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A144084 T(n,k) is the number of partial bijections of height k (height(alpha) = |Im(alpha)|) of an n-element set. 20
1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 2, 1, 9, 18, 6, 1, 16, 72, 96, 24, 1, 25, 200, 600, 600, 120, 1, 36, 450, 2400, 5400, 4320, 720, 1, 49, 882, 7350, 29400, 52920, 35280, 5040, 1, 64, 1568, 18816, 117600, 376320, 564480, 322560, 40320 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,5
COMMENTS
T(n,k) is also the number of elements in the Green's J equivalence classes in the symmetric inverse monoid, I sub n.
T(n,k) is also the number of ways to place k nonattacking rooks on an n X n chessboard. It can be obtained by performing P(n,k) permutations of n-columns over each C(n,k) combination of n-rows for the given k-rooks. The rule is also applicable for unequal (m X n) sized rectangular boards. - Antal Pinter, Nov 12 2014
Rows also give the coefficients of the matching-generating polynomial of the complete bipartite graph K_{n,n}. - Eric W. Weisstein, Apr 24 2017
Rows also give the coefficients of the independence polynomial of the n X n rook graph and clique polynomial of the n X n rook complement graph. - Eric W. Weisstein, Jun 13 and Sep 14 2017
T(n,k) is the number of increasing subsequences of length n-k over all permutations of [n]. - Geoffrey Critzer, Jan 08 2023
REFERENCES
O. Ganyushkin and V. Mazorchuk, Classical Finite Transformation Semigroups, 2009, page 61.
J. M. Howie, Fundamentals of semigroup theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press, (1995).
Vaclav Kotesovec, Non-attacking chess pieces, 6th ed. (2013), p. 216, p. 218.
LINKS
Wayne A. Johnson, Exponential Hilbert series of equivariant embeddings, arXiv:1804.04943 [math.RT], 2018.
W. D. Munn, The characters of the symmetric inverse semigroup, Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 53 (1957), 13-18.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Clique Polynomial
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Complete Bipartite Graph
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Independence Polynomial
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Matching-Generating Polynomial
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Rook Complement Graph
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Rook Graph
FORMULA
T(n,k) = (C(n,k)^2)*k!.
T(n,k) = A007318(n,k) * A008279(n,k). - Antal Pinter, Nov 12 2014
From Peter Bala, Jul 04 2016: (Start)
G.f.: exp(x*t)*I_0(2*sqrt(x)) = 1 + (1 + t)*x/1!^2 + (1 + 4*t + 2*t^2)*x^2/2!^2 + (1 + 9*t + 18*t^2 + 6*t^3)*x^3/3!^2 + ..., where I_0(x) = Sum_{n >= 0} (x/2)^(2*n)/n!^2 is a modified Bessel function of the first kind.
The row polynomials R(n,t) satisfy R(n,t + u) = Sum_{k = 0..n} T(n,k)*t^k*R(n-k,u).
R(n,t) = 1 + Sum_{k = 0..n-1} (-1)^(n-k+1)*n!/k!*binomial(n,k) *t^(n-k)*R(k,t). Cf. A089231. (End)
From Peter Bala, Oct 05 2019: (Start)
E.g.f.: 1/(1 - t*x)*exp(x/(1 - t*x)).
Recurrence for row polynomials: R(n+1,t) = (1 + (2*n+1)*t)R(n,t) - n^2*t^2*R(n-1,t), with R(0,t) = 1 and R(1,t) = 1 + t.
R(n,t) equals the denominator polynomial of the finite continued fraction 1 + n*t/(1 + n*t/(1 + (n-1)*t/(1 + (n-1)*t/(1 + ... + 2*t/(1 + 2*t/(1 + t/(1 + t/(1)))))))). The numerator polynomial is the (n+1)-th row polynomial of A089321. (End)
Sum_{n>=0} Sum_{k=0..n} T(n,k)*y^k*x^n/A001044(n) = exp(y*x)*E(x) where E(x) = Sum_{n>=0} x^n/A001044(n). - Geoffrey Critzer, Jan 08 2023
Sum_{k=0..n} k*T(n,k) = A105219(n). - Alois P. Heinz, Jan 08 2023
EXAMPLE
T(3,1) = 9 because there are exactly 9 partial bijections (on a 3-element set) of height 1, namely: (1)->(1), (1)->(2), (1)->(3), (2)->(1), (2)->(2), (2)->(3), (3)->(1), (3)->(2), (3)->(3).
Triangle T(n,k) begins:
1;
1, 1;
1, 4, 2;
1, 9, 18, 6;
1, 16, 72, 96, 24;
1, 25, 200, 600, 600, 120;
1, 36, 450, 2400, 5400, 4320, 720;
...
MAPLE
T:= (n, k)-> (binomial(n, k)^2)*k!:
seq(seq(T(n, k), k=0..n), n=0..10); # Alois P. Heinz, Dec 04 2012
MATHEMATICA
Table[Table[Binomial[n, k]^2 k!, {k, 0, n}], {n, 0, 6}] // Flatten (* Geoffrey Critzer, Dec 04 2012 *)
Table[ CoefficientList[n!*LaguerreL[n, x], x] // Abs // Reverse, {n, 0, 8}] // Flatten (* Jean-François Alcover, Nov 18 2013 *)
CoefficientList[Table[n! x^n LaguerreL[n, -1/x], {n, 0, 8}], x] // Flatten (* Eric W. Weisstein, Apr 24 2017 *)
CoefficientList[Table[(-x)^n HypergeometricU[-n, 1, -(1/x)], {n, 5}],
x] // Flatten (* Eric W. Weisstein, Jun 13 2017 *)
PROG
(Magma) /* As triangle */ [[(Binomial(n, k)^2)*Factorial(k): k in [0..n]]: n in [0.. 10]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Jun 13 2017
(PARI) T(n, k) = k! * binomial(n, k)^2 \\ Andrew Howroyd, Feb 13 2018
CROSSREFS
T(n,k) = |A021010|. Sum of rows of T(n,k) is A002720. T(n,n) is the order of the symmetric group on an n-element set, n!.
Sequence in context: A063983 A367178 A259985 * A021010 A342088 A193607
KEYWORD
nonn,tabl
AUTHOR
Abdullahi Umar, Sep 10 2008, Sep 30 2008
STATUS
approved

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