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A087475 a(n) = n^2 + 4. 31
4, 5, 8, 13, 20, 29, 40, 53, 68, 85, 104, 125, 148, 173, 200, 229, 260, 293, 328, 365, 404, 445, 488, 533, 580, 629, 680, 733, 788, 845, 904, 965, 1028, 1093, 1160, 1229, 1300, 1373, 1448, 1525, 1604, 1685, 1768, 1853, 1940, 2029, 2120, 2213, 2308, 2405, 2504 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,1

COMMENTS

Schroeder, p. 330, states "For positive n, these winding numbers are precisely those whose continued fraction expansion is periodic and has period length 1".

Positive X values of solutions to the equation X^3 - 4*X^2 = Y^2. To find Y values: b(n)=n*(n^2 + 4). - Mohamed Bouhamida (bhmd95(AT)yahoo.fr), Nov 06 2007

From Artur Jasinski, Oct 03 2008: (Start)

General formula for cotangent recurrences type:

a(n+1) = a(n)^3 + 3*a(n) and a(1)=k is

a(n) = floor(((k + sqrt(k^2 + 4))/2)^(3^(n-1))). (End)

a(n) = A156798(n)/A002522(n). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 16 2009

Given sequences of the form S(n) = N*S(n-1) + S(n-2) starting (1, N,...), and having convergents with discriminant (N^2 + 4), S(p) == (a(n))^((p-1)/2)) mod p, for n>0, p = odd prime. Example: with N = 2 we have the Pell series (1, 2, 5, 12, 29, 70, 169, ..., with P(7) = 169. Then 169 == 8^(3) mod 7, with a(2) = 8. Cf. Schroeder, "Number Theory in Science and Communication", p. 90, for N = 1: F(p) == 5^((p-1)/2)) mod p. - Gary W. Adamson, Feb 23 2009

a(n) = A156701(n) / A053755(n). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 13 2009

Number of units of a(n) belongs to a periodic sequence: 4, 5, 8, 3, 0, 9, 0, 3, 8, 5. We conclude that a(n) and a(n+10) have the same number of units. - Mohamed Bouhamida (bhmd95(AT)yahoo.fr), Sep 05 2009

The only two real solutions of the form f(x) = A*x^p with positive p that satisfy f^(n)(x) = f^[-1](x), x >= 0, n >= 1, with f^(n) the n-th derivative and f^[-1] the compositional inverse of f, are obtained for p = p1(n) = (n + sqrt(a(n)))/2 and p = p2(n) = (n - sqrt(a(n)))/2, n >= 1, and A = A(n) = (fallfac(p,n))^(-p/(p+1)), for p = p1(n) and p = p2(n), respectively. Here fallfac(x, k) := product(x - j, j = 0..k-1), the falling factorials. See the T. Koshy reference, pp. 263-264 (there is also a solution for negative p if n is even; see the corresponding comment in A002522). - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 21 2010, Oct 28 2010

(n + sqrt(a(n)))/2 = [n;n,n,...], with the regular continued fraction with period length 1. For a simple proof see, e.g., the Schroeder reference, pp. 330-331. See also the first comment above.

a(n)^3 = A155965(n)^2 + A155966(n)^2. - Vincenzo Librandi, Feb 22 2012

REFERENCES

Manfred R. Schroeder, "Fractals, Chaos, Power Laws"; W.H. Freeman & Co, 1991, p. 330-331.

Manfred R. Schroeder, "Number Theory in Science and Communication", Springer Verlag, 5th ed., 2009. [From Gary W. Adamson, Feb 23 2009]

Thomas Koshy, "Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers with Applications", John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2001. [From Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 21 2010]

LINKS

Vincenzo Librandi, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..10000

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Near-Square Prime

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (3,-3,1).

FORMULA

n^2 + 4 are discriminant terms in the formula for Positive Silver Mean Constants, defined as barover(n), = (sqrt (n^2 + 4) - n)/2. Such constants barover(n) = C have the property: 1/C - C = n.

a(n) = a(n-1) + 2*n-1 (with a(0)=4). - Vincenzo Librandi, Nov 22 2010

G.f.: (4 - 7*x + 5*x^2)/(1 - 3*x + 3*x^2 - x^3). - Colin Barker, Jan 06 2012

EXAMPLE

a(2) = 8, discriminant of algebraic representation of barover(2) = [2,2,2,...] = sqrt 2 - 1 = 0.41421356... = ((sqrt 8) - 2)/2. a(3) = 13, discriminant of barover(3) = [3,3,3,...] = 0.3027756... = ((sqrt 13) - 3)/2.

MATHEMATICA

Range[0, 50]^2 + 4 (* Harvey P. Dale, Jan 05 2011 *)

PROG

(PARI) a(n)=n^2+4 \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Jun 10 2011

(Scala) (0 to 49).map(n => n * n + 4) // Alonso del Arte, May 29 2019

CROSSREFS

Cf. A005563, A046092, A001082, A002378, A036666, A062717, A028347, A155965, A155966.

Sequence in context: A174398 A030978 A101948 * A019526 A242014 A145488

Adjacent sequences:  A087472 A087473 A087474 * A087476 A087477 A087478

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

Gary W. Adamson, Sep 09 2003

STATUS

approved

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Last modified November 18 07:21 EST 2019. Contains 329251 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)