

A016038


Strictly nonpalindromic numbers: n is not palindromic in any base b with 2 <= b <= n2.


21



0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 19, 47, 53, 79, 103, 137, 139, 149, 163, 167, 179, 223, 263, 269, 283, 293, 311, 317, 347, 359, 367, 389, 439, 491, 563, 569, 593, 607, 659, 739, 827, 853, 877, 977, 983, 997, 1019, 1049, 1061, 1187, 1213, 1237, 1367, 1433, 1439, 1447, 1459
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OFFSET

1,3


COMMENTS

All elements of the sequence greater than 6 are prime (ab = a(b1) + a or a^2 = (a1)^2 + 2(a1) + 1). Mersenne and Fermat primes are not in the sequence.
Additional comments: if you can factor a number as a*b then it is a palindrome in base b1, where b is the larger of the two factors. (If the number is a square, then it can be a palindrome in an additional way, in base (sqrt(n)1)). The a*b form does not work when a = b1, but of course there are no two consecutive primes (other than 2,3, which explains the early special cases), so if you can factor a number as a*(a1), then another factorization also exists.  Michael B Greenwald (mbgreen(AT)central.cis.upenn.edu), Jan 01 2002
Note that no prime p is palindromic in base b for the range sqrt(p) < b < p1. Hence to find nonpalindromic primes, we need only examine bases up to floor(sqrt(p)), which greatly reduces the computational effort required.  T. D. Noe, Mar 01 2008
No number n is palindromic in any base b with n/2 <= b <= n2, so this is also numbers not palindromic in any base b with 2 <= b <= n/2.
Sequence A047811 (this sequence without 0, 1, 2, 3) is mentioned in the Guy paper, in which he reports on unsolved problems. This problem came from Mario Borelli and Cecil B. Mast. The paper poses two questions about these numbers: (1) Can palindromic or nonpalindromic primes be otherwise characterized? and (2) What is the cardinality, or the density, of the set of palindromic primes? Of the set of nonpalindromic primes?  T. D. Noe, Apr 18 2011
Define f(n) to be the number of palindromic representations of n in bases b with 1 < b < n, see A135551.
For A016038, f(n) = 1 for all n. Only the numbers n = 0, 1, 4 and 6 are not primes.
For f(n) = 2, all terms are prime or semiprimes (prime omega <= 2 (A037143)) with the exception of 8 and 12;
For f(n) = 3, all terms are at most 3almost primes (prime omega <= 3 (A037144)), with the exception of 16, 32, 81 and 625;
For f(n) = 4, all terms are at most 4almost primes, with the exception of 64 and 243;
For f(n) = 5, all terms are at most 5almost primes, with the exception of 128, 256 and 729;
For f(n) = 6, all terms are at most 6almost primes, with the sole exception of 2187;
For f(n) = 7, all terms are at most 7almost primes, with the exception of 512, 2048 and 19683; etc. (End)


REFERENCES

Paul Guinand, Strictly nonpalindromic numbers, unpublished note, 1996.


LINKS

John P. Linderman, Perl program [Use the command: HASNOPALINS=1 palin.pl]


FORMULA



MATHEMATICA

PalindromicQ[n_, base_] := FromDigits[Reverse[IntegerDigits[n, base]], base] == n; PalindromicBases[n_] := Select[Range[2, n2], PalindromicQ[n, # ] &]; StrictlyPalindromicQ[n_] := PalindromicBases[n] == {}; Select[Range[150], StrictlyPalindromicQ] (* Herman Beeksma, Jul 16 2005*)
palindromicBases[n_] := Module[{p}, Table[p = IntegerDigits[n, b]; If[ p == Reverse[p], {b, p}, Sequence @@ {}], {b, 2, n  2}]]; lst = {0, 1, 4, 6}; Do[ If[ Length@ palindromicBases@ Prime@n == 0, AppendTo[lst, Prime@n]], {n, 10000}]; lst (* Robert G. Wilson v, Mar 08 2008 *)
Select[Range@ 1500, Function[n, NoneTrue[Range[2, n  2], PalindromeQ@ IntegerDigits[n, #] &]]] (* Michael De Vlieger, Dec 24 2017 *)


PROG

(PARI) is(n)=!for(b=2, n\2, Vecrev(d=digits(n, b))==d&&return) \\ M. F. Hasler, Sep 08 2015
(Python)
from itertools import count, islice
from sympy.ntheory.factor_ import digits
def A016038_gen(startvalue=0): # generator of terms >= startvalue
return filter(lambda n: all((s := digits(n, b)[1:])[:(t:=len(s)+1>>1)]!=s[:t1:1] for b in range(2, n1)), count(max(startvalue, 0)))


CROSSREFS



KEYWORD

nonn,base,nice,easy


AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS



STATUS

approved



