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 A000464 Expansion of sin x /cos 2x. (Formerly M4812 N2059) 19
 1, 11, 361, 24611, 2873041, 512343611, 129570724921, 44110959165011, 19450718635716001, 10784052561125704811, 7342627959965776406281, 6023130568334172003579011, 5858598896811701995459355761, 6667317162352419006959182803611, 8776621742176931117228228227924441 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 0,2 COMMENTS From Peter Bala, Dec 22 2021: (Start) Conjectures: 1) Taking the sequence (a(n))n>=1 modulo an integer k gives a purely periodic sequence with period dividing phi(k). For example, the sequence taken modulo 21 begins [11, 4, 20, 10, 17, 1, 11, 4, 20, 10, 17, 1, 11, 4, 20, 10, 17, 1, ...] with an apparent period of length 6, which divides phi(21) = 12. 2) For i >= 0, define a_i(n) = a(n+i). Then for each i the Gauss congruences a_i(n*p^k) == a_i(n*p^(k-1)) ( mod p^k ) hold for all prime p and positive integers n and k. If true, then for each i the expansion of exp(Sum_{n >= 1} a_i(n)*x^n/n) has integer coefficients. 3) a(m*n) == a(m)^n (mod 2^k) for k = 2*v_2(m) + 4, where v_p(i) denotes the p-adic valuation of i. 4)(i) a(2*m*n) == a(n)^(2*m) (mod 2^k) for k = v_2(m) + 4 (ii) a((2*m+1)*n) == a(n)^(2*m+1) (mod 2^k) for k = v_2(m) + 4. (End) REFERENCES H. Cohen, Number Theory - Volume II: Analytic and Modern Tools, Graduate Texts in Mathematics. Springer-Verlag. J. W. L. Glaisher, "On the coefficients in the expansions of cos x/ cos 2x and sin x/ cos 2x", Quart. J. Pure and Applied Math., 45 (1914), 187-222. I. J. Schwatt, Intro. to Operations with Series, Chelsea, p. 278. N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence). N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence). LINKS T. D. Noe, Table of n, a(n) for n=0..50 G. E. Andrews, J. Jimenez-Urroz, and K. Ono, q-series identities and values of certain L-functions, Duke Math Jour., Volume 108, No.3 (2001), 395-419. D. Dumont, Further triangles of Seidel-Arnold type and continued fractions related to Euler and Springer numbers, Adv. Appl. Math., 16 (1995), 275-296. Simon Plouffe, Table of n, a(n) for n=0..1023 D. Shanks, Generalized Euler and class numbers. Math. Comp. 21 (1967) 689-694. D. Shanks, Corrigenda to: "Generalized Euler and class numbers", Math. Comp. 22 (1968), 699 D. Shanks, Generalized Euler and class numbers, Math. Comp. 21 (1967), 689-694; 22 (1968), 699. [Annotated scanned copy] Alan D. Sokal, The Euler and Springer numbers as moment sequences, arXiv:1804.04498 [math.CO], 2018. A. Vieru, Agoh's conjecture: its proof, its generalizations, its analogues, arXiv preprint arXiv:1107.2938 [math.NT], 2011. FORMULA E.g.f.: Sum_{k>=0} a(k)x^(2k+1)/(2k+1)! = sin(x)/cos(2x). a(n) = (-1)^n*L(X,-2n+1) where L(X,z) is the Dirichlet L-function L(X,z) = Sum_{k>=0} X(k)/k^z and where X(k) is the Dirichlet character Legendre(k,2) which begins 1,0,-1,0,-1,0,1,0,1,0,-1,0,-1,0,1,0,1,0,-1,0.... - Benoit Cloitre, Mar 22 2009 From Peter Bala, Mar 24 2009: (Start) Basic hypergeometric generating function: 2*exp(-t)*Sum_{n = 0..inf} (Product_{k = 1..n} (1-exp(-16*k*t))/Product_{k = 1..n+1} (1+exp(-(16*k-8)*t))) = 1 + 11*t + 361*t^2/2! + 24611*t^3/3! + .... For other sequences with generating functions of a similar type see A000364, A002105, A002439, A079144 and A158690. a(n) = (-1)^(n+1)*L(-2*n-1), where L(s) is the Dirichlet L-function L(s) = 1 - 1/3^s - 1/5^s + 1/7^s + - - + ... [Andrews et al., Theorem 5]. (End) From Peter Bala, Jun 18 2009: (Start) a(n) = (-1)^n*B_(2*n+2)(X)/(2*n+2), where