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A111596 The matrix inverse of the unsigned Lah numbers A271703. 43
1, 0, 1, 0, -2, 1, 0, 6, -6, 1, 0, -24, 36, -12, 1, 0, 120, -240, 120, -20, 1, 0, -720, 1800, -1200, 300, -30, 1, 0, 5040, -15120, 12600, -4200, 630, -42, 1, 0, -40320, 141120, -141120, 58800, -11760, 1176, -56, 1, 0, 362880, -1451520, 1693440, -846720, 211680, -28224, 2016, -72, 1 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,5
COMMENTS
Also the associated Sheffer triangle to Sheffer triangle A111595.
Coefficients of Laguerre polynomials (-1)^n * n! * L(n,-1,x), which equals (-1)^n * Lag(n,x,-1) below. Lag(n,Lag(.,x,-1),-1) = x^n evaluated umbrally, i.e., with (Lag(.,x,-1))^k = Lag(k,x,-1). - Tom Copeland, Apr 26 2014
Without row n=0 and column m=0 this is, up to signs, the Lah triangle A008297.
The unsigned column sequences are (with leading zeros): A000142, A001286, A001754, A001755, A001777, A001778, A111597-A111600 for m=1..10.
The row polynomials p(n,x) := Sum_{m=0..n} a(n,m)*x^m, together with the row polynomials s(n,x) of A111595 satisfy the exponential (or binomial) convolution identity s(n,x+y) = Sum_{k=0..n} binomial(n,k)*s(k,x)*p(n-k,y), n>=0.
Exponential Riordan array [1,x/(1+x)]. Inverse of the exponential Riordan array [1,x/(1-x)], which is the unsigned version of A111596. - Paul Barry, Apr 12 2007
For the unsigned subtriangle without column number m=0 and row number n=0, see A105278.
Unsigned triangle also matrix product |S1|*S2 of Stirling number matrices.
The unsigned row polynomials are Lag(n,-x,-1), the associated Laguerre polynomials of order -1 with negated argument. See Gradshteyn and Ryzhik, Abramowitz and Stegun and Rota (Finite Operator Calculus) for extensive formulas. - Tom Copeland, Nov 17 2007, Sep 09 2008
An infinitesimal matrix generator for unsigned A111596 is given by A132792. - Tom Copeland, Nov 22 2007
From the formalism of A132792 and A133314 for n > k, unsigned A111596(n,k) = a(k) * a(k+1)...a(n-1) / (n-k)! = a generalized factorial, where a(n) = A002378(n) = n-th term of first subdiagonal of unsigned A111596. Hence Deutsch's remark in A002378 provides an interpretation of A111596(n,k) in terms of combinations of certain circular binary words. - Tom Copeland, Nov 22 2007
Given T(n,k)= A111596(n,k) and matrices A and B with A(n,k) = T(n,k)*a(n-k) and B(n,k) = T(n,k)*b(n-k), then A*B = C where C(n,k) = T(n,k)*[a(.)+b(.)]^(n-k), umbrally. - Tom Copeland, Aug 27 2008
Operationally, the unsigned row polynomials may be expressed as p_n(:xD:) = x*:Dx:^n*x^{-1}=x*D^nx^n*x^{-1}= n!*binomial(xD+n-1,n) = (-1)^n n! binomial(-xD,n) = n!L(n,-1,-:xD:), where, by definition, :AB:^n = A^nB^n for any two operators A and B, D = d/dx, and L(n,-1,x) is the Laguerre polynomial of order -1. A similarity transformation of the operators :Dx:^n generates the higher order Laguerre polynomials, which can also be expressed in terms of rising or falling factorials or Kummer's confluent hypergeometric functions (cf. the Mathoverflow post). - Tom Copeland, Sep 21 2019
LINKS
M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards, Applied Math. Series 55, Tenth Printing, 1972 [alternative scanned copy].
Paul Barry, The Restricted Toda Chain, Exponential Riordan Arrays, and Hankel Transforms, J. Int. Seq. 13 (2010) # 10.8.4, example 4.
