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A033184 Catalan triangle A009766 transposed. 83
1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 5, 5, 3, 1, 14, 14, 9, 4, 1, 42, 42, 28, 14, 5, 1, 132, 132, 90, 48, 20, 6, 1, 429, 429, 297, 165, 75, 27, 7, 1, 1430, 1430, 1001, 572, 275, 110, 35, 8, 1, 4862, 4862, 3432, 2002, 1001, 429, 154, 44, 9, 1 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,4

COMMENTS

Triangle read by rows: T(n,k) = number of Dyck n-paths (A000108) containing k returns to ground level. E.g., the paths UDUUDD, UUDDUD each have 2 returns; so T(3,2)=2. Row sums over even-indexed columns are the Fine numbers A000957. - David Callan, Jul 25 2005

Triangular array of numbers a(n,k) = number of linear forests of k planted planar trees and n non-root nodes.

Catalan convolution triangle; with offset [0,0]: a(n,m)=(m+1)*binomial(2*n-m,n-m)/(n+1), n >= m >= 0, else 0. G.f. for column m: c(x)*(x*c(x))^m with c(x) g.f. for A000108 (Catalan). - Wolfdieter Lang, Sep 12 2001

a(n+1,m+1), n >= m >= 0, a(n,m) := 0, n<m, has inverse matrix A030528(n,m)*(-1)^(n-m).

a(n,k)=number of Dyck paths of semilength n and having k returns to the axis. Also number of Dyck paths of semilength n and having first peak at height k. Also number of ordered trees with n edges and root degree k. Also number of ordered trees with n edges and having the leftmost leaf at level k. Also number of parallelogram polyominoes of semiperimeter n+1 and having k cells in the leftmost column. - Emeric Deutsch, Mar 01 2004

Triangle T(n,k) with 1<=k<=n given by [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, ...] DELTA [1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...] = 1; 0, 1; 0, 1, 1; 0, 2, 2, 1; 0, 5, 5, 3, 1; 0, 14, 14, 9, 4, 1; ... where DELTA is the operator defined in A084938; essentially the same triangle as A059365 . - Philippe Deléham, Jun 14 2004

Number of Dyck paths of semilength and having k-1 peaks at height 2. - Emeric Deutsch, Aug 31 2004

Riordan array (c(x),x*c(x)), c(x) the g.f. of A000108. Inverse of Riordan array (1-x,x*(1-x)). - Paul Barry, Jun 22 2005

Subtriangle of triangle A106566 . - Philippe Deléham, Jan 07 2007

T(n, k) is also the number of order-preserving and order-decreasing full transformations (of an n-chain) with exactly k fixed points. - Abdullahi Umar, Oct 02 2008

Triangle read by rows, product of A065600 and A007318 considered as infinite lower triangular arrays; A033184 = A065600*A007318. - Philippe Deléham, Dec 07 2009

The formula stating "Column k is the k-fold convolution of column 1" is equivalent to repeatedly applying M to [1,0,0,0,...], where M is an upper triangular matrix of all 1's with an additional single subdiagonal of 1's. - Gary W. Adamson, Jun 06 2011

4^(n-1) = (n-th row terms) dot (first n terms in A001792), where A001792 = binomial transform of the natural numbers: (1, 3, 8, 20, 48, 112, ...). Example: 4^4 = 256 = (14, 14, 9, 4, 1) dot (1, 3, 8, 20, 48) = (42 + 42 + 28 + 14 + 5 + 1) = 256. - Gary W. Adamson, Jun 17 2011

REFERENCES

Naiomi Cameron, JE McLeod, Returns and Hills on Generalized Dyck Paths, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 19, 2016, #16.6.1.

LINKS

Reinhard Zumkeller, Rows n = 1..125 of triangle, flattened

José Agapito, Ângela Mestre, Maria M. Torres, and Pasquale Petrullo, On One-Parameter Catalan Arrays, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 18 (2015), Article 15.5.1.

M. Aigner, Enumeration via ballot numbers, Discrete Math., 308 (2008), 2544-2563.

J. L. Arregui, Tangent and Bernoulli numbers related to Motzkin and Catalan numbers by means of numerical triangles, arXiv:math/0109108 [math.NT], 2001.

P. Barry, Invariant number triangles, eigentriangles and Somos-4 sequences, arXiv preprint arXiv:1107.5490 [math.CO], 2011.

P. Barry, Riordan-Bernstein Polynomials, Hankel Transforms and Somos Sequences, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 15 2012, #12.8.2.