B_n(X) denotes the X-Bernoulli number with X a Dirichlet character modulus 8 given by X(8*n+1) = X(8*n+7) = 1, X(8*n+3) = X(8*n+5) = -1 and X(2*n) = 0. See A161722 for the values of B_n(X). For the theory and properties of the generalized Bernoulli numbers B_n(X) and the associated generalized Bernoulli polynomials B_n(X,x) see [Cohen, Section 9.4]. The present sequence also occurs in the evaluation of the finite sum of powers Sum_{i = 0..m-1} {(8*i+1)^n - (8*i+3)^n - (8*i+5)^n + (8*i+7)^n}, n = 1,2,... - see A151751 for details. (End) G.f. 1/G(0) where G(k) = 1 + x - x*(4*k+3)*(4*k+4)/(1 - (4*k+4)*(4*k+5)*x/G(k+1)); (continued fraction, 2-step). - Sergei N. Gladkovskii, Aug 11 2012 G.f.: 1/E(0) where E(k) = 1 - 11*x - 32*x*k*(k+1) - 16*x^2*(k+1)^2*(4*k+3)*(4*k+5)/E(k+1) (continued fraction, 1-step). - Sergei N. Gladkovskii, Sep 17 2012 a(n) ~ (2*n+1)! * 2^(4*n+7/2) / Pi^(2*n+2). - Vaclav Kotesovec, May 03 2014 a(n) = (-1)^n*2^(6*n+4)*(Zeta(-2*n-1,5/8)-Zeta(-2*n-1,7/8)). - Peter Luschny, Oct 15 2015 From Peter Bala, May 11 2017: (Start) G.f. A(x) = 1 + 11*x + 361*x^2 + ... = 1/(1 + x - 12*x/(1 - 20*x/(1 + x - 56*x/(1 - 72*x/(1 + x - ... - 4*n*(4*n - 1)*x/(1 - 4*n*(4*n + 1)*x/((1 + x) - ...))))))). A(x) = 1/(1 + 9*x - 20*x/(1 - 12*x/(1 + 9*x - 72*x/(1 - 56*x/(1 + 9*x - ... - 4*n*(4*n + 1)*x/(1 - 4*n*(4*n - 1)*x/(1 + 9*x - ...))))))). It follows that the first binomial transform of A(x) and the ninth binomial transform of A(x) have continued fractions of Stieltjes-type (S-fractions). (End) a(n) = (-1)^(n+1)*4^(2*n+1)*E(2*n+1,1/4), where E(n,x) is the n-th Euler polynomial. Cf. A002439. - Peter Bala, Aug 13 2017 From Peter Bala, Dec 04 2021: (Start) F(x) = exp(x)*(exp(2*x) - 1)/(exp(4*x) + 1) = x - 11*x^3/3! + 361x^5/5! - 24611*x^7/7! + ... is the e.g.f. for the sequence [1, 0, -11, 0, 361, 0, -24611, 0, ...], a signed and aerated version of this sequence. The binomial transform exp(x)*F(x) = x + 2*x^2/2! - 8*x^3/3! - 40*x^4/4! + + - - is an e.g.f. for a signed version of A000828 (omitting the initial term). (End) From Peter Bala, Dec 22 2021: (Start) a(1) = 1, a(n) = (-1)^(n-1) - Sum_{k = 1..n} (-4)^k*C(2*n-1,2*k)*a(n-k). a(n) == 1 (mod 10); a(5*n+1) == 0 mod(11); a(n) == - 23^(n+1) (mod 108); a(n) == (7^2)*59^n (mod 144); a(n) == 11^n (mod 240); a(n) == (11^2)*131^n (mod 360). (End) MAPLE a := n -> (-1)^n*2^(6*n+4)*(Zeta(0, -2*n-1, 5/8)-Zeta(0, -2*n-1, 7/8)): seq(a(n), n=0..12); # Peter Luschny, Oct 15 2015 MATHEMATICA With[{nn=30}, Take[CoefficientList[Series[Sin[x]/Cos[2x], {x, 0, nn}], x] Range[0, nn-1]!, {2, -1, 2}]] (* Harvey P. Dale, Mar 23 2012 *) nmax = 15; km0 = 10; d[n_, km_] := Round[(2^(4n-1/2) (2n-1)! Sum[ JacobiSymbol[2, 2k+1]/(2k+1)^(2n), {k, 0, km}])/Pi^(2n)]; dd[km_] := dd[km] = Table[d[n, km], {n, 1, nmax}]; dd[km0]; dd[km = 2*km0]; While[dd[km] != dd[km/2, km = 2*km]]; A000464 = dd[km] (* Jean-François Alcover, Feb 08 2016 *) PROG (PARI) a(n)=if(n<0, 0, n+=n+1; n!*polcoeff(sin(x+x*O(x^n))/cos(2*x+x*O(x^n)), n)) /* Michael Somos, Feb 09 2006 */ CROSSREFS Cf. A064073. Bisection of A000822, A001586. Cf. A000364, A000828, A002105, A002439, A079144, A158690. Sequence in context: A066268 A257227 A176474 * A291973 A024149 A353934 Adjacent sequences: A000461 A000462 A000463 * A000465 A000466 A000467 KEYWORD nonn,easy,nice AUTHOR EXTENSIONS Better description, new reference, Aug 15 1995 STATUS approved

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Last modified March 28 03:48 EDT 2023. Contains 361577 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)