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A000537 Sum of first n cubes; or n-th triangular number squared.
(Formerly M4619 N1972)
110
0, 1, 9, 36, 100, 225, 441, 784, 1296, 2025, 3025, 4356, 6084, 8281, 11025, 14400, 18496, 23409, 29241, 36100, 44100, 53361, 64009, 76176, 90000, 105625, 123201, 142884, 164836, 189225, 216225, 246016, 278784, 314721, 354025, 396900, 443556, 494209, 549081 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,3

COMMENTS

Number of parallelograms in an n X n rhombus. - Matti De Craene (Matti.DeCraene(AT)rug.ac.be), May 14 2000

Or, number of orthogonal rectangles in an n X n checkerboard, or rectangles in an n X n array of squares. - Jud McCranie, Feb 28 2003. Compare A085582.

Also number of 2-dimensional cage assemblies (cf. A059827, A059860).

The n-th triangular number T(n)=sum_r(1, n)=n(n+1)/2 satisfies the relations: (i) T(n) + T(n-1)=n^2 and (ii) T(n) - T(n-1)=n from definition, so that n^2*n=n^3={T(n)}^2 - {T(n-1)}^2 and thus summing telescopingly over n we have sum_{ r = 1..n } r^3 = {T(n)}^2 = (1+2+3+...+n)^2 = (n*(n+1)/2)^2. - Lekraj Beedassy, May 14 2004

Number of 4-tuples of integers from {0,1,...,n}, without repetition, whose last component is strictly bigger than the others. Number of 4-tuples of integers from {1,...,n}, with repetition, whose last component is greater than or equal to the others.

Number of ordered pairs of two element subsets of {0,1,...,n} without repetition. Number of ordered pairs of 2-element multisubsets of {1,...,n} with repetition.

1^3 + 2^3 + 3^3 +...+ n^3=(1+2+3+...+n)^2.

a(n) is the number of parameters needed in general to know the Riemannian metric g of an n-dimensional Riemannian manifold (M,g), by knowing all its second derivatives; even though to know the curvature tensor R requires (due to symmetries) (n^2)*(n^2-1)/12 parameters, a smaller number (and a 4-dimensional pyramidal number). - Jonathan Vos Post, May 05 2006

Also number of hexagons with vertices in an hexagonal grid with n points in each side. - Ignacio Larrosa Cañestro, Oct 15 2006

Number of permutations of n distinct letters (ABCD...) each of which appears twice with 4 and n-4 fixed points. - Zerinvary Lajos, Nov 09 2006

With offset 1 = binomial transform of [1, 8, 19, 18, 6,...]. - Gary W. Adamson, Dec 03 2008

Sum(k>0,1/a(k))=(4/3)*(Pi^2-9). - Jaume Oliver Lafont, Sep 20 2009

a(n) = SUM(A176271(m,k)): 1<=k<=m<=n). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Apr 13 2010

The sequence is related to A000330 by a(n) = n*A000330(n)-sum(A000330(i), i=0..n-1): this is the case d=1 in the identity n*(n*(d*n-d+2)/2)-sum(i*(d*i-d+2)/2, i=0..n-1) = n*(n+1)*(2*d*n-2*d+3)/6. - Bruno Berselli, Apr 26 2010, Mar 01 2012

From Wolfdieter Lang, Jan 11 2013: (Start)

For sums of powers of positive integers S(k,n):=sum(j^k,j=1..n) one has the recurrence S(k,n) = (n+1)*S(k-1,n) - sum(S(k-1,l),l=1..n), n >= 1, k >= 1.

This was used for k=4 by Ibn al-Haytham in an attempt to compute the volume of the interior of a paraboloid. See the Strick reference where the trick he used is shown, and the W. Lang link.

This trick generalizes immediately to arbitrary powers k. For k=3: a(n) = (n+1)*A000330(n) - sum(A000330(l),l=1..n), which coincides with the formula given in the preceding Berselli comment. (End)

Regarding to the previous contribution, see also Matem@ticamente in Links field and comments on this recurrences in similar sequences (partial sums of n-th powers). - Bruno Berselli, Jun 24 2013

A rectangular prism with sides A000217(n), A000217(n+1), and A000217(n+2) has surface area 6*a(n+1).  - J. M. Bergot, Aug 07 2013, edited with corrected indices by Antti Karttunen, Aug 09 2013

A formula for the r-th successive summation of k^3, for k = 1 to n, is (6*n^2+r*(6*n+r-1)*(n+r)!)/((r+3)!*(n-1)!),(H. W. Gould). - Gary Detlefs, Jan 02 2014

Note that this sequence and its formula were known to (and possibly discovered by) Nicomachus, predating Ibn al-Haytham by 800 years. - Charles R Greathouse IV, Apr 23 2014

a(n) is the number of ways to paint the sides of a non-square rectangle using at most n colors.  Cf. A039623. - Geoffrey Critzer, Jun 18 2014

REFERENCES

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards Applied Math. Series 55, 1964 (and various reprintings), p. 813.

