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A094638 Triangle read by rows: T(n,k) = |s(n,n+1-k)|, where s(n,k) are the signed Stirling numbers of the first kind A008276 (1 <= k <= n; in other words, the unsigned Stirling numbers of the first kind in reverse order). 63
1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 2, 1, 6, 11, 6, 1, 10, 35, 50, 24, 1, 15, 85, 225, 274, 120, 1, 21, 175, 735, 1624, 1764, 720, 1, 28, 322, 1960, 6769, 13132, 13068, 5040, 1, 36, 546, 4536, 22449, 67284, 118124, 109584, 40320, 1, 45, 870, 9450, 63273, 269325, 723680, 1172700, 1026576, 362880 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,5

COMMENTS

Triangle of coefficients of the polynomial (x+1)(x+2)...(x+n), expanded in decreasing powers of x. - T. D. Noe, Feb 22 2008

Row n also gives the number of permutation of 1..n with complexity 0,1,...,n-1. See the comments in A008275. - N. J. A. Sloane, Feb 08 2019

T(n,k) is the number of deco polyominoes of height n and having k columns. A deco polyomino is a directed column-convex polyomino in which the height, measured along the diagonal, is attained only in the last column. Example: T(2,1)=1 and T(2,2)=1 because the deco polyominoes of height 2 are the vertical and horizontal dominoes, having, respectively, 1 and 2 columns. - Emeric Deutsch, Aug 14 2006

Sum_{k=1..n} k*T(n,k) = A121586. - Emeric Deutsch, Aug 14 2006

Let the triangle U(n,k), 0 <= k <= n, read by rows, be given by [1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,...] DELTA [1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,...] where DELTA is the operator defined in A084938; then T(n,k) = U(n-1,k-1). - Philippe Deléham, Jan 06 2007

From Tom Copeland, Dec 15 2007: (Start)

Consider c(t) = column vector(1, t, t^2, t^3, t^4, t^5, ...).

Starting at 1 and sampling every integer to the right, we obtain (1,2,3,4,5,...). And T * c(1) = (1, 1*2, 1*2*3, 1*2*3*4,...), giving n! for n > 0. Call this sequence the right factorial (n+)!.

Starting at 1 and sampling every integer to the left, we obtain (1,0,-1,-2,-3,-4,-5,...). And T * c(-1) = (1, 1*0, 1*0*-1, 1*0*-1*-2,...) = (1, 0, 0, 0, ...), the left factorial (n-)!.

Sampling every other integer to the right, we obtain (1,3,5,7,9,...). T * c(2) = (1, 1*3, 1*3*5, ...) = (1,3,15,105,945,...), giving A001147 for n > 0, the right double factorial, (n+)!!.

Sampling every other integer to the left, we obtain (1,-1,-3,-5,-7,...). T * c(-2) = (1, 1*-1, 1*-1*-3, 1*-1*-3*-5,...) = (1,-1,3,-15,105,-945,...) = signed A001147, the left double factorial, (n-)!!.

Sampling every 3 steps to the right, we obtain (1,4,7,10,...). T * c(3) = (1, 1*4, 1*4*7,...) = (1,4,28,280,...), giving A007559 for n > 0, the right triple factorial, (n+)!!!.

Sampling every 3 steps to the left, we obtain (1,-2,-5,-8,-11,...), giving T * c(-3) = (1, 1*-2, 1*-2*-5, 1*-2*-5*-8,...) = (1,-2,10,-80,880,...) = signed A008544, the left triple factorial, (n-)!!!.

The list partition transform A133314 of [1,T * c(t)] gives [1,T * c(-t)] with all odd terms negated; e.g., LPT[1,T*c(2)] = (1,-1,-1,-3,-15,-105,-945,...) = (1,-A001147). And e.g.f. for [1,T * c(t)] = (1-xt)^(-1/t).