P. Barry and A. Hennessy, Four-term Recurrences, Orthogonal Polynomials and Riordan Arrays, Journal of Integer Sequences, 2012, article 12.4.2. - From N. J. A. Sloane, Sep 21 2012

P. Barry, Comparing two matrices of generalized moments defined by continued fraction expansions, arXiv preprint arXiv:1311.7161 [math.CO], 2013.

P. Barry, Embedding structures associated with Riordan arrays and moment matrices, arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.0583 [math.CO], 2013.

A. Bernini, M. Bouvel and L. Ferrari, Some statistics on permutations avoiding generalized patterns, PU.M.A. Vol. 18 (2007), No. 3-4, pp. 223-237.

S. Brlek, E. Duchi, E. Pergola and S. Rinaldi, On the equivalence problem for succession rules, Discr. Math., 298 (2005), 142-154.

D. Callan, A recursive bijective approach to counting permutations..., arXiv:math/0211380 [math.CO], 2002.

N. T. Cameron, Random walks, trees and extensions of Riordan group techniques

Gi-Sang Cheon, Hana Kim and Louis W. Shapiro, Combinatorics of Riordan arrays with identical A and Z sequences, Discrete Math., 312 (2012), 2040-2049.

Gi-Sang Cheon, S.-T. Jin, L. W. Shapiro, A combinatorial equivalence relation for formal power series, Linear Algebra and its Applications, Volume 491, 15 February 2016, Pages 123-137; Proceedings of the 19th ILAS Conference, Seoul, South Korea 2014.

E. Deutsch, Dyck path enumeration, Discrete Math., 204, 1999, 167-202.

FindStat - Combinatorial Statistic Finder, The number of touch points of a Dyck path, The number of initial rises of a Dyck paths, The number of nodes on the left branch of the tree, The number of subtrees.

Peter M. Higgins, Combinatorial results for semigroups of order-preserving mappings, Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 113 (1993), 281-296. [From Abdullahi Umar, Oct 02 2008]

W. Lang, On generalizations of Stirling number triangles, J. Integer Seqs., Vol. 3 (2000), #00.2.4.

W. Lang, On polynomials related to powers of the generating function of Catalan numbers, The Fibonacci Quart. 38 (2000) 408-19.

P. J. Larcombe and D. R. French, The Catalan number k-fold self-convolution identity: the original formulation, Journal of Combinatorial Mathematics and Combinatorial Computing 46 (2003) 191-204.

R. J. Mathar, Topologically Distinct Sets of Non-intersecting Circles in the Plane, arXiv:1603.00077, 2016.

D. Merlini, R. Sprugnoli and M. C. Verri, An algebra for proper generating trees

J. Noonan and D. Zeilberger, [math/9808080] The Enumeration of Permutations With a Prescribed Number of ``Forbidden'' Patterns. Also Adv. in Appl. Math. 17 (1996), no. 4, 381--407. MR1422065 (97j:05003).

J.-C. Novelli and J.-Y. Thibon, Noncommutative Symmetric Functions and Lagrange Inversion, arXiv:math/0512570 [math.CO], 2005-2006.

R. Pemantle and M. C. Wilson, Twenty Combinatorial Examples of Asymptotics Derived from Multivariate Generating Functions, SIAM Rev., 50 (2008), no. 2, 199-272. See p. 264

A. Reifegerste, On the diagram of 132-avoiding permutations, arXiv:math/0208006 [math.CO], 2002.

A. Robertson, D. Saracino and D. Zeilberger, Refined restricted permutations, arXiv:math/0203033 [math.CO], 2002.

Yidong Sun and Fei Ma, Four transformations on the Catalan triangle, arXiv preprint arXiv:1305.2017 [math.CO], 2013.

Yidong Sun and Fei Ma, Some new binomial sums related to the Catalan triangle, Electronic Journal of Combinatorics 21(1) (2014), #P1.33.

Sheng-Liang Yang, LJ Wang, Taylor expansions for the m-Catalan numbers, Australasian Journal of Combinatorics, Volume 64(3) (2016), Pages 420-431.

S.-n. Zheng and S.-l. Yang, On the-Shifted Central Coefficients of Riordan Matrices, Journal of Applied Mathematics, Volume 2014, Article ID 848374, 8 pages.

