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A005803 Second-order Eulerian numbers: a(n) = 2^n - 2*n.
(Formerly M1838)
37
1, 0, 0, 2, 8, 22, 52, 114, 240, 494, 1004, 2026, 4072, 8166, 16356, 32738, 65504, 131038, 262108, 524250, 1048536, 2097110, 4194260, 8388562, 16777168, 33554382, 67108812, 134217674, 268435400, 536870854, 1073741764, 2147483586 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,4

COMMENTS

Starting with n=2, a(n) is the second-order Eulerian number <<n-1,1>> (see A008517).

Also, number of 3 X n binary matrices avoiding simultaneously the right-angled numbered polyomino patterns (ranpp) (00;1), (01;0) and (01;1). An occurrence of a ranpp (xy;z) in a matrix A=(a(i,j)) is a triple (a(i1,j1), a(i1,j2), a(i2,j1)) where i1<i2, j1<j2 and these elements are in same relative order as those in the triple (x,y,z). - Sergey Kitaev, Nov 11 2004

This is the number of target DNA sequences of the correct length present after each successive cycle of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The first two cycles produce 0 target sequences, there are 2 target sequences present after the third cycle, then 8 after the fourth cycle, and so forth. - A. Timothy Royappa, Jun 16 2012

a(n+2) = the row sums of A222403. - J. M. Bergot, Apr 04 2018

REFERENCES

R. L. Graham, D. E. Knuth and O. Patashnik, Concrete Mathematics, 2nd ed. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1994, p. 270.

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

LINKS

T. D. Noe, Table of n, a(n) for n=0..500

S. Bilotta, E. Grazzini, and E. Pergola, Enumeration of Two Particular Sets of Minimal Permutations, J. Int. Seq. 18 (2015) 15.10.2.

I. Gessel and R. P. Stanley, Stirling polynomials, J. Combin. Theory, A 24 (1978), 24-33.

Jim Haglund and Mirko Visontai, Stable multivariate Eulerian polynomials and generalized Stirling permutations.

Sergey Kitaev, On multi-avoidance of right angled numbered polyomino patterns, Integers: Electronic Journal of Combinatorial Number Theory 4 (2004), A21, 20pp.

Sergey Kitaev, On multi-avoidance of right angled numbered polyomino patterns, University of Kentucky Research Reports (2004).

Sandi Klavžar, Uroš Milutinović and Ciril Petr, Hanoi graphs and some classical numbers, Expo. Math. 23 (2005), no. 4, 371-378.

James McClung, Constructions and Applications of W-States, Bachelor Thesis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute (2020).

Simon Plouffe, Approximations de séries génératrices et quelques conjectures, Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992.

Simon Plouffe, 1031 Generating Functions, Appendix to Thesis, Montreal, 1992.

Sam Spiro, Ballot Permutations, Odd Order Permutations, and a New Permutation Statistic, arXiv preprint arXiv:1810.00993 [math.CO], 2018 (A000246); Discrete Math, 343 (2020), article 111869.

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (4,-5,2).

FORMULA

G.f.: 1 + 2*x^3/((1-x)^2*(1-2*x)). a(n) = A008517(n-1, 2). - Michael Somos, Oct 13 2002

Equals binomial transform of [1, -1, 1, 1, 1, ...]. - Gary W. Adamson, Jul 14 2008

a(0) = 1 and a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n-3} ((-1)^(n+k+1)*binomial(2*n-1,k)*stirling1(2*n-k-3,n-k-2)), n=>1. - Johannes W. Meijer, Oct 16 2009

a(0)=1, a(1)=0, a(2)=0, a(n) = 4*a(n-1) - 5*a(n-2) + 2*a(n-3). - Harvey P. Dale, May 21 2011

a(n) = A000225(n+1) - A081494(n+1), n > 1. In other words, a(n) equals the sum of the elements in a Pascal triangle of depth n+1 minus the sum of the elements on its perimeter. - Ivan N. Ianakiev, Jun 01 2014

a(n) = A165900(n-1) + Sum_{i=0..n-1} a(i), for n > 0. - Ivan N. Ianakiev, Nov 24 2014

a(n) = A000225(n) - A005408(n-1). - Miquel Cerda, Nov 25 2016

E.g.f.: exp(x)*(exp(x) - 2*x). - Ilya Gutkovskiy, Nov 25 2016

EXAMPLE

G.f. = 1 + 2*x^3 + 8*x^4 + 22*x^5 + 52*x^6 + 114*x^7 + 240*x^8 + 494*x^9 + ...

MAPLE

A005803:=-2*z/(2*z-1)/(z-1)**2; # conjectured by Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation. Gives sequence except for three leading terms

MATHEMATICA

Table[2^n-2n, {n, 0, 50}] (* or *) LinearRecurrence[{4, -5, 2}, {1, 0, 0}, 51] (* Harvey P. Dale, May 21 2011 *)

PROG

(PARI) {a(n) = if( n<0, 0, 2^n - 2*n)}; /* Michael Somos, Oct 13 2002 */

(Haskell)

a005803 n = 2 ^ n - 2 * n

a005803_list = 1 : f 1 [0, 2 ..] where

   f x (z:zs@(z':_)) = y : f y zs  where y = (x + z) * 2 - z'

-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Jan 19 2014

(MAGMA) [2^n-2*n: n in [0..30]]; // Wesley Ivan Hurt, Jun 04 2014

CROSSREFS

Equivalent to second column of A008517.

a(n) = A070313 + 1 = A052515 + 2. Bisection of A077866.

Equals for n =>3 the third right hand column of A163936.

Cf. A000918 (first differences).

Cf. A000079, A000325, A005843, A130102.

Sequence in context: A006696 A094939 A006732 * A145654 A221880 A295141

Adjacent sequences:  A005800 A005801 A005802 * A005804 A005805 A005806

KEYWORD

nonn,easy,nice

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane, Simon Plouffe

STATUS

approved

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Last modified December 7 13:08 EST 2021. Contains 349581 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)