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A007434 Jordan function J_2(n) (a generalization of phi(n)).
(Formerly M2717)
97
1, 3, 8, 12, 24, 24, 48, 48, 72, 72, 120, 96, 168, 144, 192, 192, 288, 216, 360, 288, 384, 360, 528, 384, 600, 504, 648, 576, 840, 576, 960, 768, 960, 864, 1152, 864, 1368, 1080, 1344, 1152, 1680, 1152, 1848, 1440, 1728, 1584, 2208, 1536 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
1,2
COMMENTS
Number of points in the bicyclic group Z/mZ X Z/mZ whose order is exactly m. - George J. Schaeffer (gschaeff(AT)andrew.cmu.edu), Mar 14 2006
Number of irreducible fractions among {(u+v*i)/n : 1 <= u, v <= n} with i = sqrt(-1), where a fraction (u+v*i)/n is called irreducible if and only if gcd(u, v, n) = 1. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Aug 20 2005
The weight of the n-th polynomial for the analog of cyclotomic polynomials for elliptic divisibility sequences. That is, let the weight of b1 = 1, b2 = 3, b3 = 8, b4 = 12 and let e1 = b1, e2 = b2*b1, e3 = b3*b1, e4 = b2*b4*b1, e5 = (b2^4*b4 - b3^3)*b1 = b5*e1, and so on, be an elliptic divisibility sequence. Then weight of e2 = 4, e3 = 9, e4 = 16, e5 = 25, where weight of en is n^2 in general, while weight of bn is a(n). - Michael Somos, Aug 12 2008
J_2(n) divides J_{2k}(n). J_2(n) gives the number of 2-tuples (x1,x2), such that 1 <= x1, x2 <= n and gcd(x1, x2, n) = 1. - Enrique Pérez Herrero, Mar 05 2011
From Jianing Song, Apr 06 2019: (Start)
Let k be any quadratic field such that all prime factors of n are inert in k, O_k be the corresponding ring of integers and G(n) = (O_k/(nO_k))* be the multiplicative group of integers in O_k modulo n, then a(n) is the number of elements in G(n). The exponent of G(n) is A306933(n).
For n >= 5, a(n) is divisible by 24. (End)
The Del Centina article on page 106 mentions a formula by Halphen denoted by phi(n)T(n). - Michael Somos, Feb 05 2021
REFERENCES
L. Comtet, Advanced Combinatorics, Reidel, 1974, p. 199, #3.
A. Del Centina, Poncelet's porism: a long story of renewed discoveries, I, Hist. Exact Sci. (2016), v. 70, p. 106.
L. E. Dickson (1919, repr. 1971). History of the Theory of Numbers I. Chelsea. p. 147.
P. J. McCarthy, Introduction to Arithmetical Functions, Universitext, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1986.
G. Pólya and G. Szegő, Problems and Theorems in Analysis I (Springer 1924, reprinted 1972), Part Eight, Chap. 1, Section 6, Problem 64.
M. Ram Murty (2001). Problems in Analytic Number Theory. Graduate Texts in Mathematics. 206. Springer-Verlag. p. 11.
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
LINKS
Sukumar Das Adhikari and A. Sankaranarayanan, On an error term related to the Jordan totient function Jk(n), Journal of Number Theory Volume 34, Issue 2, February 1990, Pages 178-188.
Dorin Andrica and Mihai Piticari, On Some Extensions Of Jordan's Arithmetic Functions, Proceedings of the International Conference on Theory and Applications of Mathematics and Informatics - ICTAMI 2003, Alba Iulia.
Theo Douvropoulos, Joel Brewster Lewis, and Alejandro H. Morales, Hurwitz numbers for reflection groups III: Uniform formulas, arXiv:2308.04751 [math.CO], 2023, see p. 32.
F. A. Lewis and others, Problem 4002, Amer. Math. Monthly, Vol. 49, No. 9, Nov. 1942, pp. 618-619.
H. Li and T. MacHenry, Permanents and Determinants, Weighted Isobaric Polynomials, and Integer Sequences, J. Int. Seq. 16 (2013) #13.3.5, example 38.