The above results hold for t any real or complex number. (End)

Let R_n(x) be the real and I_n(x) the imaginary part of Product_{k=0..n} (x + I*k). Then, for n=1,2,..., we have R_n(x) = Sum_{k=0..floor((n+1)/2)}(-1)^k*stirling1(n+1,n+1-2*k)*x^(n+1-2*k), I_n(x) = Sum_{k=0..floor(n/2)}(-1)^(k+1)*stirling1(n+1,n-2*k)*x^(n-2*k). - Milan Janjic, May 11 2008

T(n,k) is also the number of permutations of n with "reflection length" k (i.e., obtained from 12..n by k not necessarily adjacent transpositions). For example, when n=3, 132, 213, 321 are obtained by one transposition, while 231 and 312 require two transpositions. - Kyle Petersen, Oct 15 2008

From Tom Copeland, Nov 02 2010: (Start)

[x^(y+1) D]^n = x^(n*y) [T(n,1)(xD)^n + T(n,2)y (xD)^(n-1) + ... + T(n,n)y^(n-1)(xD)], with D the derivative w.r.t. x.

E.g., [x^(y+1) D]^4 = x^(4*y) [(xD)^4 + 6 y(xD)^3 + 11 y^2(xD)^2 + 6 y^3(xD)].

(xD)^m can be further expanded in terms of the Stirling numbers of the second kind and operators of the form x^j D^j. (End)

With offset 0, 0 <= k <= n: T[n,k) is the sum of products of each size k subset of {1,2,...,n}. For example, T(3,2) = 11 because there are three subsets of size two: {1,2},{1,3},{2,3}. 1*2 + 1*3 + 2*3 = 11. - Geoffrey Critzer, Feb 04 2011

The Kn11, Fi1 and Fi2 triangle sums link this triangle with two sequences, see the crossrefs. For the definitions of these triangle sums see A180662. The mirror image of this triangle is A130534. - Johannes W. Meijer, Apr 20 2011

T(n+1,k+1) is the elementary symmetric function a_k(1,2,...,n), n >= 0, k >= 0, (a_0(0):=1). See the T. D. Noe and Geoffrey Critzer comments given above. For a proof see the Stanley reference, p. 19, Second Proof. - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 24 2011

Let g(t) = 1/d(log(P(j+1,-t)))/dt (see Tom Copeland's 2007 formulas). The Mellin transform (t to s) of t*Dirac[g(t)] gives Sum_{n=1..j} n^(-s), which as j tends to infinity gives the Riemann zeta function for Re(s) > 1. Dirac(x) is the Dirac delta function. The complex contour integral along a circle of radius 1 centered at z=1 of z^s/g(z) gives the same result. - Tom Copeland, Dec 02 2011

Rows are coefficients of the polynomial expansions of the Pochhammer symbol, or rising factorial, Pch(n,x) = (x+n-1)!/(x-1)!. Expansion of Pch(n,xD) = Pch(n,Bell(.,:xD:)) in a polynomial with terms :xD:^k=x^k*D^k gives the Lah numbers A008297. Bell(n,x) are the unsigned Bell polynomials or Stirling polynomials of the second kind A008277. - Tom Copeland, Mar 01 2014

From Tom Copeland, Dec 09 2016: (Start)

The Betti numbers, or dimension, of the pure braid group cohomology. See pp. 12 and 13 of the Hyde and Lagarias link.

Row polynomials and their products appear in presentation of the Jack symmetric functions of R. Stanley. See Copeland link on the Witt differential generator.

(End)

From Tom Copeland, Dec 16 2019: (Start)

The e.g.f. given by Copeland in the formula section appears in a combinatorial Dyson-Schwinger equation of quantum field theory in Yeats in Thm. 2 on p. 62 related to a Hopf algebra of rooted trees. See also the Green function on p. 70.

Per comments above, this array contains the coefficients in the expansion in polynomials of the Euler, or state number, operator xD of the rising factorials Pch(n,xD) = (xD+n-1)!/(xD-1)! = x [:Dx:^n/n!]x^{-1} = L_n^{-1}(-:xD:), where :Dx:^n = D^n x^n and :xD:^n = x^n D^n. The polynomials L_n^{-1} are the Laguerre polynomials of order -1, i.e., normalized Lah polynomials.

The Witt differential operators L_n = x^(n+1) D and the row e.g.f.s appear in Hopf and dual Hopf algebra relations presented by Foissy. The Witt operators satisfy L_n L_k - L_k L_n = (k-n) L_(n+k), as for the dual Hopf algebra. (End)

REFERENCES

M. Miyata and J. W. Son, On the complexity of permutations and the metric space of bijections, Tensor, 60 (1998), No. 1, 109-116 (MR1768839).

