sequences of integers, Linear Alg. Applications, 226228 (1995), 5772; erratum 320 (2000), 210. [Link to Lin. Alg. Applic. version together with omitted figures]
D. Merlini, R. Sprugnoli and M. C. Verri, The tennis ball problem, J. Combin. Theory, A 99 (2002), 307344 (T_n for s=4).
C. O. Oakley and R. J. Wisner, Flexagons, Am. Math. Monthly 64 (3) (1957) 143154, u_{3k+1}.


FORMULA

O.g.f. satisfies: A(x) = 1 + x*A(x)^4 = 1/(1  x*A(x)^3).
a(n) = binomial(4*n,n1)/n, n >= 1, a(0) = 1. From the Lagrange series of the o.g.f. A(x) with its above given implicit equation.
Integral representation as nth Hausdorff power moment of a positive function on the interval [0, 256/27], in Maple notation:
a(n) = int(x^n((3/256) * sqrt(2) * sqrt(3) * ((2/27) * 3^(3/4) * 27^(1/4) * 256^(/4) * hypergeom([1/12, 1/4, 7/12], [1/2, 3/4], (27/256)*x)/(sqrt(Pi) * x^(3/4))  (2/27) * sqrt(2) * sqrt(27) * sqrt(256) * hypergeom([1/6, 1/2, 5/6], [3/4, 5/4], (27/256)*x)/ (sqrt(Pi) * sqrt(x))  (1/81) * 3^(1/4) * 27^(3/4) * 256^(1/4) * hypergeom([5/12, 3/4, 13/12], [5/4, 3/2], (27/256)*x/(sqrt(Pi)*x^(1/4)))/sqrt(Pi)), x=0..256/27), n >= 0.
This representation is unique as it represents the solution of the Hausdorff moment problem.
O.g.f.: hypergeom([1/4, 1/2, 3/4], [2/3, 4/3], (256/27)*x);
E.g.f.: hypergeom([1/4, 1/2, 3/4], [2/3, 1, 4/3], (256/27)*x). (End)
a(n) = upper left term in M^n, M = the production matrix:
1, 1
3, 3, 1
6, 6, 3, 1
...
(where 1, 3, 6, 10, ...) is the triangular series.  Gary W. Adamson, Jul 08 2011
O.g.f. satisfies g = 1+x*g^4. If h is the series reversion of x*g, so h(x*g)=x, then (xh(x))/x^2 is the o.g.f. of A006013.  Mark van Hoeij, Nov 10 2011
a(n) = Sum_{i=0..n1} Sum_{j=0..n1i} Sum_{k=0..n1ij} a(i)*a(j)*a(k)*a(n1ijk) for n>=1; and a(0) = 1.  Robert FERREOL, Apr 02 2015
a(n) ~ 2^(8*n+1/2) / (sqrt(Pi) * n^(3/2) * 3^(3*n+3/2)).  Vaclav Kotesovec, Jun 03 2015
From Peter Bala, Oct 16 2015: (Start)
Dfinite with recurrence: a(n+1) = a(n)*4*(4*n + 3)*(4*n + 2)*(4*n + 1)/((3*n + 2)*(3*n + 3)*(3*n + 4)).  Chai Wah Wu, Feb 19 2016
E.g.f.: F([1/4, 1/2, 3/4], [2/3, 1, 4/3], 256*x/27], where F is the generalized hypergeometric function.  Stefano Spezia, Dec 27 2019
a(n) = hypergeom([1  n, 3*n], [2], 1). Row sums of A173020.  Peter Bala, Aug 31 2023
G.f.: t*exp(4*t*hypergeom([1, 1, 5/4, 3/2, 7/4], [4/3, 5/3, 2, 2], (256*t)/27))+1.  Karol A. Penson, Dec 20 2023


EXAMPLE

There are a(2) = 4 quartic trees (vertex degree <= 4 and 4 possible branchings) with 2 vertices (one of them the root). Adding one more branch (one more vertex) to these four trees yields 4*4 + 6 = 22 = a(3) such trees.


MAPLE

series(RootOf(g = 1+x*g^4, g), x=0, 20); # Mark van Hoeij, Nov 10 2011


MATHEMATICA

CoefficientList[InverseSeries[ Series[ y  y^4, {y, 0, 60}], x], x][[Range[2, 60, 3]]]
Table[Binomial[4n, n]/(3n+1), {n, 0, 25}] (* Harvey P. Dale, Apr 18 2011 *)
CoefficientList[1 + InverseSeries[Series[x/(1 + x)^4, {x, 0, 60}]], x] (* Gheorghe Coserea, Aug 12 2015 *)
terms = 22; A[_] = 0; Do[A[x_] = 1 + x*A[x]^4 + O[x]^terms, terms];


PROG

(PARI) my(x='x+O('x^33)); Vec(1 + serreverse(x/(1+x)^4)) \\ Gheorghe Coserea, Aug 12 2015
(Python)
from __future__ import division
for n in range(100):
x = x*4*(4*n+3)*(4*n+2)*(4*n+1)//((3*n+2)*(3*n+3)*(3*n+4))
(GAP) List([0..22], n>Binomial(4*n, n)/(3*n+1)); # Muniru A Asiru, Nov 01 2018


CROSSREFS

Cf. A006632, A006633, A006634, A025174, A069271, A196678, A224274, A233658, A233666, A233667, A277877, A283049, A283101, A283102, A283103.
Cf. 130564 (for generalized Catalan C(k, n), for = 4).


KEYWORD

nonn,nice,easy,changed


AUTHOR



STATUS

approved



