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A028859 a(n+2) = 2*a(n+1) + 2*a(n); a(0) = 1, a(1) = 3. 39
1, 3, 8, 22, 60, 164, 448, 1224, 3344, 9136, 24960, 68192, 186304, 508992, 1390592, 3799168, 10379520, 28357376, 77473792, 211662336, 578272256, 1579869184, 4316282880, 11792304128, 32217174016, 88018956288, 240472260608, 656982433792, 1794909388800, 4903783645184, 13397386067968 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,2
COMMENTS
Number of words of length n without adjacent 0's from the alphabet {0,1,2}. For example, a(2) counts 01,02,10,11,12,20,21,22. - Antonio G. Astudillo (afg_astudillo(AT)hotmail.com), Jun 12 2001
Individually, both this sequence and A002605 are convergents to 1+sqrt(3). Mutually, both sequences are convergents to 2+sqrt(3) and 1+sqrt(3)/2. - Klaus E. Kastberg (kastberg(AT)hotkey.net.au), Nov 04 2001 [Can someone clarify what is meant by the obscure second phrase, "Mutually..."? - M. F. Hasler, Aug 06 2018]
Add a loop at two vertices of the graph C_3=K_3. a(n) counts walks of length n+1 between these vertices. - Paul Barry, Oct 15 2004
Prefaced with a 1 as (1 + x + 3x^2 + 8x^3 + 22x^4 + ...) = 1 / (1 - x - 2x^2 - 3x^3 - 5x^4 - 8x^5 - 13x^6 - 21x^7 - ...). - Gary W. Adamson, Jul 28 2009
Equals row 2 of the array in A180165, and the INVERTi transform of A125145. - Gary W. Adamson, Aug 14 2010
Pisano period lengths: 1, 1, 3, 1, 24, 3, 48, 1, 9, 24, 10, 3, 12, 48, 24, 1, 144, 9, 180, 24, .... - R. J. Mathar, Aug 10 2012
Also the number of independent vertex sets and vertex covers in the n-centipede graph. - Eric W. Weisstein, Sep 21 2017
From Gus Wiseman, May 19 2020: (Start)
Conjecture: Also the number of length n + 1 sequences that cover an initial interval of positive integers and whose non-adjacent parts are weakly decreasing. For example, (3,2,3,1,2) has non-adjacent pairs (3,3), (3,1), (3,2), (2,1), (2,2), (3,2), all of which are weakly decreasing, so is counted under a(11). The a(1) = 1 through a(3) = 8 sequences are:
(1) (11) (111)
(12) (121)
(21) (211)
(212)
(221)
(231)
(312)
(321)
The case of compositions is A333148, or A333150 for strict compositions, or A333193 for strictly decreasing parts. A version for ordered set partitions is A332872. Standard composition numbers of these compositions are A334966. Unimodal normal sequences are A227038. See also: A001045, A001523, A032020, A100471, A100881, A115981, A329398, A332836, A332872.
(End)
Number of 2-compositions of n+1 restricted to parts 1 and 2 (and allowed zeros); see Hopkins & Ouvry reference. - Brian Hopkins, Aug 16 2020
The number of ternary strings of length n not containing 00. Complement of A186244. - R. J. Mathar, Feb 13 2022
REFERENCES
S. J. Cyvin and I. Gutman, Kekulé structures in benzenoid hydrocarbons, Lecture Notes in Chemistry, No. 46, Springer, New York, 1988 (see p. 73).
LINKS
Joerg Arndt, Matters Computational (The Fxtbook), section 14.9 "Strings with no two consecutive zeros", pp.318-320.
C. Bautista-Ramos and C. Guillen-Galvan, Fibonacci numbers of generalized Zykov sums, J. Integer Seq., 15 (2012), #12.7.8.
Moussa Benoumhani, On the Modes of the Independence Polynomial of the Centipede, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 15 (2012), #12.5.1.
D. Birmajer, J. B. Gil, and M. D. Weiner, On the Enumeration of Restricted Words over a Finite Alphabet, J. Int. Seq. 19 (2016) # 16.1.3 Example 7.