R. P. Stanley, Enumerative Combinatorics, Vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 1997.

LINKS

T. D. Noe, Rows n=1..51 of triangle, flattened

E. Barcucci, A. Del Lungo and R. Pinzani, "Deco" polyominoes, permutations and random generation, Theoretical Computer Science, 159, 1996, 29-42.

F. Bergeron, Ph. Flajolet and B. Salvy, Varieties of Increasing Trees, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 581, ed. J.-C. Raoult, Springer 1992, pp. 24-48. Added Mar 01 2014

F. Bergeron, Philippe Flajolet and Bruno Salvy, Varieties of increasing trees, HAL, Rapport De Recherche Inria. Added Mar 01 2014

T. Copeland, Addendum to Mathemagical Forests

T. Copeland, A Class of Differential Operators and the Stirling Numbers

T. Copeland, Mellin Interpolation of Differential Ops and Associated Infinigens and Appell Polynomials: The Ordered, Laguerre, and Scherk-Witt-Lie Diff Ops

T. Copeland, Witt differential generator for special Jack symmetric functions / polynomials

FindStat - Combinatorial Statistic Finder, The absolute length of a permutation

L. Foissy, Faa di Bruno subalgebras of the Hopf algebra of planar trees from combinatorial Dyson-Schwinger equations, arXiv:0707.1204 [math.RA], (2007).

O. Furdui, T. Trif, On the Summation of Certain Iterated Series, J. Int. Seq. 14 (2011) #11.6.1

F. Hivert, J.-C. Novelli and J.-Y. Thibon, The Algebra of Binary Search Trees, Theoretical Computer Science, 339 (2005), 129-165.

T. Hyde and J. Lagarias Polynomial splitting measures and cohomology of the pure braid group, arXiv preprint arXiv:1604.05359 [math.RT], 2016.

MathOverflow, Motivation of Virasoro algebra, an answer by Tom Copeland to an MO question posed in 2012.

R. Mestrovic, Lucas' theorem: its generalizations, extensions and applications (1878--2014), arXiv preprint arXiv:1409.3820 [math.NT], 2014.

Robert E. Moritz, On the sum of products of n consecutive integers, Univ. Washington Publications in Math., 1 (No. 3, 1926), 44-49 [Annotated scanned copy]

M. D. Schmidt, Generalized j-Factorial Functions, Polynomials, and Applications , J. Int. Seq. 13 (2010), 10.6.7.

M. Z. Spivey, On Solutions to a General Combinatorial Recurrence, J. Int. Seq. 14 (2011) # 11.9.7.

K. Yeats, A Combinatorial Perspective on Quantum Field Theory, SpringerBriefs in Mathematical Physics, Vol. 15, 2017.

FORMULA

With P(n,t) = Sum_{k=0..n-1} T(n,k+1) * t^k = 1*(1+t)*(1+2t)...(1+(n-1)*t) and P(0,t)=1, exp[P(.,t)*x] = (1-tx)^(-1/t). T(n,k+1) = (1/k!) (D_t)^k (D_x)^n [ (1-tx)^(-1/t) - 1 ] evaluated at t=x=0. (1-tx)^(-1/t) - 1 is the e.g.f. for a plane m-ary tree when t=m-1. See Bergeron et al. in "Varieties of Increasing Trees". - Tom Copeland, Dec 09 2007

First comment and formula above rephrased as o.g.f. for row n: Product_{i=0...n} (1+i*x). - Geoffrey Critzer, Feb 04 2011

n-th row polynomials with alternate signs are the characteristic polynomials of the (n-1)x(n-1) matrices with 1's in the superdiagonal, (1,2,3,...) in the main diagonal, and the rest zeros. For example, the characteristic polynomial of [1,1,0; 0,2,1; 0,0,3] is x^3 - 6*x^2 + 11*x - 6. - Gary W. Adamson, Jun 28 2011

E.g.f.: A(x,y) = x*y/(1 - x*y)^(1 + 1/y) = Sum_{n>=1, k=1..n} T(n,k)*x^n*y^k/(n-1)!. - Paul D. Hanna, Jul 21 2011

With F(x,t) = (1-t*x)^(-1/t) - 1 an e.g.f. for the row polynomials P(n,t) of A094638 with P(0,t)=0, G(x,t)= [1-(1+x)^(-t)]/t is the comp. inverse in x. Consequently, with H(x,t) = 1/(dG(x,t)/dx) = (1+x)^(t+1),

  P(n,t) = [(H(x,t)*d/dx)^n] x evaluated at x=0; i.e.,

  F(x,t) = exp[x*P(.,t)] = exp[x*H(u,t)*d/du] u, evaluated at u = 0.

