

A301471


Number of ways to write n^2 as x^2 + 2*y^2 + 3*2^z with x,y,z nonnegative integers.


25



0, 1, 2, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 5, 4, 4, 4, 5, 4, 10, 1, 4, 7, 4, 4, 10, 4, 3, 4, 6, 6, 11, 4, 7, 10, 6, 1, 9, 5, 7, 7, 7, 6, 12, 4, 6, 12, 7, 4, 14, 4, 8, 4, 3, 8, 10, 6, 8, 13, 6, 4, 16, 8, 7, 10, 7, 6, 14, 1, 7, 11, 6, 5, 16, 9, 5, 7, 7, 7, 18, 6, 7, 14, 6, 4
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OFFSET

1,3


COMMENTS

Square Conjecture: a(n) > 0 for all n > 1. Moreover, for any integer n > 3 we can write n^2 as x^2 + 2*y^2 + 3*2^z, where x,y,z are nonnegative integers with y even and z > 1.
It is known that a positive integer n has the form x^2 + 2*y^2 with x and y integers if and only if the padic order of n is even for any prime p == 5 or 7 (mod 8).
See also A301472 for the list of positive integers not of the form x^2 + 2*y^2 + 3*2^z with x,y,z nonnegative integers.
If n^2 = x^2 + 2*y^2 + 3*2^z with x,y,z nonnegative integers, then it is easy to see that x is not divisible by 3.
The Square Conjecture implies that for each n = 1,2,3,... we can write 3*n^2 as x^2 + 2*y^2 + 2^z with x,y,z nonnegative integers. In fact, if (3*n)^2 = u^2 + 2*v^2 + 3*2^z with u,v,z integers and z >= 0, then u^2 == v^2 (mod 3) and thus we may assume u == v (mod 3) without loss of generality, hence 3*n^2 = (u^2+2*v^2)/3 + 2^z = x^2 + 2*y^2 + 2^z with x = (u+2*v)/3 and y = (uv)/3 integers.
On March 25, 2018 QingHu Hou at Tianjin Univ. finished his verification of the Square Conjecture for n <= 4*10^8. Then I used Hou's program to verify the conjecture for n <= 5*10^9.  ZhiWei Sun, Apr 10 2018
I have found a counterexample to the Square Conjecture, namely a(5884015571) = 0. Note that 5884015571 is the product of the three primes 7, 17 and 49445509.  ZhiWei Sun, Apr 15 2018


LINKS

ZhiWei Sun, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..10000
ZhiWei Sun, Refining Lagrange's foursquare theorem, J. Number Theory 175(2017), 167190.
ZhiWei Sun, Restricted sums of four squares, arXiv:1701.05868 [math.NT], 20172018.


EXAMPLE

a(2) = 1 with 2^2 = 1^2 + 2*0^2 + 3*2^0.
a(3) = 2 with 3^2 = 2^2 + 2*1^2 + 3*2^0 = 1^2 + 2*1^2 + 3*2^1.
a(4) = 1 with 4^2 = 2^2 + 2*0^2 + 3*2^2.
a(1131599953) = 1 with 1131599953^2 = 316124933^2 + 2*768304458^2 + 3*2^6.
a(5884015571) = 0 since there are no nonnegative integers x,y,z such that x^2 + 2*y^2 + 3*2^z = 5884015571^2.


MATHEMATICA

f[n_]:=f[n]=FactorInteger[n];
g[n_]:=g[n]=Sum[Boole[(Mod[Part[Part[f[n], i], 1], 8]==5Mod[Part[Part[f[n], i], 1], 8]==7)&&Mod[Part[Part[f[n], i], 2], 2]==1], {i, 1, Length[f[n]]}]==0;
QQ[n_]:=QQ[n]=(n==0)(n>0&&g[n]);
SQ[n_]:=SQ[n]=IntegerQ[Sqrt[n]];
tab={}; Do[r=0; Do[If[QQ[n^23*2^k], Do[If[SQ[n^23*2^k2x^2], r=r+1], {x, 0, Sqrt[(n^23*2^k)/2]}]], {k, 0, Log[2, n^2/3]}]; tab=Append[tab, r], {n, 1, 80}]; Print[tab]


CROSSREFS

Cf. A000079, A000290, A002479, A299924, A299537, A299794, A300219, A300362, A300396, A300510, A301376, A301391, A301452, A301472, A301479, A301579, A301640, A302641.
Sequence in context: A182511 A187064 A193020 * A237124 A233547 A122530
Adjacent sequences: A301468 A301469 A301470 * A301472 A301473 A301474


KEYWORD

nonn


AUTHOR

ZhiWei Sun, Mar 21 2018


STATUS

approved



