login
The OEIS is supported by the many generous donors to the OEIS Foundation.

 

Logo
Hints
(Greetings from The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences!)
A033312 a(n) = n! - 1.
(Formerly N1614)
97
0, 0, 1, 5, 23, 119, 719, 5039, 40319, 362879, 3628799, 39916799, 479001599, 6227020799, 87178291199, 1307674367999, 20922789887999, 355687428095999, 6402373705727999, 121645100408831999, 2432902008176639999, 51090942171709439999, 1124000727777607679999 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,4
COMMENTS
a(n) gives the index number in any table of permutations of the entry in which the last n + 1 items are reversed. - Eugene McDonnell (eemcd(AT)mac.com), Dec 03 2004
a(n), n >= 1, has the factorial representation [n - 1, n - 2, ..., 1, 0]. The (unique) factorial representation of a number m from {0, 1, ... n! - 1} is m = sum(m_j(n)*j!, j = 0 .. n - 1) with m_j(n) from {0, 1, .., j}, n>=1. This is encoded as [m_{n-1},m_{n-2},...,m+1,m_0] with m_0=0. This can be interpreted as (D. N.) Lehmer code for the lexicographic rank of permutations of the symmetric group S_n (see the W. Lang link under A136663). The Lehmer code [n - 1, n - 2, ..., 1, 0] stands for the permutation [n, n - 1, ..., 1] (the last in lexicographic order). - Wolfdieter Lang, May 21 2008
For n >= 3: a(n) = numbers m for which there is one iteration {floor (r / k)} for k = n, n - 1, n - 2, ... 2 with property r mod k = k - 1 starting at r = m. For n = 5: a(5) = 119; floor (119 / 5) = 23, 119 mod 5 = 4; floor (23 / 4) = 5, 23 mod 4 = 3; floor (5 / 3) = 1, 5 mod 3 = 2; floor (1 / 2) = 0; 1 mod 2 = 1. - Jaroslav Krizek, Jan 23 2010
For n = 4, define the sum of all possible products of 1, 2, 3, 4 to be 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 add 1*2 + 1*3 + 1*4 add 2*3 + 2*4 + 3*4 add 1*2*3 + 1*2*4 + 1*3*4 + 2*3*4 add 1*2*3*4. The sum of this is 119 = (4 + 1)! - 1. For n = 5 I get the sum 719 = (5 + 1)! - 1. The proof for the general case seems to follow by induction. - J. M. Bergot, Jan 10 2011
REFERENCES
Arthur T. Benjamin and Jennifer J. Quinn, Proofs that really count: the art of combinatorial proof, M.A.A. 2003, identity 181, p. 92.
Michael Doob, The Canadian Mathematical Olympiad & L'Olympiade Mathématique du Canada 1969-1993, Canadian Mathematical Society & Société Mathématique du Canada, Problem 6, 1969, p. 3, 1993.
Problem 598, J. Rec. Math., 11 (1978), 68-69.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
LINKS
Jonathan Beagley and Lara Pudwell, Colorful Tilings and Permutations, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 24 (2021), Article 21.10.4.
The IMO Compendium, Problem 6, 1st Canadian Mathematical Olympiad 1969.
Stéphane Legendre and Philippe Paclet, On the Permutations Generated by Cyclic Shift , J. Int. Seq. 14 (2011) # 11.3.2.
Gerard P. Michon, Wilson's Theorem.
Michael Penn, Make it look like a simple calculus problem., YouTube video, 2021.
Andrew Walker, Factors of n! +- 1.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Factorial.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Permutation Pattern.
FORMULA
a(n) = Sum_{k = 1 .. n} (k-1)*(k-1)!.
a(n) = a(n - 1)*(n - 1) + a(n - 1) + n - 1, a(0) = 0. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 03 2003
a(0) = a(1) = 0, a(n) = a(n - 1) * n + (n - 1) for n >= 2. - Jaroslav Krizek, Jan 23 2010
E.g.f.: 1/(1 - x) - exp(x). - Sergei N. Gladkovskii, Jun 29 2012
0 = 1 + a(n)*(+a(n+1) - a(n+2)) + a(n+1)*(+3 + a(n+1)) + a(n+2)*(-1) for n>=0. - Michael Somos, Feb 24 2017
Sum_{n>=2} 1/a(n) = A331373. - Amiram Eldar, Nov 11 2020
EXAMPLE
G.f. = x^2 + 5*x^3 + 23*x^4 + 119*x^5 + 719*x^6 + 5039*x^7 + 40319*x^8 + ...
MATHEMATICA
FoldList[#1*#2 + #2 - 1 &, 0, Range[19]] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Jul 07 2012 *)
Range[0, 19]! - 1 (* Alonso del Arte, Jan 24 2013 *)
PROG
(PARI) a(n)=n!-1 \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Jul 19 2011
(Magma) [Factorial(n)-1: n in [0..25]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Jul 20 2011
(Maxima) A033312(n):= n!-1$
makelist(A033312(n), n, 0, 30); /* Martin Ettl, Nov 03 2012 */
CROSSREFS
Cf. A000142, A001563 (first differences), A002582, A002982, A038507 (factorizations), A054415, A056110, A331373.
Row sums of A008291.
Sequence in context: A294356 A162815 A351756 * A151881 A229811 A359915
KEYWORD
nonn,easy
AUTHOR
N. J. A. Sloane. This sequence appeared in the 1973 "Handbook", but was then dropped from the database. Resubmitted by Eric W. Weisstein. Entry revised by N. J. A. Sloane, Jun 12 2012
STATUS
approved

Lookup | Welcome | Wiki | Register | Music | Plot 2 | Demos | Index | Browse | More | WebCam
Contribute new seq. or comment | Format | Style Sheet | Transforms | Superseeker | Recents
The OEIS Community | Maintained by The OEIS Foundation Inc.

License Agreements, Terms of Use, Privacy Policy. .

Last modified April 23 18:16 EDT 2024. Contains 371916 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)