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A048854 Triangle read by rows. A generalization of unsigned Lah numbers, called L[4,1]. 30
1, 2, 1, 12, 12, 1, 120, 180, 30, 1, 1680, 3360, 840, 56, 1, 30240, 75600, 25200, 2520, 90, 1, 665280, 1995840, 831600, 110880, 5940, 132, 1, 17297280, 60540480, 30270240, 5045040, 360360, 12012, 182, 1, 518918400, 2075673600, 1210809600, 242161920, 21621600, 960960, 21840, 240, 1, 17643225600, 79394515200, 52929676800, 12350257920, 1323241920, 73513440, 2227680, 36720, 306, 1 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

s(n,x) := Sum_{m=0..n} T(n,m)*x^m are monic polynomials satisfying s(n,x+y) = Sum_{k=0..n} binomial(n,k)*s(k,x)*p(n-k,y), with polynomials p(n,x) = Sum_{m=1..n} A048786(n,m)*x^m (row polynomials of triangle A048786) and p(0,x)=1.

In the umbral calculus (see the Roman reference, p. 21) the s(n,x) are called Sheffer polynomials for(1/sqrt(1+4*t),t/(1+4*t)). Here the Sheffer notation differs. See the W. Lang link under A006232.

For the general L[d,a] triangles see A286724, also for references.

This is the generalized signless Lah number triangle L[4,1], the Sheffer triangle ((1 - 4*t)^(-1/2), t/(1 - 4*t)). It is defined as transition matrix

risefac[4,1](x, n) = Sum_{m=0..n} L[4,1](n, m)*fallfac[4,1](x, m), where risefac[4,1](x, n) := Product_{0..n-1} (x  + (1 + 4*j)) for n >= 1 and risefac[4,1](x, 0) := 1, and  fallfac[4,1](x, n) := Product_{0..n-1} (x - (1 + 4*j)) for n >= 1 and fallfac[4,1](x, 0) := 1.

In matrix notation: L[4,1] = S1phat[4,1]*S2hat[4,1] with the unsigned scaled Stirling1 and the scaled Stirling2 generalizations A290319 and A111578 (but here with offsets 0), respectively.

The a- and z-sequences for this Sheffer matrix have e.g.f.s Ea(t) = 1 + 4*t and Ez(t) = (1 + 4*t)*(1 - (1 + 4*t)^(-1/2))/t, respectively. That is, a = {1, 4, repeat(0)} and z(n) = 2*A292220(n). See the W. Lang link on a- and z-sequences there.

The inverse matrix T^(-1) = L^(-1)[4,1] is Sheffer ((1 + 4*t)^(-1/2), t/(1 + 4*t)). This means that T^(-1)(n, m) = (-1)^(n-m)*T(n, m).

fallfac[4,1](x, n) = Sum_{m=0..n} (-1)^(n-m)*T(n, m)*risefac[4,1](x, m), n >= 0.

Diagonal sequences have o.g.f. G(d, x) = A001813(d)*Sum_{m=0..d} A091042(d, m)*x^m/(1 - x)^{2*d + 1}, for d >= 0 (d=0 main diagonal). G(d, x) generates {A001813(d)*binomial(2*(n + d),2*d)}_{n >= 0}. See the second W. Lang link on how to compute o.g.f.s of diagonal sequences of general Sheffer triangles. - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 12 2017

REFERENCES

S. Roman, The Umbral Calculus, Academic Press, New York, 1984.

LINKS

Michael De Vlieger, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..11475 (rows 0 <= n <= 150, flattened)

Orli Herscovici, Ross G. Pinsky, An identity involving stirling numbers of both kinds and its connection to right-to-left minima of certain set partitions, (2019).

Wolfdieter Lang, On Sums of Powers of Arithmetic Progressions, and Generalized Stirling, Eulerian and Bernoulli Numbers, arXiv:math/1707.04451 [math.NT], July 2017, section C) 4.

Wolfdieter Lang, On Generating functions of Diagonal Sequences of Sheffer and Riordan Number Triangles, arXiv:1708.01421 [math.NT], August 2017.

Emanuele Munarini, Combinatorial identities involving the central coefficients of a Sheffer matrix, Applicable Analysis and Discrete Mathematics (2019) Vol. 13, 495-517.

FORMULA

T(n, m) = (n!/m!)*A046521(n, m) = (n!/m!)* binomial(2*n, n)*binomial(n, m)/binomial(2*m, m), n >= m >= 0, a(n, m) := 0, n < m.

Sum_{n>=0, k>=0} T(n, k)*x^n*y^k/(2*n)! = exp(x)*cosh(sqrt(x*y)). - Vladeta Jovovic, Feb 21 2003

T(n, m) = L[4,1](n,m) = Sum_{k=m..n} A290319(n, k)*A111578(k+1, m+1), 0 <= m <= n.

E.g.f. of row polynomials R(n, x) := Sum_{m=0..n} T(n, m)*x^m:

(1 - 4*t)^(-1/2)*exp(x*t/(1 - 4*t)) (this is the e.g.f. for the triangle).

E.g.f. of column m: (1 - 4*t)^(-1/2)*(t/(1 - 4*t))^m/m!, m >= 0.

Three term recurrence for column entries m >= 1: T(n, m) = (n/m)*T(n-1, m-1) + 4*n*T(n-1, m) with T(n, m) = 0 for n < m, and for the column m = 0: T(n, 0) = n*Sum_{j=0..n-1} z(j)*T(n-1, j), n >= 1, T(0, 0) = 0, from the a-sequence {1, 4 repeat(0)} and the z(j) = 2*A292220(j) (see above).