Carl-Fredrik Nyberg-Brodda, On congruence subgroups of SL_2(Z[1/p]) generated by two parabolic elements, arXiv:2312.11258 [math.GR], 2023.
Nittiya Pabhapote and Vichian Laohakosol, Combinatorial Aspects of the Generalized Euler's Totient, International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 648165, 15 p.
Wolfgang Schramm, The Fourier transform of functions of the greatest common divisor, Electronic Journal of Combinatorial Number Theory A50 (8(1)), 2008.
N. J. A. Sloane, Transforms.
S. Thajoddin and S. Vangipuram, A Note On Jordan's Totient Function, Indian J. Pure Appl. Math, 1988.
László Tóth, Multiplicative arithmetic functions of several variables: a survey, arXiv preprint arXiv:1310.7053 [math.NT], 2013.
FORMULA
Moebius transform of squares.
Multiplicative with a(p^e) = p^(2e) - p^(2e-2). - Vladeta Jovovic, Jul 26 2001
a(n) = Sum_{d|n} d^2 * mu(n/d). - Benoit Cloitre, Apr 05 2002
a(n) = n^2 * Product_{p|n} (1-1/p^2). - Tom Edgar, Jan 07 2015
a(n) = Sum_{d|n} phi(d)*phi(n/d)*n/d; Sum_{d|n} a(d) = n^2. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Aug 20 2005
Dirichlet generating function: zeta(s-2)/zeta(s). - Franklin T. Adams-Watters, Sep 11 2005
Dirichlet inverse of A046970. - Michael Somos, Jan 11 2014
a(n) = a(n^2)/n^2. - Enrique Pérez Herrero, Sep 14 2010
a(n) = A000010(n) * A001615(n).
If n > 1, then 1 > a(n)/n^2 > 1/zeta(2). - Enrique Pérez Herrero, Jul 14 2011
a(n) = Sum_{d|n} phi(n^2/d)*mu(d)^2). - Enrique Pérez Herrero, Jul 24 2012
a(n) = Sum_{k = 1..n} gcd(k, n)^2 * cos(2*Pi*k/n). - Enrique Pérez Herrero, Jan 18 2013
a(1) + a(2) + ... + a(n) ~ 1/(3*zeta(3))*n^3 + O(n^2). Lambert series Sum_{n >= 1} a(n)*x^n/(1 - x^n) = x*(1 + x)/(1 - x)^3. - Peter Bala, Dec 23 2013
n * a(n) = A000056(n). - Michael Somos, Mar 20 2004
a(n) = 24 * A115000(n) unless n < 5. - Michael Somos, Aug 12 2008
a(n) = A001065(n) - A134675(n). - Conjectured by John Mason and proved by Max Alekseyev, Jan 07 2015
a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n} gcd(n, k) * phi(gcd(n, k)), where phi(k) is the Euler totient function. - Daniel Suteu, Jun 15 2018
G.f.: Sum_{k>=1} mu(k)*x^k*(1 + x^k)/(1 - x^k)^3. - Ilya Gutkovskiy, Oct 24 2018
Sum_{k>=1} 1/a(k) = Product_{primes p} (1 + p^2/(p^2 - 1)^2) = 1.81078147612156295224312590448625180897250361794500723589001447178002894356... - Vaclav Kotesovec, Sep 19 2020
Limit_{n->oo} (1/n) * Sum_{k=1..n} a(k)/k^2 = 1/zeta(3) (A088453). - Amiram Eldar, Oct 12 2020
From Richard L. Ollerton, May 09 2021: (Start)
a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n} (n/gcd(n,k))^2*mu(gcd(n,k))/phi(n/gcd(n,k)).
a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n} gcd(n,k)^2*mu(n/gcd(n,k))/phi(n/gcd(n,k)).
a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n} n*phi(gcd(n,k))/gcd(n,k).
a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n} phi(n*gcd(n,k))*mu(n/gcd(n,k))^2.
