

A006204


Number of starters in cyclic group of order 2n+1.
(Formerly M2802)


1



1, 1, 3, 9, 25, 133, 631, 3857, 25905, 188181, 1515283, 13376125, 128102625, 1317606101, 14534145947, 170922533545, 2138089212789
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OFFSET

1,3


COMMENTS

A complete mapping of a cyclic group (Z_m,+) is a permutation f(x) of Z_m with f(0)=0 such that f(x)x is also a permutation. a(n) is the number of complete mappings f(x) of the cyclic group Z_{2n+1} such that f^(1)=f.
In other words a(n) is the number of complete mappings fixed under the reflection operator R, where R(f)=f^(1). Reflection R is not only a symmetry operator of complete mappings, but also one of the (Toroidal)(semi) NQueen problems and of the strong complete mappings problem.


REFERENCES

CRC Handbook of Combinatorial Designs, 1996, p. 469.
CRC Handbook of Combinatorial Designs, 2nd edition, 2007, p. 624.
J. D. Horton, Orthogonal starters in finite Abelian groups, Discrete Math., 79 (1989/1990), 265278.
V. Linjaaho and Patric R. J. Östergård, Classification of starters, J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comput. 75 (2010), 153159.
Y. P. Shieh, "Partition strategies for #Pcomplete problems with applications to enumerative combinatorics", PhD thesis, National Taiwan University, 2001.
Y. P. Shieh, J. Hsiang and D. F. Hsu, "On the enumeration of Abelian kcomplete mappings", vol. 144 of Congressus Numerantium, 2000, pp. 6788.
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).


LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..17.
Bill Butler, Durango Bill's Bridge Probabilities and Combinatorics
Jieh Hsiang, Yuhpyng Shieh, Yaochiang Chen, Cyclic complete mappings counting problems, National Taiwan University, Taipei, April 2003.
Vesa Linjaaho, Patric R. J. Östergård, Classification of starters, J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comput. 75 (2010), 153159.


EXAMPLE

f(x)=6x in (Z_7,+) is a complete mapping of Z_7 since f(0)=0 and f(x)x (=5x) is also a permutation of Z_7. f^(1)(x)=6x=f(x). So f(x) is fixed under reflection.


CROSSREFS

Cf. A006717, A071607, A071608, A071706, A003111.
Sequence in context: A178061 A120284 A074440 * A013572 A119851 A119825
Adjacent sequences: A006201 A006202 A006203 * A006205 A006206 A006207


KEYWORD

nonn,nice,hard,more


AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane


EXTENSIONS

Additional comments and one more term from J. Hsiang, D. F. Hsu and Y. P. Shieh (arping(AT)turing.csie.ntu.edu.tw), Jun 03 2002
Corrected and extended by Roland Bacher, Dec 18 2007
Extended by Vesa Linjaaho (vesa.linjaaho(AT)tkk.fi), May 06 2009


STATUS

approved