Paul Barry, Exponential Riordan Arrays and Permutation Enumeration, J. Int. Seq. 13 (2010) # 10.9.1, example 6.
Paul Barry, Riordan Arrays, Orthogonal Polynomials as Moments, and Hankel Transforms, J. Int. Seq. 14 (2011) # 11.2.2, example 20.
A. Hennessy and P. Barry, Generalized Stirling Numbers, Exponential Riordan Arrays, and Orthogonal Polynomials, J. Int. Seq. 14 (2011) # 11.8.2.
M. Janjic, Some classes of numbers and derivatives, JIS 12 (2009) 09.8.3.
Mathoverflow, Pochhammer symbol of a differential, and hypergeometric polynomials, a question posed by Emilio Pisanty and answered by Tom Copeland, 2012.
J. Taylor, Counting words with Laguerre polynomials, DMTCS Proc., Vol. AS, 2013, p. 1131-1142. [Tom Copeland, Jan 08 2016] [Broken link]
J. Taylor, Formal group laws and hypergraph colorings, doctoral thesis, Univ. of Wash., 2016, p. 96. [Tom Copeland, Dec 20 2018]
Jian Zhou, On Some Mathematics Related to the Interpolating Statistics, arXiv:2108.10514 [math-ph], 2021.
FORMULA
E.g.f. m-th column: ((x/(1+x))^m)/m!, m>=0.
E.g.f. for row polynomials p(n, x) is exp(x*y/(1+y)).
a(n, m) = ((-1)^(n-m))*|A008297(n, m)| = ((-1)^(n-m))*(n!/m!)*binomial(n-1, m-1), n>=m>=1; a(0, 0)=1; else 0.
a(n, m) = -(n-1+m)*a(n-1, m) + a(n-1, m-1), n>=m>=0, a(n, -1):=0, a(0, 0)=1; a(n, m)=0 if n<m.
|a(n,m)| = Sum_{k=m..n} |S1(n,k)|*S2(k,m), n>=0. S2(n,m):=A048993. S1(n,m):=A048994. - Wolfdieter Lang, May 04 2007
From Tom Copeland, Nov 21 2011: (Start)
For this Lah triangle, the n-th row polynomial is given umbrally by
(-1)^n n! binomial(-Bell.(-x),n), where Bell_n(-x)= exp(x)(xd/dx)^n exp(-x), the n-th Bell / Touchard / exponential polynomial with neg. arg., (cf. A008277). E.g., 2! binomial(-Bell.(-x),2) = -Bell.(-x)*(-Bell.(-x)-1) = Bell_2(-x)+Bell_1(-x) = -2x+x^2.
A Dobinski relation is (-1)^n n! binomial(-Bell.(-x),n)= (-1)^n n! e^x Sum_{j>=0} (-1)^j binomial(-j,n)x^j/j!= n! e^x Sum_{j>=0} (-1)^j binomial(j-1+n,n)x^j/j!. See the Copeland link for the relation to inverse Mellin transform. (End)
The n-th row polynomial is (-1/x)^n e^x (x^2*D_x)^n e^(-x). - Tom Copeland, Oct 29 2012
Let f(.,x)^n = f(n,x) = x!/(x-n)!, the falling factorial,and r(.,x)^n = r(n,x) = (x-1+n)!/(x-1)!, the rising factorial, then the Lah polynomials, Lah(n,t)= n!*Sum{k=1..n} binomial(n-1,k-1)(-t)^k/k! (extra sign factor on odd rows), give the transform Lah(n,-f(.,x))= r(n,x), and Lah(n,r(.,x))= (-1)^n * f(n,x). - Tom Copeland, Oct 04 2014
|T(n,k)| = Sum_{j=0..2*(n-k)} A254881(n-k,j)*k^j/(n-k)!. Note that A254883 is constructed analogously from A254882. - Peter Luschny, Feb 10 2015
The T(n,k) are the inverse Bell transform of [1!,2!,3!,...] and |T(n,k)| are the Bell transform of [1!,2!,3!,...]. See A264428 for the definition of the Bell transform and A264429 for the definition of the inverse Bell transform. - Peter Luschny, Dec 20 2015
Dividing each n-th diagonal by n!, where the main diagonal is n=1, generates a shifted, signed Narayana matrix A001263. - Tom Copeland, Sep 23 2020
EXAMPLE
Binomial convolution of row polynomials: p(3,x) = 6*x-6*x^2+x^3; p(2,x) = -2*x+x^2, p(1,x) = x, p(0,x) = 1,
together with those from A111595: s(3,x) = 9*x-6*x^2+x^3; s(2,x) = 1-2*x+x^2, s(1,x) = x, s(0,x) = 1; therefore
9*(x+y)-6*(x+y)^2+(x+y)^3 = s(3,x+y) = 1*s(0,x)*p(3,y) + 3*s(1,x)*p(2,y) + 3*s(2,x)*p(1,y) +1*s(3,x)*p(0,y) = (6*y-6*y^2+y^3) + 3*x*(-2*y+y^2) + 3*(1-2*x+x^2)*y + 9*x-6*x^2+x^3.