FORMULA

Column k is the k-fold convolution of column 1. The triangle is also defined recursively by (i) entries outside triangle are 0, (ii) top left entry is 1, (iii) every other entry is sum of its east and northwest neighbor. - David Callan, Jul 25 2005

G.f.: t*x*c/(1-t*x*c), where c=(1-sqrt(1-4*x))/(2*x) is the g.f. of the Catalan numbers (A000108). - Emeric Deutsch, Mar 01 2004

T(n+1,k+1) = C(2*n-k, n-k)*(k+1)/(n+1). - Paul D. Hanna, Aug 11 2008

T((m+1)*n+r-1,m*n+r-1)*r/(m*n+r) = Sum_{k=1..n} (k/n)*T((m+1)*n-k-1,m*n-1)*T(r+k,r), n>=m>1. - Vladimir Kruchinin, Mar 17 2011

T(n-1,m-1) = (m/n)*Sum_{k=1..n-m+1} (k*A000108(k-1)*T(n-k-1,m-2)), n>=m>1. - Vladimir Kruchinin, Mar 17 2011

T(n,k) = C(2n-k-1,n-k) - C(2n-k-1,n-k-1). - Dennis P. Walsh, Mar 19 2012

T(n,k) = C(2n-k,n)*k/(2n-k). - Dennis P. Walsh, Mar 19 2012

T(n,k) = T(n,k-1) - T(n-1,k-2). - Dennis P. Walsh, Mar 19 2012

G.f.: 2*x*y / (1 + sqrt(1 - 4*x) - 2*x*y) = Sum_{n >= k > 0} T(n, k) * x^n * y^k. - Michael Somos, Jun 06 2016

EXAMPLE

Triangle begins:

  ---+-----------------------------------

  n\k|   1    2    3    4    5    6    7

  ---+-----------------------------------

   1 |   1

   2 |   1    1

   3 |   2    2    1

   4 |   5    5    3    1

   5 |  14   14    9    4    1

   6 |  42   42   28   14    5    1

   7 | 132  132   90   48   20    6    1

MAPLE

a := proc(n, k) if k<=n then k*binomial(2*n-k, n)/(2*n-k) else 0 fi end: seq(seq(a(n, k), k=1..n), n=1..10);

MATHEMATICA

nn = 10; c = (1 - (1 - 4 x)^(1/2))/(2 x); f[list_] := Select[list, # > 0 &]; Map[f, Drop[CoefficientList[Series[y x c/(1 - y x c), {x, 0, nn}], {x, y}], 1]] //Flatten (* Geoffrey Critzer, Jan 31 2012 *)

Flatten[Reverse /@ NestList[Append[Accumulate[#], Last[Accumulate[#]]] &, {1}, 9]] (* Birkas Gyorgy, May 19 2012 *)

PROG

(PARI) T(n, k)=binomial(2*(n-k)+k, n-k)*(k+1)/(n+1) \\ Paul D. Hanna, Aug 11 2008

(Sage) The simplest way to construct the triangle.

def A033184_triangle(n) :

    T = [0 for i in (0..n)]

    for k in (1..n) :

        T[k] = 1

        for i in range(k-1, 0, -1) :

            T[i] = T[i-1] + T[i+1]

        print [T[i] for i in (1..k)]

A033184_triangle(10) # Peter Luschny, Jan 27 2012

(Haskell)

a033184 n k = a033184_tabl !! (n-1) !! (k-1)

a033184_row n = a033184_tabl !! (n-1)

a033184_tabl = map reverse a009766_tabl

-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 19 2014

(MAGMA) / As triangle: / [[Binomial(2*n-k, n)*k/(2*n-k): k in [1..n]]: n in [1.. 15]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Oct 12 2015

CROSSREFS

Rows of Catalan triangle A009766 read backwards.

a(n, 1)= A000108(n-1). Row sums = A000108(n) (Catalan).

The following are all versions of (essentially) the same Catalan triangle: A009766, A030237, A033184, A059365, A099039, A106566, A130020, A047072.

Diagonals give A000108 A000245 A002057 A000344 A003517 A000588 A003518 A003519 A001392, ...

Cf. A116364 (row squared sums). - Paul D. Hanna, Aug 11 2008

Sequence in context: A141751 A079222 * A171567 A110488 A271025 A134379

Adjacent sequences:  A033181 A033182 A033183 * A033185 A033186 A033187

KEYWORD

nonn,tabl

AUTHOR

Christian G. Bower

STATUS

approved

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Last modified June 26 02:24 EDT 2017. Contains 288749 sequences.