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A051179 a(n) = 2^(2^n) - 1. 33
1, 3, 15, 255, 65535, 4294967295, 18446744073709551615, 340282366920938463463374607431768211455, 115792089237316195423570985008687907853269984665640564039457584007913129639935 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

In a tree with binary nodes (0, 1 children only), the maximum number of unique child nodes at level n.

Number of binary trees (each vertex has 0, or 1 left, or 1 right, or 2 children) such that all leaves are at level n. Example: a(1) = 3 because we have (i) root with a left child, (ii) root with a right child and (iii) root with two children. a(n) = A000215(n) - 2. - Emeric Deutsch, Jan 20 2004

Similarly, this is also the number of full balanced binary trees of height n. (There is an obvious 1-to-1 correspondence between the two sets of trees.) - David Hobby (hobbyd(AT)newpaltz.edu), May 02 2010

Partial products of A000215.

The first 5 terms n (only) have the property that phi(n)=(n+1)/2, where phi(n) = A000010(n) is Euler's totient function. - Lekraj Beedassy, Feb 12 2007

If A003558(n) is of the form 2^n and A179480(n+1) is even, then (2^(A003558(n) - 1) is in the set A051179. Example: A003558(25) = 8 with A179480(25) = 4, even. Then (2^8 - 1) = 255. - Gary W. Adamson, Aug 20 2012

For any odd positive a(0), the sequence a(n) = a(n-1) * (a(n-1) + 2) gives a constructive proof that there exist integers with at least n distinct prime factors, e.g. a(n), since omega(a(n)) >= n. As a corollary, this gives a constructive proof of Euclid's theorem stating that there are an infinity of primes. - Daniel Forgues, Mar 07 2017

From Sergey Pavlov, Apr 24 2017: (Start)

I conjecture that, for n > 7, omega(a(n)) > omega(a(n-1)) > n.

It seems that the largest prime divisor p(n+1) of a(n+1) is always bigger than the largest prime divisor of a(n): p(n+1) > p(n). For 3 < n < 8, p(n+1) > 100 * p(n).

(End)

REFERENCES

M. Aigner and G. M. Ziegler, Proofs from The Book, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999; see p. 4.

J. H. Conway, "Integral lexicographic codes." Discrete Mathematics 83.2-3 (1990): 219-235. See p. 235.

Ben Delo and Filip Saidak, Euclid's theorem redux, Fib. Q., 57:4 (2019), 331-336.

LINKS

Vincenzo Librandi, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..13

For rate of growth see A. V. Aho and N. J. A. Sloane, Some doubly exponential sequences, Fib. Quart., 11 (1973), 429-437.

Index entries for sequences of form a(n+1)=a(n)^2 + ...

FORMULA

a(n) = A000215(n) - 2.

a(n) = (a(n-1) + 1)^2 - 1, a(0) = 1. [ or a(n) = a(n-1)(a(n-1) + 2) ].

1 = 2/3 + 4/15 + 16/255 + 256/65535 + ... = Sum_{n>=0} A001146(n)/a(n+1) with partial sums: 2/3, 14/15, 254/255, 65534/65535, ... - Gary W. Adamson, Jun 15 2003

a(n) = b(n-1) where b(1)=1, b(n) = Product_{k=1..n-1} (b(k) + 2). - Benoit Cloitre, Sep 13 2003

A136308(n) = A007088(a(n)). - Jason Kimberley, Dec 19 2012

A000215(n) = a(n+1) / a(n). - Daniel Forgues, Mar 07 2017

Sum_{n>=0} 1/a(n) = A048649. - Amiram Eldar, Oct 27 2020

EXAMPLE

15 = 3*5; 255 = 3*5*17; 65535 = 3*5*17*257; 4294967295 = 3*5*17*257*65537;

18446744073709551615 = 3*5*17*257*641*65537*6700417;

340282366920938463463374607431768211455 = 3*5*17*257*641*65537*274177*6700417*67280421310721; ... - Daniel Forgues, Mar 07 2017

MAPLE

A051179:=n->2^(2^n)-1; seq(A051179(n), n=0..8); # Wesley Ivan Hurt, Feb 08 2014

MATHEMATICA

Table[2^(2^n)-1, {n, 0, 9}] (* Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Mar 16 2010 *)

PROG

(PARI) a(n)=if(n<0, 0, 2^2^n-1)

(MAGMA) [2^(2^n)-1: n in [0..8]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Jun 20 2011

CROSSREFS

Cf. A001146, A007018, A048649.

Cf. A003558, A179480, A000215.

Sequence in context: A247174 A277626 A050474 * A122591 A326263 A120607

Adjacent sequences:  A051176 A051177 A051178 * A051180 A051181 A051182

KEYWORD

nonn,easy,nice

AUTHOR

Alan DeKok (aland(AT)ox.org)

STATUS

approved

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Last modified November 29 05:25 EST 2020. Contains 338756 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)