a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n} phi(n^2/gcd(n,k))*mu(gcd(n,k))^2*phi(gcd(n,k))/phi(n/gcd(n,k)). (End)
a(n) = Sum_{k = 1..n} phi(gcd(n, k)^2) = Sum_{d divides n} phi(d^2)*phi(n/d). - Peter Bala, Jan 17 2024
a(n) = Sum_{1 <= i, j <= n, lcm(i, j) = n} phi(i)*phi(j). See Tóth, p. 14. - Peter Bala, Jan 29 2024
EXAMPLE
a(4) = 12 because the divisors of 4 being 1, 2, 4, we find that phi(1)*phi(4/1)*(4/1) = 8, phi(2)*phi(4/2)*(4/2) = 2, phi(4)*phi(4/4)*(4/4) = 2 and 8 + 2 + 2 = 12.
G.f. = x + 3*x^2 + 8*x^3 + 12*x^4 + 24*x^5 + 24*x^6 + 48*x^7 + 48*x^8 + 72*x^9 + ...
MAPLE
J := proc(n, k) local i, p, t1, t2; t1 := n^k; for p from 1 to n do if isprime(p) and n mod p = 0 then t1 := t1*(1-p^(-k)); fi; od; t1; end; # (with k = 2)
A007434 := proc(n)
add(d^2*numtheory[mobius](n/d), d=numtheory[divisors](n)) ;
end proc: # R. J. Mathar, Nov 03 2015
MATHEMATICA
jordanTotient[n_, k_:1] := DivisorSum[n, #^k*MoebiusMu[n/#] &] /; (n > 0) && IntegerQ[n]; Table[jordanTotient[n, 2], {n, 48}] (* Enrique Pérez Herrero, Sep 14 2010 *)
a[ n_] := If[ n < 1, 0, Sum[ d^2 MoebiusMu[ n/d], {d, Divisors @ n}]]; (* Michael Somos, Jan 11 2014 *)
a[ n_] := If[ n < 2, Boole[ n == 1], n^2 (Times @@ ((1 - 1/#[[1]]^2) & /@ FactorInteger @ n))]; (* Michael Somos, Jan 11 2014 *)
jordanTotient[n_Integer?Positive, r_:1] := DirichletConvolve[MoebiusMu[K], K^r, K, n]; Table[jordanTotient[n, 2], {n, 48}] (* Jan Mangaldan, Jun 03 2016 *)
PROG
(PARI) {a(n) = if( n<1, 0, sumdiv(n, d, d^2 * moebius(n / d)))}; /* Michael Somos, Mar 20 2004 */
(PARI) {a(n) = if( n<1, 0, direuler( p=2, n, (1 - X) / (1 - X*p^2))[n])}; /* Michael Somos, Jan 11 2014 */
(PARI) seq(n) = dirmul(vector(n, k, k^2), vector(n, k, moebius(k)));
seq(48) \\ Gheorghe Coserea, May 11 2016
(PARI) jordan(n, k)=my(a=n^k); fordiv(n, i, if(isprime(i), a*=(1-1/(i^k)))); a \\ Roderick MacPhee, May 05 2017
(Haskell)
a007434 n = sum $ zipWith3 (\x y z -> x * y * z)
tdivs (reverse tdivs) (reverse divs)
where divs = a027750_row n; tdivs = map a000010 divs
-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 24 2012
(Python)
from math import prod
from sympy import factorint
def A007434(n): return prod(p**(e-1<<1)*(p**2-1) for p, e in factorint(n).items()) # Chai Wah Wu, Jan 29 2024
CROSSREFS
Cf. A059379 and A059380 (triangle of values of J_k(n)).
Cf. A000010 (J_1), this sequence (J_2), A059376 (J_3), A059377 (J_4), A059378 (J_5).
Cf. A002117, A088453, A301875, A301876, A321879 (partial sums).
Sequence in context: A169923 A158022 A209934 * A128303 A123906 A065970
KEYWORD
nonn,easy,nice,mult,look
AUTHOR
EXTENSIONS
Thanks to Michael Somos for catching an error in this sequence.
STATUS
approved

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Last modified July 22 07:42 EDT 2024. Contains 374481 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)