Martin Burtscher, Igor Szczyrba, and Rafał Szczyrba, Analytic Representations of the n-anacci Constants and Generalizations Thereof, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 18 (2015), Article 15.4.5.
P. Z. Chinn, R. Grimaldi, and S. Heubach, Tiling with Ls and Squares, J. Int. Sequences 10 (2007) #07.2.8.
David Garth and Adam Gouge, Affinely Self-Generating Sets and Morphisms, Journal of Integer Sequences, Article 07.1.5, 10 (2007) 1-13.
Juan B. Gil and Jessica A. Tomasko, Fibonacci colored compositions and applications, arXiv:2108.06462 [math.CO], 2021.
Aoife Hennessy, A Study of Riordan Arrays with Applications to Continued Fractions, Orthogonal Polynomials and Lattice Paths, Ph. D. Thesis, Waterford Institute of Technology, Oct. 2011.
Brian Hopkins and Stéphane Ouvry, Combinatorics of Multicompositions, arXiv:2008.04937 [math.CO], 2020.
Milan Janjic, On Linear Recurrence Equations Arising from Compositions of Positive Integers, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 18 (2015), Article 15.4.7.
Tanya Khovanova, Recursive Sequences
J. Shallit, Proof of Irvine's conjecture via mechanized guessing, arXiv preprint arXiv:2310.14252 [math.CO], October 22 2023.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Centipede Graph
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Independent Vertex Set
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Vertex Cover
FORMULA
a(n) = a(n-1) + A052945(n) = A002605(n) + A002605(n-1).
G.f.: -(x+1)/(2*x^2+2*x-1).
a(n) = [(1+sqrt(3))^(n+2)-(1-sqrt(3))^(n+2)]/(4*sqrt(3)). - Emeric Deutsch, Feb 01 2005
If p[i]=fibonacci(i+1) and if A is the Hessenberg matrix of order n defined by: A[i,j]=p[j-i+1], (i<=j), A[i,j]=-1, (i=j+1), and A[i,j]=0 otherwise. Then, for n>=1, a(n-1)= det A. - Milan Janjic, May 08 2010
a(n) = 3^n - A186244(n). - Toby Gottfried, Mar 07 2013
E.g.f.: exp(x)*(cosh(sqrt(3)*x) + 2*sinh(sqrt(3)*x)/sqrt(3)). - Stefano Spezia, Mar 02 2024
MAPLE
a[0]:=1:a[1]:=3:for n from 2 to 24 do a[n]:=2*a[n-1]+2*a[n-2] od: seq(a[n], n=0..24); # Emeric Deutsch
MATHEMATICA
a[n_]:=(MatrixPower[{{1, 3}, {1, 1}}, n].{{2}, {1}})[[2, 1]]; Table[a[n], {n, 0, 40}] (* Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Feb 20 2010 *)
Table[2^(n - 1) Hypergeometric2F1[(1 - n)/2, -n/2, -n, -2], {n, 20}] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Jun 14 2017 *)
LinearRecurrence[{2, 2}, {1, 3}, 20] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Jun 14 2017 *)
PROG
(Haskell)
a028859 n = a028859_list !! n
a028859_list =
1 : 3 : map (* 2) (zipWith (+) a028859_list (tail a028859_list))
-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Oct 15 2011
(PARI) a(n)=([1, 3; 1, 1]^n*[2; 1])[2, 1] \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Mar 27 2012
(PARI) A028859(n)=([1, 1]*[2, 2; 1, 0]^n)[1] \\ M. F. Hasler, Aug 06 2018
CROSSREFS
Cf. A155020 (same sequence with term 1 prepended).
Cf. A002605.
Sequence in context: A278612 A331028 A024581 * A155020 A318902 A318903
KEYWORD
nonn,easy
AUTHOR
EXTENSIONS
Definition completed by M. F. Hasler, Aug 06 2018
STATUS
approved

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Last modified May 22 21:38 EDT 2024. Contains 372758 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)