Four term recurrence: T(n, m) = T(n-1, m-1) + 2*(4*n - 3)*T(n-1, m) - 8*(n-1)*(2*n - 3)*T(n-2, m), n >= m >= 0, with T(0, 0) =1, T(-1, m) = 0, T(n, -1) = 0 and T(n, m) = 0 if n < m.

Meixner type identity for (monic) row polynomials: (D_x/(1 + 4*D_x)) * R(n, x) = n * R(n-1, x), n >= 1, with R(0, x) = 1 and D_x = d/dx. That is, Sum_{k=0..n-1} (-4)^k*(D_x)^(k+1)*R(n, x) = n*R(n-1, x), n >= 1.

General recurrence for Sheffer row polynomials (see the Roman reference, p. 50, Corollary 3.7.2, rewritten for the present Sheffer notation):

R(n, x) = [(2 + x)*1 + 8*(1 + x)*D_x + 16*x*(D_x)^2]*R(n-1, x), n >= 1, with R(0, x) = 1.

Boas-Buck recurrence for column m (see a comment in A286724 with references): T(n, m) = (n!/(n-m))*(2 + 4*m)*Sum_{p=0..n-1-m} 4^p*T(n-1-p, m)/(n-1-p)!, for n > m >= 0, with input T(m, m) = 1.

Explicit form (from the o.g.f.s of diagonal sequences): ((2*(n-m))!/(n-m)!)*binomial(2*n,2*(n-m)), n >= m >= 0, and vanishing for n < m. - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 12 2017

EXAMPLE

The triangle T(n, m) begins:

n\m         0          1          2         3        4      5     6   7 8  ...

0:          1

1:          2          1

2:         12         12          1

3:        120        180         30         1

4:       1680       3360        840        56        1

5:      30240      75600      25200      2520       90      1

6:     665280    1995840     831600    110880     5940    132     1

7:   17297280   60540480   30270240   5045040   360360  12012   182   1

8:  518918400 2075673600 1210809600 242161920 21621600 960960 21840 240 1

...

n = 9: 17643225600 79394515200 52929676800 12350257920 1323241920 73513440 2227680 36720 306 1,

n = 10: 670442572800 3352212864000 2514159648000 670442572800 83805321600 5587021440 211629600 4651200 58140 380 1.

...

Recurrence from a-sequence: T(4, 2) = 2*T(3, 1) + 4*4*T(3, 2) = 2*180 + 16*30 = 840.

Recurrence from z-sequence: T(4, 0) = 4*(z(0)*T(3, 0) + z(1)*T(3, 1) + z(2)*T(3, 2)+ z(3)*T(3, 3)) = 4*(2*120 + 2*180 - 8*30 + 60*1) = 1680.

Four term recurrence: T(4, 2) = T(3, 1) + 2*13*T(3, 2) - 8*3*5*T(2, 2) =  180 + 26*30 - 120*1 = 840.

Meixner type identity for n = 2: (D_x - 4*(D_x)^2)*(12 + 12*x + 1*x^2) = (12 + 2*x) - 4*2 = 2*(2 + x).

Sheffer recurrence for R(3, x): [(2 + x) + 8*(1 + x)*D_x + 16*x*(D_x)^2] (12 + 12*x + 1*x^2) = (2 + x)*(12 + 12*x + x^2) + 8*(1 + x)*(12 + 2*x) + 16*2*x = 120 + 180*x + 30*x^2 + x^3 = R(3, x).

Boas-Buck recurrence for column m = 2 with n = 4: T(4, 2) = (4!*10/2)*(1*30/3! + 4*1/2!) = 840.

Diagonal sequence d = 2: {12, 180, 840 ...} has o.g.f. 12*(1 + 10*x + 5*x^2)/(1 - x)^5  (see A001813(2) and row n=2 of A091042) generating

{12*binomial(2*(n + 2), 4)}_{n >= 0}. - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 12 2017

MAPLE

A290604_row := proc(n) exp(x*t/(1-4*t))/sqrt(1-4*t): series(%, t, n+2): seq(n!*coeff(coeff(%, t, n), x, j), j=0..n) end: seq(A290604_row(n), n=0..9); # Peter Luschny, Sep 23 2017

MATHEMATICA

T[n_, m_] := n!/m! * Binomial[2*n, n] * Binomial[n, m] / Binomial[2*m, m]; Table[a[n, m], {n, 0, 8}, {m, 0, n}] // Flatten (* Jean-François Alcover, Jul 05 2013 *)

T[0, 0] = 1; T[-1, _] = T[_, -1] = 0; T[n_, m_] /; n < m = 0; T[n_, m_] := T[n, m] = T[n-1, m-1] + 2*(4*n-3)*T[n-1, m] - 8*(n-1)*(2*n-3)*T[n-2, m]; Table[T[n, m], {n, 0, 9}, {m, 0, n}] // Flatten (* Jean-François Alcover, Sep 23 2017 *)

CROSSREFS

Related to triangle A046521. Cf. A048786. a(n, 0) = A001813.

A111578, A271703 L[1,0], A286724 L[2,1], A290319, A290596 L[3,1], A290597 L[3,2], A292220.

The diagonal sequences are: A000012, 2*A000384(n+1), 12*A053134, 120*A053135, 1680*A053137, ... - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 12 2017

Sequence in context: A297967 A199930 A278330 * A151508 A164826 A055392

Adjacent sequences:  A048851 A048852 A048853 * A048855 A048856 A048857

KEYWORD

easy,nonn,tabl

AUTHOR

Wolfdieter Lang

EXTENSIONS

Name changed, after merging my newer duplicate, from Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 10 2017

STATUS

approved

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Last modified October 1 13:04 EDT 2020. Contains 337443 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)