
COMMENTS

Conjecture: (i) a(n) > 0 for all n > 0, and a(n) = 1 only for n = 4^k*3^m, 4^k*3^m*43, 4^k*9^m*q (k,m = 0, 1, 2, ... and q = 7, 15, 79, 95, 141, 159, 183).
(ii) Any positive integer n can be written as w^2 + x^2 + y^2 + z^2 with w*x + x*y + 2*y*z + 3*z*x (or w*x + 3*x*y + 8*y*z + 5*z*x) twice a square, where w is a positive integer and x,y,z are nonnegative integers.
(iii) For each k = 1, 2, 8, any positive integer can be written as w^2 + x^2 + y^2 + z^2 with w^2 + k*(x*y+y*z) a square, where w is a positive integer and x,y,z are nonnegative integers.
(iv) For each ordered pair (b,c) = (16,4), (24,4), (32,16), any natural number can be written as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with x,y,z,w nonnegative integers such that x^2 + b*y^2 + c*x*z + c*y*z + c*z*w is a square.
We also guess that for each triple (b,c,d) = (1,3,4), (1,6,8), (1,7,24), (1,8,15), (1,10,24), (1,12,35), (1,14,48), (1,20,48), (2,1,2), (2,4,2), (2,4,7), (2,6,7), (2,8,4), (2,8,14), (2,8,31), (2,10,23), (2,12,14), (2,12,34), (2,14,47), (3,1,1), (3,1,4), (3,1,16), (3,2,14), (3,2,17), (3,2,38), (3,3,3), (3,3,13), (3,4,1), (3,4,4), (3,5,11), (3,6,3), (3,6,6), (3,6,26), (3,8,2), (3,8,13), (3,8,22), (3,9,39), (3,12,12), (3,12,33), (3,15,1), any natural number can be written as w^2 + x^2 + y^2 + z^2 with w,x,y,z nonnegative integers and x^2 + b*y^2 + c*x*z + d*y*z a square.
See also A271510, A271513, A271518 and A271644 for other conjectures refining Lagrange's foursquare theorem.