From Wolfdieter Lang, Apr 28 2014: (Start)
The triangle a(n,m) begins:
n\m 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0: 1
1: 0 1
2: 0 -2 1
3: 0 6 -6 1
4: 0 -24 36 -12 1
5: 0 120 -240 120 -20 1
6: 0 -720 1800 -1200 300 -30 1
7: 0 5040 -15120 12600 -4200 630 -42 1
...
For more rows see the link.
(End)
MAPLE
# The function BellMatrix is defined in A264428.
BellMatrix(n -> `if`(n::odd, -(n+1)!, (n+1)!), 9); # Peter Luschny, Jan 27 2016
MATHEMATICA
a[0, 0] = 1; a[n_, m_] := ((-1)^(n-m))*(n!/m!)*Binomial[n-1, m-1]; Table[a[n, m], {n, 0, 10}, {m, 0, n}] // Flatten (* Jean-François Alcover, Jul 05 2013 *)
T[ n_, k_] := (-1)^n n! Coefficient[ LaguerreL[ n, -1, x], x, k]; (* Michael Somos, Dec 15 2014 *)
rows = 9;
t = Table[(-1)^(n+1) n!, {n, 1, rows}];
T[n_, k_] := BellY[n, k, t];
Table[T[n, k], {n, 0, rows}, {k, 0, n}] // Flatten (* Jean-François Alcover, Jun 22 2018, after Peter Luschny *)
PROG
(Sage)
lah_number = lambda n, k: factorial(n-k)*binomial(n, n-k)*binomial(n-1, n-k)
A111596_row = lambda n: [(-1)^(n-k)*lah_number(n, k) for k in (0..n)]
for n in range(10): print(A111596_row(n)) # Peter Luschny, Oct 05 2014
(Sage) # uses[inverse_bell_transform from A264429]
def A111596_matrix(dim):
fact = [factorial(n) for n in (1..dim)]
return inverse_bell_transform(dim, fact)
A111596_matrix(10) # Peter Luschny, Dec 20 2015
(PARI) {T(n, k) = if( n<1 || k<1, n==0 && k==0, (-1)^n * n! * polcoeff( sum(k=1, n, binomial( n-1, k-1) * (-x)^k / k!), k))}; /* Michael Somos, Dec 15 2014 */
CROSSREFS
Row sums: A111884. Unsigned row sums: A000262.
A002868 gives maximal element (in magnitude) in each row.
Cf. A130561 for a natural refinement.
Cf. A264428, A264429, A271703 (unsigned).
Cf. A008297, A089231, A105278 (variants).
Sequence in context: A247686 A352369 A111184 * A271703 A276922 A129062
KEYWORD
sign,easy,tabl
AUTHOR
Wolfdieter Lang, Aug 23 2005
EXTENSIONS
New name using a comment from Wolfdieter Lang by Peter Luschny, May 10 2021
STATUS
approved

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Last modified May 24 08:42 EDT 2024. Contains 372773 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)