  Also, dF(x,t)/dx = H(F(x,t),t). - Tom Copeland, Sep 20 2011

T(n,k) = |A008276(n,k)|. - R. J. Mathar, May 19 2016

The row polynomials of this entry are the reversed row polynomials of A143491 multiplied by (1+x). E.g., (1+x)(1 + 5x + 6x^2) = (1 + 6x + 11x^2 + 6x^3). - Tom Copeland, Dec 11 2016

Regarding the row e.g.f.s in Copeland's 2007 formulas, e.g.f.s for A001710, A001715, and A001720 give the compositional inverses of the e.g.f. here for t = 2, 3, and 4 respectively. - Tom Copeland, Dec 28 2019

EXAMPLE

Triangle starts:

  1;

  1,  1;

  1,  3,  2;

  1,  6, 11,  6;

  1, 10, 35, 50, 24;

...

MAPLE

T:=(n, k)->abs(Stirling1(n, n+1-k)): for n from 1 to 10 do seq(T(n, k), k=1..n) od; # yields sequence in triangular form. # Emeric Deutsch, Aug 14 2006

MATHEMATICA

Table[CoefficientList[Series[Product[1 + i x, {i, n}], {x, 0, 20}], x], {n, 0, 6}] (* Geoffrey Critzer, Feb 04 2011 *)

Table[Abs@StirlingS1[n, n-k+1], {n, 10}, {k, n}]//Flatten (* Michael De Vlieger, Aug 29 2015 *)

PROG

(PARI) {T(n, k)=if(n<1 || k>n, 0, (n-1)!*polcoeff(polcoeff(x*y/(1 - x*y+x*O(x^n))^(1 + 1/y), n, x), k, y))} /* Paul D. Hanna, Jul 21 2011 */

(Maxima) create_list(abs(stirling1(n+1, n-k+1)), n, 0, 10, k, 0, n); / * Emanuele Munarini, Jun 01 2012 */

(Haskell)

a094638 n k = a094638_tabl !! (n-1) !! (k-1)

a094638_row n = a094638_tabl !! (n-1)

a094638_tabl = map reverse a130534_tabl

-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Aug 01 2014

(MAGMA) [(-1)^(k+1)*StirlingFirst(n, n-k+1): k in [1..n], n in [1..10]]; // G. C. Greubel, Dec 29 2019

(Sage) [[stirling_number1(n, n-k+1) for k in (1..n)] for n in (1..10)] # G. C. Greubel, Dec 29 2019

(GAP) Flat(List([1..10], n-> List([1..n], k-> Stirling1(n, n-k+1) ))); # G. C. Greubel, Dec 29 2019

CROSSREFS

A008276 gives the (signed) Stirling numbers of the first kind.

Cf. A000108, A014137, A001246, A033536, A000984, A094639, A006134, A082894, A002897, A079727, A000217 (2nd column), A000914 (3rd column), A001303 (4th column), A000915 (5th column), A053567 (6th column), A000142 (row sums).

Triangle sums (see the comments): A124380 (Kn11), A001710 (Fi1, Fi2). - Johannes W. Meijer, Apr 20 2011

Cf. A121586, A130534, A143491.

Sequence in context: A308616 A181853 A008276 * A196844 A196843 A143778

Adjacent sequences:  A094635 A094636 A094637 * A094639 A094640 A094641

KEYWORD

easy,nonn,tabl

AUTHOR

André F. Labossière, May 17 2004

EXTENSIONS

Edited by Emeric Deutsch, Aug 14 2006

STATUS

approved

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Last modified October 29 03:28 EDT 2020. Contains 338065 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)