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A103280 Array read by antidiagonals, generated by the matrix M = [1,1,1;1,N,1;1,1,1];. 1
1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 6, 1, 4, 9, 16, 1, 5, 14, 27, 44, 1, 6, 21, 48, 81, 120, 1, 7, 30, 85, 164, 243, 328, 1, 8, 41, 144, 341, 560, 729, 896, 1, 9, 54, 231, 684, 1365, 1912, 2187, 2448, 1, 10, 69, 352, 1289, 3240, 5461, 6528, 6561, 6688, 1, 11, 86, 513, 2276, 7175, 15336, 21845 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,3

COMMENTS

Consider the matrix M = [1,1,1;1,N,1;1,1,1];

Characteristic polynomial of M is x^3 + (-N - 2)*x^2 + (2*N - 2)*x.

Now (M^n)[1,2] is equivalent to the recursion a(1) = 1, a(2) = N+2, a(n) = (N+2)a(n-1)+(2N-2)a(n-2). (This also holds for negative N and fractional N.)

a(n+1)/a(n) converges to the upper root of the characteristic polynomial ((N + 2) + sqrt((N - 2)^2 + 8))/2 for n to infinity.

Columns of array follow the polynomials:

0

1

N + 2

N^2 + 2*N + 6

N^3 + 2*N^2 + 8*N + 16

N^4 + 2*N^3 + 10*N^2 + 24*N + 44

N^5 + 2*N^4 + 12*N^3 + 32*N^2 + 76*N + 120

N^6 + 2*N^5 + 14*N^4 + 40*N^3 + 112*N^2 + 232*N + 328

N^7 + 2*N^6 + 16*N^5 + 48*N^4 + 152*N^3 + 368*N^2 + 704*N + 896

N^8 + 2*N^7 + 18*N^6 + 56*N^5 + 196*N^4 + 528*N^3 + 1200*N^2 + 2112*N + 2448

etc.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..62.

FORMULA

T(N, 1)=1, T(n, 2)=N+2, T(N, n)=(N+2)*T(N, n-1)-(2*N-2)*T(N, n-2)))

EXAMPLE

Array begins:

1,2,6,16,44,120,328,896,2448,6688,...

1,3,9,27,81,243,729,2187,6561,19683, ...

1,4,14,48,164,560,1912,6528,22288,76096,...

1,5,21,85,341,1365,5461,21845,87381,349525,...

1,6,30,144,684,3240,15336,72576,343440,1625184,...

1,7,41,231,1289,7175,39913,221991,1234633,6866503,...

...

PROG

(PARI) T12(N, n) = if(n==1, 1, if(n==2, N+2, (N+2)*T12(N, n-1)-(2*N-2)*T12(N, n-2))) for(k=0, 10, print1(k, ": "); for(i=1, 10, print1(T12(k, i), ", ")); print())

CROSSREFS

Cf. A103279 (for (M^n)[1, 1]), A002605 (for N=0), A000244 (for N=1), A007070 (for N=2), A002450 (for N=3), A002450 (for N=4), A030192 (for N=5) A006131 (for N=-1), A000400 (bisection for N=-2), A015443 (for N=-3), A083102 (for N=-4).

Sequence in context: A036038 A210237 A078760 * A046899 A309220 A225632

Adjacent sequences:  A103277 A103278 A103279 * A103281 A103282 A103283

KEYWORD

nonn,tabl

AUTHOR

Lambert Klasen (lambert.klasen(AT)gmx.net), Jan 27 2005

STATUS

approved

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Last modified July 24 05:05 EDT 2021. Contains 346273 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)