A. T. Benjamin and J. J. Quinn, Proofs that really count: the art of combinatorial proof, M.A.A. 2003, p. 110ff.

L. Comtet, Advanced Combinatorics, Reidel, 1974, p. 155.

John H. Conway and R. K. Guy, The Book of Numbers, Copernicus Press, pp. 36, 58.

Clifford Pickover, "Wonders of Numbers, Adventures in Mathematics, Mind and Meaning," Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 325.

N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

H. K. Strick, Geschichten aus der Mathematik II, Spektrum Spezial 3/11, p. 13.

D. Wells, You Are A Mathematician, "Counting rectangles in a rectangle", Problem 8H, pp. 240; 254, Penguin Books 1995.

LINKS

T. D. Noe, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..1000

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards, Applied Math. Series 55, Tenth Printing, 1972 [alternative scanned copy].

M. Azaola and F. Santos, The number of triangulations of the cyclic polytope C(n,n-4), Discrete Comput. Geom., 27 (2002), 29-48 (see Prop. 4.2(b)).

Marcel Berger, Encounter with a Geometer, Part II, Notices of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 47, No. 3, (March 2000), pp. 326-340. [About the work of Mikhael Gromov.]

B. Berselli, A description of the recursive method in Comments lines: website Matem@ticamente (in Italian).

Wolfdieter Lang, Ibn al-Haytham's trick.

C. A. Pickover, "Wonders of Numbers, Adventures in Mathematics, Mind and Meaning," Zentralblatt review

Simon Plouffe_, Approximations de séries génératrices et quelques conjectures, Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992.

Simon Plouffe_, 1031 Generating Functions and Conjectures, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992.

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Faulhaber's Formula

Wikipedia, Faulhaber's formula

G. Xiao, Sigma Server, Operate on "n^3"

Index to sequences with linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (5,-10,10,-5,1).

FORMULA

a(n) = (n*(n+1)/2)^2 = A000217(n)^2 = sum_{k=1..n} A000578(k), that is, 1^3 + 2^3 + 3^3 +...+ n^3 = (1+2+3+...+n)^2.

G.f.: (x+4*x^2+x^3)/(1-x)^5. - Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation

a(n) = Sum [ Sum ( 1 + Sum (6*n) ) ], rephrasing the formula in A000578. - Xavier Acloque, Jan 21 2003

a(n) = Sum[Sum[(i*j), {i, 1, n}], {j, 1, n}]. - Alexander Adamchuk, Oct 24 2004

a(n) = A035287(n)/4. - Zerinvary Lajos, May 09 2007

This sequence could be obtained from the general formula n*(n+1)*(n+2)*(n+3) *** (n+k)*(n*(n+k) + (k-1)*k/6)/((k+3)!/6) at k=1. - Alexander R. Povolotsky, May 17 2008

G.f.: x*F(3,3;1;x). - Paul Barry, Sep 18 2008

a(n) = sum(i = 1..n, J_3(i)*floor(n/i)), where J_ 3 is A059376. - Enrique Pérez Herrero, Feb 26 2012

a(n) = sum_{i=1..n} sum_{j=1..n} sum_{k=1..n} max(i,j,k). - Enrique Pérez Herrero, Feb 26 2013

a(n) = 6*C(n+2,4)+C(n+1,2), (Knuth). - Gary Detlefs, Jan 02 2014

a(n) = -sum(j=1..3, j*s(n+1,n+1-j)*S(n+3-j,n)), where s(n,k) and S(n,k) are the Stirling numbers of the first kind and the second kind, respectively. - Mircea Merca, Jan 25 2014

MAPLE

(n*(n+1)/2)^2;

MATHEMATICA

Accumulate[Range[0, 50]^3]  (* Harvey P. Dale, Mar 01 2011 *)

f[n_] := n^2 (n + 1)^2/4; Array[f, 39, 0] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Nov 16 2012 *)

Table[CycleIndex[{{1, 2, 3, 4}, {3, 2, 1, 4}, {1, 4, 3, 2}, {3, 4, 1, 2}}, s]/.Table[s[i]->n, {i, 1, 2}], {n, 0, 30}] (* Geoffrey Critzer, Jun 18 2014 *)

PROG

(PARI) a(n)=(n*(n+1)/2)^2

(PARI) t(n)=n*(n+1)/2 for(i=1, 30, print1(", "sum(j=1, i, j*t(i))))

(MAGMA) [(n*(n+1)/2)^2 : n in [0..50]]; // Wesley Ivan Hurt, Jun 06 2014

CROSSREFS

Convolution of A000217 and A008458. Cf. A000330, A006003, A000538.

Row sums of triangles A094414 and A094415.

Second column of triangle A008459.

Row 3 of array A103438.

Cf. A000578, A002415, A024166, A101102, A101094, A101097.

Cf. A236770 (see crossrefs).

Sequence in context: A169835 A231686 A231688 * A114286 A098928 A139469

Adjacent sequences:  A000534 A000535 A000536 * A000538 A000539 A000540

KEYWORD

nonn,easy,nice

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane, Apr 30 1991

STATUS

approved

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Last modified November 26 06:16 EST 2014. Contains 250020 sequences.