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A272977 Number of ordered ways to write n as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with 3*x^2*y + z^2*w a square, where w is a nonzero integer and x,y,z are nonnegative integers with x >= z. 17
2, 4, 1, 3, 8, 1, 1, 4, 3, 11, 3, 1, 9, 5, 3, 3, 10, 7, 6, 9, 3, 6, 1, 1, 11, 15, 4, 2, 13, 2, 2, 4, 4, 16, 5, 4, 13, 5, 2, 10, 12, 6, 5, 1, 12, 6, 1, 3, 7, 19, 2, 10, 10, 6, 3, 1, 2, 12, 7, 3, 15, 7, 4, 3, 16, 8, 6, 9, 5, 6, 1, 7, 12, 19, 3, 3, 7, 2, 4, 9 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,1

COMMENTS

Conjecture: (i) a(n) > 0 for all n > 0, and a(n) = 1 only for n = 3, 7, 23, 47, 71, 147, 199, 263, 439, 16^k*m (k = 0,1,2,... and m = 6, 12, 24, 44, 56, 140, 156, 174, 204, 284, 4652).

(ii) For each ordered pair (a,b) = (7,1), (8,1), (9,2), any positive integer can be written as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with a*x^2*y + b*z^2*w a square, where x,y,z are nonnegative integers and w is a nonzero integer.

Compare this conjecture with the one in A270073.

See arXiv:1604.06723 for more refinements of Lagrange's four-square theorem.

LINKS

Zhi-Wei Sun, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..10000

Zhi-Wei Sun, Refining Lagrange's four-square theorem, arXiv:1604.06723 [math.GM], 2016.

Zhi-Wei Sun, Refine Lagrange's four-square theorem, a message to Number Theory List, April 26, 2016.

EXAMPLE

a(1) = 2 since 1 = 1^2 + 0^2 + 0^2 + 1^2 with 1 > 0 and 3*1^2*0 + 0^2*1 = 0^2, and also 1 = 1^2 + 0^2 + 0^2 + (-1)^2 with 1 > 0 and 3*1^2*0 + 0^2*(-1) = 0^2.

a(3) = 1 since 3 = 1^2 + 0^2 + 1^2 + 1^2 with 1 = 1 and 3*1^2*0 + 1^2*1 = 1^2.

a(6) = 1 since 6 = 2^2 + 0^2 + 1^2 + 1^2 with 2 > 1 and 3*2^2*0 + 1^2*1 = 1^2.

a(7) = 1 since 7 = 1^2 + 1^2 + 1^2 + (-2)^2 with 1 = 1 and 3*1^2*1 + 1^2*(-2) = 1^2.

a(12) = 1 since 12 = 1^2 + 1^2 + 1^2 + (-3)^2 with 1 = 1 and 3*1^2*1 + 1*(-3) = 0^2.

a(23) = 1 since 23 = 3^2 + 1^2 + 3^2 + (-2)^2 with 3 = 3 and 3*3^2*1 + 3^2*(-2) = 3^2.

a(24) = 1 since 24 = 2^2 + 0^2 + 2^2 + 4^2 with 2 = 2 and 3*2^2*0 + 2^2*4 = 4^2.

a(44) = 1 since 44 = 3^2 + 5^2 + 3^2 + 1^2 with 3 = 3 and 3*3^2*5 + 3^2*1 = 12^2.

a(47) = 1 since 47 = 3^2 + 2^2 + 3^2 + (-5)^2 with 3 = 3 and 3*3^2*2 + 3^2*(-5) = 3^2.

a(56) = 1 since 56 = 6^2 + 0^2 + 2^2 + 4^2 with 6 > 2 and 3*6^2*0 + 2^2*4 = 4^2.

a(71) = 1 since 71 = 5^2 + 6^2 + 3^2 + (-1)^2 with 5 > 3 and 3*5^2*6 + 3^2*(-1) = 21^2.

a(140) = 1 since 140 = 5^2 + 3^2 + 5^2 + (-9)^2 with 5 = 5 and 3*5^2*3 + 5^2*(-9) = 0^2.

a(147) = 1 since 147 = 11^2 + 0^2 + 5^2 + 1^2 with 11 > 5 and 3*11^2*0 + 5^2*1 = 5^2.

a(156) = 1 since 156 = 7^2 + 3^2 + 7^2 + 7^2 with 7 = 7 and 3*7^2*3 + 7^2*7 = 28^2.

a(174) = 1 since 174 = 13^2 + 0^2 + 2^2 + 1^2 with 13 > 2 and 3*13^2*0 + 2^2*1 = 2^2.

a(199) = 1 since 199 = 9^2 + 1^2 + 9^2 + 6^2 with 9 = 9 and 3*9^2*1 + 9^2*6 = 27^2.

a(204) = 1 since 204 = 1^2 + 9^2 + 1^2 + (-11)^2 with 1 = 1 and 3*1^2*9 + 1^2*(-11) = 4^2.

a(263) = 1 since 263 = 3^2 + 14^2 + 3^2 + 7^2 with 3 = 3 and

3*3^2*14 + 3^2*7 = 21^2.

a(284) = 1 since 284 = 13^2 + 3^2 + 5^2 + (-9)^2 with 13 > 5 and 3*13^2*3 + 5^2*(-9) = 36^2.

a(439) = 1 since 439 = 13^2 + 5^2 + 7^2 + (-14)^2 with 13 > 7 and 3*13^2*5 + 7^2*(-14) = 43^2.

a(4652) = 1 since 4652 = 11^2 + 21^2 + 11^2 + (-63)^2 with 11 = 11 and 3*11^2*21 + 11^2*(-63) = 0^2.

MATHEMATICA

SQ[n_]:=SQ[n]=IntegerQ[Sqrt[n]]

Do[r=0; Do[If[SQ[n-x^2-y^2-z^2]&&SQ[3x^2*y+z^2*(-1)^k*Sqrt[n-x^2-y^2-z^2]], r=r+1], {z, 0, Sqrt[(n-1)/2]}, {x, z, Sqrt[n-1-z^2]}, {y, 0, Sqrt[n-1-x^2-z^2]}, {k, 0, 1}]; Print[n, " ", r]; Continue, {n, 1, 80}]

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000118, A000290, A260625, A261876, A262357, A267121, A268197, A268507, A269400, A270073, A271510, A271513, A271518, A271608, A271665, A271714, A271721, A271724, A271775, A271778, A271824, A272084, A272332, A272351, A272620, A272888.

Sequence in context: A338530 A248212 A290824 * A230505 A208526 A275895

Adjacent sequences:  A272974 A272975 A272976 * A272978 A272979 A272980

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

Zhi-Wei Sun, May 11 2016

STATUS

approved

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Last modified December 1 04:02 EST 2021. Contains 349426 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)